List of World War II prisoner-of-war camps in the United States

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In the United States at the end of World War II, there were prisoner-of-war camps, including 175 Branch Camps serving 511 Area Camps containing over 425,000 prisoners of war (mostly German). The camps were located all over the US but were mostly in the South because of the higher expense of heating the barracks in other areas. Eventually, every state (with the exceptions of Alaska, Nevada, North Dakota, and Vermont) had at least one POW camp. Some of the camps had to be designated "segregation camps" and used to separate the Nazi "true believers" from the rest of the prisoners, whom they terrorized and even killed for being friendly with their American captors.[1]

At its peak in May 1945, a total of 425,871 POWs were held in the US. This included 371,683 Germans, 50,273 Italians, and 3,915 Japanese.[2]:272

Camp State City or County Notes
Camp Skokie Valley Illinois Glenview
Newton D Baker West Virginia Martinsburg
Camp Belle Mead New Jersey Belle Mead Housed primarily Italian POWs. Once Italy surrendered, the Italian POWs were permitted to volunteer for the "Italian Service Unit." This unit provided the POWs with an opportunity to work and earn a wage, as well as preferential treatment.[3]
Farragut Naval Training Station Idaho Located on Lake Pend Oreille in Bayview for the duration of World War II The installation housed around 900 Germans, who worked as gardeners and maintenance men around the base and surrounding community.[4] Additionally, Bayview is an unincorporated community; therefore, Farragut Naval Training Station was officially located in Kootenai County.
Fort Dix (Known officially as "Camp Dix" until 1939, a name that carried over unofficially through World War II) New Jersey New Hanover Township, Pemberton Township, and Springfield Township
Jersey City Quartermaster Supply Depot New Jersey Caven Point, Jersey City [5]
Boston Port of Embarkation Massachusetts Boston
Camp Allegan Michigan Allegan County
Camp Antigo Wisconsin Antigo
Bradley Field Connecticut Windsor Locks Now Bradley International Airport
Camp Adair Oregon Benton County
Camp Albuquerque New Mexico Albuquerque
Camp Algoma Idaho Algoma
Camp Algona Iowa Algona
Camp Aliceville Alabama Aliceville Opened in 1943, a segregation camp from 1944.[1]
Camp Allen Virginia Norfolk
Camp Alva Oklahoma Alva One of the first segregation camps.[1]
Fort Andrews Massachusetts Boston Harbor
Camp Angel Island California San Francisco
Camp Ashby Virginia Princess Anne County
Camp Ashford West Virginia White Sulphur Springs
Camp Atlanta Nebraska Atlanta
Camp Atterbury Indiana Edinburgh Housed 3,500 Italians and later 10,000 Germans
Camp AuTrain Michigan AuTrain
Camp Barkeley Texas Abilene Located near what is now Dyess Air Force Base.[2]:130
Camp Barron Wisconsin Barron County
Camp Bassett Arkansas Bassett
Camp Bastrop Louisiana Bastrop Kurt Richard Westphal escaped in August 1945 and was recaptured in Hamburg, West Germany in 1954.
Camp Bayfield Wisconsin Bayfield Formerly the county courthouse, is now the headquarters of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.
Camp Beale California Yuba County
Camp Beaver Dam Wisconsin Beaver Dam
Camp Billy Mitchell Wisconsin
Camp Blanding Florida
Camp Bowie Texas Brown County See: "News from the Bowie Camp 1943," a written account from Joseph Lehman to a friend.
Camp Brady Texas
Camp Breckinridge Kentucky
Camp Briner North Carolina Butner
Camp Bullis Texas San Antonio
Camp Butner North Carolina Butner Kurt Rossmeisl escaped on 4 August 1945 and surrendered in 1959.
Camp Cambria Wisconsin
Camp Campbell Kentucky One of the first three designated camps for anti-Nazis, along with Fort Devens, Massachusetts and Camp McCain.[2]
Camp Carson Colorado El Paso County
Camp Chaffee Arkansas Sebastian County
Camp Chase Ohio
Camp Chickasha Oklahoma Grady County
Camp Chilton Wisconsin
Camp Claiborne Louisiana Forest Hill
Camp Clarinda Iowa
Camp Clark Missouri See: "Camp Clark"
Camp Cleburne Texas Johnson County
Camp Clinton Mississippi Clinton Housed German POWs from the Afrika Korps after their defeat in North Africa
Camp Cobb Wisconsin
Camp Columbus Wisconsin
Camp Como Mississippi
Camp Concordia Kansas Concordia
Camp Cooke California Santa Barbara County
Camp Croft South Carolina
Camp Crossville Tennessee
Camp Crowder Missouri
Camp David Maryland
Camp Dawson West Virginia
Camp Deming New Mexico Georg Gärtner escaped on 21 September 1945, and finally surrendered in 1985. He was the last escapee, having remained at large for 40 years.
Camp Dermott Arkansas Dermott, Arkansas
Camp Douglas Wyoming Douglas
Camp Dundee Michigan Two escaped. Used a railroad box car. Recaptured: Roanoke, Va.[6]
Camp Eau Claire Wisconsin
Camp Edwards Massachusetts Falmouth
Camp Ellis Illinois
Thibodaux, Louisiana Louisiana Thibodaux Housed German POWs from the Afrika Corps after defeat in North Africa. Camp was located in North Thibodaux along Coulon Road.
Camp Eunice Louisiana
Camp Evelyn Michigan Alger County
Camp Faribault Minnesota
Camp Fannin Texas Tyler Located on the campus of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler.
Camp Florence Arizona Florence Largest all-new prisoner of war compound ever constructed on American soil.[7]
Camp Fond du Lac Wisconsin
Camp Forrest Tennessee Tullahoma First attempted escape by two German POWs on 5 November 1942.
Camp Fox Lake Wisconsin
Camp Fredonia Wisconsin
Camp Freeland Michigan Freeland The current site of the TriCity Airport (MBS)
Camp Galesville Wisconsin
Camp Gene Autry Oklahoma Ardmore Army Air Field
Camp Genessee Wisconsin
Camp Germfask Michigan Germfask
Camp Grant Illinois Rockford
Camp Grant Michigan Grant Formerly located on the south-east corner of East 120th St. and South Walnut Ave. 2.5 miles east of Grant. Prisoners worked on local farms.
Camp Greeley Colorado Greeley
Camp Green Lake Wisconsin
Camp Gruber Oklahoma Muskogee
Camp Hale Colorado Pando-Leadville [8]
Camp Gueydan Louisiana
Camp Hartford Wisconsin
Camp Hearne Texas Hearne [9]
Camp Hereford Texas Deaf Smith County Only for Italians[10]
Camp Hobart Oklahoma
Camp Hoffman Maryland Close to Fort Lincoln and held over 5,000 soldiers
Camp Hood Texas
Camp Horseshoe Ranch Oklahoma Hickory
Camp Hortonville Wisconsin
Camp Houlton Maine
Camp Howze Texas [11]
Camp Hulen Texas Palacios
Camp Huntsdale Pennsylvania
Camp Huntsville Texas One of the first segregation camps.[1]
Camp Indianola Nebraska
Camp Janesville Wisconsin
Camp Jefferson Wisconsin
Camp Jerome Arkansas Jerome
Camp Kaplan Louisiana
Camp Kaufman[2]:245,262 Texas Kaufman
Camp Lake Keesus Wisconsin
Camp Las Cruces New Mexico Las Cruces Werner Paul Lueck escaped in November 1945 and was recaptured in Mexico City in 1954.
Camp Lee Virginia
Camp Livingston Louisiana
Camp Lockett California Campo Auxiliary of Camp Haan in Riverside County, home to last Civil War cavalry unit, Buffalo Soldiers. POW Camp for Italians and Germans
Camp Lodi Wisconsin
Camp Lordsburg New Mexico Lordsburg 1942-1945: held Japanese-American internees, and then German and Italian POWs.
Camp Mackall North Carolina Hoffman
Camp Marion Ohio Marion http://www.hmdb.org/Marker.asp?Marker=29115
Camp Markesan Wisconsin
Camp Marshfield Wisconsin
Camp McAlester Oklahoma McAlester and Piteburg http://worldandmilitarynotes.com/pow/camp-mcalester-ok-usa-pow-camp/
Camp McCain Mississippi One of the first three designated camps for anti-Nazis, along with Camp Campbell and Fort Devens, Massachusetts.[2]
Camp McCoy Wisconsin Monroe Japanese and German POWs; Japanese, Italian, and German internees; now Fort McCoy
Camp McKay Massachusetts Constructed for prisoners, later reused for housing after the war
Camp McLean Texas
Camp Mackan North Carolina
Camp Maxey Texas [12]
Camp Mexia Texas
Camp Milltown Wisconsin
Fort Missoula Montana Missoula 1941-1944: Italian POWs.
Camp Myles Standish Massachusetts Taunton
Camp Monticello Arkansas Monticello
Camp Montgomery Minnesota
Camp Natural Bridge New York West Point German camp
Camp New Cumberland Pennsylvania
Camp New Ulm Minnesota New Ulm Fortuitously located outside a city where many locals still spoke German. The camp buildings are preserved in Flandrau State Park and are available for rent as a group center.[13]
Camp Oakfield Wisconsin
Camp Ogden Utah
Camp Oklahoma City Oklahoma Oklahoma City On site of Will Rogers World Airport.
Camp Ono California San Bernardino Italian camp
Camp Opelika Alabama
Camp Owosso Michigan Shlawassee County
Camp Owatonna Minnesota
Camp Patrick Henry Virginia Newport News
Camp Papago Park Arizona Germany's "Great Escape" was from a 200 feet (61 m) tunnel by 25 prisoners on 24 December 1944.
Camp Pauls Valley Oklahoma
Camp Peary Virginia
Camp Perry Ohio Now home to the CMP Headquarters and Gary Anderson competition center
Camp Philips Kansas
Camp Pickett Virginia
Camp Pima Arizona One of the first segregation camps.[1]
Camp Pine New York W Present Day Fort Drum
Camp Michaux Pennsylvania Cumberland County Located near Pine Grove Furnace State Park. Same commander as Gettysburg Battlefield camp.
Camp Plymouth Wisconsin
Camp Polk Louisiana
Camp Pomona California
Camp Popolopen New York
Camp Pori Michigan Upper Peninsula
Camp Pryor Oklahoma
Camp Raco Michigan Sault Ste. Marie
Camp Reedsburg Wisconsin
Camp Reynolds Pennsylvania
Camp Rhinelander Wisconsin
Camp Ritchie Maryland Cascade German and Italian POW Camp during 1942–1945 housing mostly Africa Corps Officers and Italians enlisted from the Torch Campaign. Camp Ritchie also served as a U.S. Army Training Camp from WWII until it was closed under BRAC during the 1990s to the early 2000s. Almost all of the WWII Camp structures have since been demolished. Also the site of training for "The Ritchie Boys", European refugees trained there to go back into Germany and sabotage the war effort. A movie was made about them called "The Ritchie Boys". U.S. Army History of Camp Ritchie (later Fort Ritchie), also my mother served there as a WAAC Quartermaster Captain & German interpreter.
Camp Ripon Wisconsin Ripon
Camp Jos. T. Robinson Arkansas Pulaski County
Camp Rockfield Wisconsin
Camp Roswell New Mexico Located 14 miles (23 km) SE of Roswell. 1942-1946: German POWs.
Camp Rucker Alabama
Camp Rupert Idaho Paul
Camp Ruston Louisiana
Camp San Luis Obispo California San Luis Obispo Held Italian POWs
Camp Salina Utah Salina, Utah This camp had a guard fire on and kill several German prisoners. See Utah prisoner of war massacre
Camp Santa Fe New Mexico Santa Fe
Camp Thomas A. Scott Indiana Fort Wayne Camp Scott held more than 600 German POWs from the Afrika Korps from late 1944 until the camp closed in November 1945.[14][15]
Camp Scottsbluff Nebraska
Camp Shanks New York
camp in McMillan Woods Pennsylvania Gettysburg Battlefield Same commander as Camp Michaux camp.
Camp Sheboygan Wisconsin
Camp Shelby Mississippi
Camp Sibert Alabama
Camp Sidnaw Michigan Sidnaw
Camp Somerset Maryland
Camp Stark New Hampshire
Camp Stewart Georgia
Camp Stockton California
Fort Strong Massachusetts Boston
Stringtown POW Camp Oklahoma Atoka
Camp Sturgeon Bay Wisconsin
Camp Sturtevant Wisconsin
Camp Sutton North Carolina
Camp Swift Texas Bastrop
Camp Thomasville Georgia Thomasville Large German pow camp 2 miles outside of Thomasville. Following World War II, the facilities were taken over by the Veterans Administration with both a hospital and large domiciliary complement. Facilities now serve as an adjunct to the state's mental health program.
Camp Thornton Illinois
Camp Tipton Oklahoma
Camp Tishomingo Oklahoma
Camp Tonkawa Oklahoma Site of murder of Johannes Kunze by five fellow German POWs, who were subsequently tried, found guilty, hanged, and buried in the Fort Leavenworth Military Prison Cemetery.
Camp Tooele Utah POW Camp, Co.1, Tooele (original postage)
Camp Trinidad Colorado Las Animas County A 150 feet (46 m) electrically lighted escape tunnel was discovered by authorities. This was probably a coal mining tunnel in that Engleville was a coal mining camp where this POW camp is purported to be located. Coal mining was prominent in the late 1870s to the 1950s. A few continued into the early 1970s in Las Animas County where Trinidad is located.
Camp Van Dorn Mississippi
Camp Wallace Texas Galveston County
Camp Warner Oregon
Camp Washington Illinois Washington Reinhold Pabel escaped on 9 September 1945 and was recaptured in Chicago in March 1953
Camp Waterloo Michigan Heinz Eschweiler, a 27-year-old German POW, escaped and gave himself up 3 miles north of camp. Capt. Bruce Beiber, commandant at Waterloo, said the prisoner surrendered to Ernest Riemenschneider, who turned him over to state police. The camp housed German Prisoners of War in 1944 and 1945.[16]
Camp Waterloo Wisconsin
Camp Waupun Wisconsin
Camp Waynoka Oklahoma
Camp Weeping Water Nebraska
Camp Wells Minnesota
Camp Weingarten Missouri Located between Farmington and Ste. Genevieve, Missouri
Camp Wharton Texas Wharton
Camp Wheeler Georgia
Camp White Oregon
Camp White Rock Texas Dallas A former CCC camp it was used for POWs who were with Rommel's Afrika Corps. After the war it became a men's dormitory for Southern Methodist University for the influx of students after the war and now is a Dallas park called Winfrey Point by White Rock Lake.
Camp Wisconsin Rapids Wisconsin
Cushing General Hospital Massachusetts
Camp Wolters Texas
Corpus Christi Naval Air Station Texas Corpus Christi
Drew Field Florida Now Tampa International Airport and Drew Park.
Edgewood Arsenal Maryland
Eglin Army Air Field Florida
Fort Andrews Massachusetts For Italian prisoners
Fort Benjamin Harrison Indiana
Fort Benning Georgia
Fort Bliss Texas
Fort Bragg North Carolina
Fort Campbell Kentucky
Fort Crockett Texas Galveston
Fort Curtis Virginia
Fort Custer Michigan In Section B of Fort Custer National Cemetery, there are 26 German graves. Sixteen of the men were killed or died as a result of an accident on October 31, 1945.
Fort Devens Massachusetts Devens One of the first three designated camps for anti-Nazis, along with Camp Campbell and Camp McCain, Mississippi.[2]
Fort Dix New Jersey Harry Girth escaped in June 1946 and surrendered to authorities in New York City in 1953.
Fort Drum New York
Fort DuPont Delaware
Fort Eustis Virginia
Fort Getty Rhode Island
Fort Gordon Georgia
Fort Greble Rhode Island
Fort Jackson South Carolina
Fort Kearny Rhode Island Had program to instill democratic values in Germans based on newspaper Der Ruf (The Call)
Fort Knox Kentucky
Fort Lawton Washington A riot by Negro soldiers took place over preferential treatment given to Italian and German POWs. One Italian POW was lynched, and Leon Jaworski was the military prosecutor.

The Italian and one German POW who committed suicide rather than be repatriated are buried just outside the post cemetery boundaries.

Fort Leavenworth Kansas
Fort Leonard Wood Missouri
Fort Lewis Washington Located between Olympia and Tacoma, Washington.
Fort McClellan Alabama
Fort Meade Maryland Fort Meade housed about 4,000 German and Italian POWs during World War II. Thirty-three German POWs and two Italian POWs are now buried in the post cemetery. The most famous of those buried on the installation is German submariner Werner Henke, who was shot while trying to escape from a secret interrogation center at Fort Hunt, Virginia.
Fort Niagara New York Fort Niagara, along with Camp Drum (currently Fort Drum) maintained several sub- or branch camps in other New York locations, including Geneseo.[17]
Fort Oglethorpe Georgia Fort Oglethorpe
Fort Omaha Nebraska Omaha
Fort Ord California A 120 feet (37 m) nearly completed escape tunnel was discovered by authorities.[18]
Fort Patrick Henry Virginia
Fort Reno Oklahoma
Fort Riley Kansas
Fort Robinson Nebraska
Fort Rucker Alabama
Fort D.A. Russell Texas Marfa Building 98
Fort Sam Houston Texas San Antonio
Fort Saulsbury Delaware
Fort Sheridan Illinois
Fort Sill Oklahoma Lawton
Fort Sumner New Mexico
Fort F.E. Warren Wyoming
Glennan General Hospital Oklahoma Okmulgee Now the site of Oklahoma State University Institute of Technology
Grider Field Arkansas Pine Bluff
Halloran General Hospital New York
Hammond Northshore Regional Airport Louisiana
Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation Virginia
Indiantown Gap Military Reservation Pennsylvania Indiantown Gap
Holabird Signal Depot Maryland
Jefferson Barracks Missouri St. Louis
Lovell General Hospital Massachusetts
McCloskey General Hospital Texas Temple
Memphis General Depot Tennessee
Naval Air Station Whiting Field Florida Milton
New Orleans Port of Embarkation Louisiana
Olmstead Field Pennsylvania
Patterson Field Ohio
Port Johnson New Jersey [19]
Pine Bluff Arsenal Arkansas Pine Bluff
Richmond ASF Depot Virginia
Tobyhanna Military Reservation Pennsylvania Tobyhanna
Valley Forge General Hospital Pennsylvania Valley Forge
Waltham Memorial Hospital Massachusetts Waltham
Westover Field Massachusetts Westover
Windfall Indiana World War II POW Camp Indiana Windfall
Camp Haan California Riverside
Camp Tyson POW Camp Tennessee Paris
Rocky Mountain Arsenal Colorado Rose Hill
Bainbridge Army Airfield Georgia Bainbridge Originally an Army Airfield flight training facility. Also housed several hundred German POWs who worked in nearby agricultural farms. Following World War II, the facilities became the Bainbridge State Hospital residential mental health campus until its closure in the 1960s.
Rome New York Rome
Utica New York Utica
Boonville New York Boonville

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Chip Walker (1985). "German Creative Activities in Camp Aliceville, 1943-1946". The Alabama Review. 38: 19–37. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Krammer, Arnold (1 January 1996). Nazi Prisoners of War in America. Scarborough House. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8128-8561-3. 
  3. ^ Frank, David. "Bellemead (New Jersey) Italian Service Unit". POW Camps section. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  4. ^ Love, Marianne (Summer 1996). "Sailors Ahoy!". Sandpoint Magazine. Keokee Co. Publishing, Inc. 
  5. ^ http://wikimapia.org/12374348/Fomer-Site-of-the-Caven-Point-Army-Depot
  6. ^ [1] Father's memories of POWs spur teacher's research of central Michigan camps
  7. ^ Jack Hamann, "On American Soil: Camp Florence, Arizona." Archived 25 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Camp Hale Prisoners of War Archived 21 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ "Account from the Hereford Camp" for more see reference therein.
  11. ^ Camp Howze 1944 1945 " from a long term resident at the camp written to his girlfriend"
  12. ^ "August 1943 description of the Camp Maxey" Letters from Camp Maxey
  13. ^ Buck, Anita Albrecht (1998). Behind Barbed Wire: German Prisoners of War in Minnesota During World War II. St. Cloud, Minn.: North Star Press of St. Cloud, Inc. ISBN 0-87839-113-4. 
  14. ^ "World War II Camp Had Impact on CIty" by Michael Hawfield, The News-Sentinel 15 December 1990 Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Camp Thomas A. Scott - Fort Wayne, Indiana - WWII Prisoner of War Camps on Waymarking.com
  16. ^ http://www.mlive.com/news/jackson/index.ssf/2011/10/waterloo_township_officials_sa.html
  17. ^ Cook, Williamsburg R.; Daniel J. Schultz (2004). Around Geneseo. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-3496-X.
  18. ^ [3]
  19. ^ Colorado History.org

External links[edit]