List of Padma Bhushan award recipients (1954–1959)

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Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan medal suspended from its riband
Awarded by
State Emblem of India
Government of India
Country India
Type National Civilian
Ribbon Padma Bhushan riband
Obverse A centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus.
Reverse A platinum State Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script
Statistics
Established 1954
Previous name(s) Padma Vibhushan "Dusra Warg" (Class II)
First awarded 1954
Total awarded 94
Precedence
Next (higher) Padma Vibhushan riband Padma Vibhushan
Next (lower) Padma Shri riband Padma Shri

The Padma Bhushan is the third-highest civilian award of the Republic of India.[1] Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for "distinguished service of a high order", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex.[2] The recipients receive a Sanad, a certificate signed by the President of India and a circular-shaped medallion with no monetary association. The recipients are announced every year on Republic Day (26 January) and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication used for official government notices and released weekly by the Department of Publication, under the Ministry of Urban Development.[3] The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. The name of recipient, whose award have been revoked or restored, both of which require the authority of the President, is archived and they are required to surrender their medal when their name is struck from the register;[4] none of the conferments of Padma Bhushan during 1954–1959 have been revoked or restored. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, as well as from Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan awardees, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals.[3]

When instituted in 1954, the Padma Bhushan was classified as "Dusra Warg" (Class II) under the three-tier Padma Vibhushan awards, which were preceded by the Bharat Ratna in hierarchy. The original specification of the award was a circle made of standard silver 1 38 inches (35 mm) in diameter, with rims on both the sides. A centrally located lotus flower was embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma Vibhushan" written in Devanagari script was inscribed above the lotus along the upper edge of the medal. A floral wreath was embossed along the lower edge and a lotus wreath at the top along the upper edge. The State Emblem of India was placed in the centre of the reverse side with the text "Desh Seva" in Devanagari Script on the lower edge. The medal was suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width divided into three equal segments by two white vertical lines.[2]

On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards; the Padma Vibhushan, the highest of the three, followed by the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri. The criteria includes "distinguished service of a high order in any field including service rendered by Government servants" but excluding those working with the Public sector undertakings with the exception of doctors and scientists. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute. The design was also modified to the form that is currently in use. The current design is a circular-shaped toned bronze medallion 1 34 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 18 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 316 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob embossed within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of diameter 1 116 inches (27 mm) is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus. The Emblem of India is placed in the centre of the reverse side with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script, inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges and all embossing on either side is of standard gold with the text "Padma Bhushan" of gold gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width with a broad white stripe in the middle.[3][4] It is ranked fifth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations of the Indian civilian and military awards.[a]

A total of twenty-three awards were conferred in 1954 followed by twelve in 1955; thirteen in 1956; sixteen in 1957; sixteen again in 1958, and fourteen in 1959, giving a total of 94 recipients in the first six years—including one foreign recipient awarded in 1955. Till 1959, individuals from nine different fields were awarded which includes twenty-six from literature and education, seventeen from civil service, twelve artists, ten from science and engineering, ten from social work, eight from public affairs, six from medicine, four sportspersons, and one from trade and industry.

Recipients[edit]

Homi Jehangir Bhabha
Homi J. Bhabha (awarded in 1954), the "father of the Indian bomb",[6] was a nuclear physicist and the founding director of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and the Trombay Atomic Energy Establishment (later named after him).[7][8]
Dhyan Chand
Dhyan Chand (awarded in 1956) was a field hockey player and scored more than 1000 goals during his career spanned over 20 years from 1926–1948.[9]
Rukmini Devi Arundale
Rukmini Devi Arundale (awarded in 1956) was a theosophist and Bharata Natyam dancer.[10]
G. S. Sardesai
"Riyasatkar" historian Govind Sakharam Sardesai (awarded in 1957) wrote eight volumes of "Marathi Riyasat", three volumes of "Musalmani Riyasat", and two volumes of "British Riyasat".[11]
Salim Ali
The "Birdman of India" Salim Ali (awarded in 1958) was an ornithologist, naturalist, and was one of the founding members of Bombay Natural History Society.[12]
Rao Raja Hanut Singh
Rao Raja Hanut Singh (awarded in 1958) was an "Honorary Captain" in the British Indian Army and polo player.[13]
A sepia-toned photograph of an old man
Often described as "the founding father of modern Tamil theatre", Pammal Sambandha Mudaliar (awarded in 1959) was a playwright, director, producer, and actor.[14]
Edmund Hillary & Sherpa Tenzing
Tenzing Norgay (right, awarded in 1959) was one of the first two individuals known to reach the summit of Mount Everest, which he accomplished with Edmund Hillary (left) on 29 May 1953.[15]
Award recipients by year[16]
Year Number of recipients
1954
23
1955
12
1956
13
1957
16
1958
16
1959
14
Award recipients by field[16]
Field Number of recipients
Arts
12
Civil Service
17
Literature & Education
26
Medicine
6
Public Affairs
8
Science & Engineering
10
Social Work
10
Sports
4
Trade & Industry
1
List of Padma Bhushan award recipients, showing the year, field, and state/country[16]
Year Recipient Field State
1954 Homi Jehangir Bhabha Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1954 Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar Science & Engineering Uttar Pradesh
1954 Mahadeva Iyer Ganapati Civil Service Odisha
1954 Jnan Chandra Ghosh Science & Engineering West Bengal
1954 Radha Krishan Gupta Civil Service Delhi
1954 Maithili Sharan Gupt Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1954 R. R. Handa Civil Service Punjab
1954 Amarnath Jha Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1954 Ajudhiya Nath Khosla Science & Engineering Delhi
1954 Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1954 Moulana Hussain Ahmed Madni Literature & Education Punjab
1954 Josh Malihabadi Literature & Education Delhi
1954 V. L. Mehta Public Affairs Gujarat
1954 Vallathol Narayana Menon Literature & Education Kerala
1954 A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1954 Maharaj Kr. Palden T Namgyal Public Affairs Punjab
1954 V. Narahari Rao Civil Service Karnataka
1954 Pandyala Satyanarayana Rau Civil Service Andhra Pradesh
1954 Jamini Roy Arts West Bengal
1954 Sukumar Sen Civil Service West Bengal
1954 Satya Narayana Shastri Medicine Uttar Pradesh
1954 M. S. Subbulakshmi Arts Tamil Nadu
1954 Kodandera Subayya Thimayya Civil Service Karnataka
1955 Fateh Chand Badhwar Civil Service Punjab
1955 Lalit Mohan Banerjee Medicine West Bengal
1955 Suniti Kumar Chatterji Literature & Education West Bengal
1955 Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Social Work West Bengal
1955 Surender Kumar Dey Civil Service [b]
1955 Vasant Ramji Khanolkar Medicine Maharashtra
1955 Sunder Das Khungar Civil Service Punjab
1955 Rameshwari Nehru Social Work Uttar Pradesh
1955 Prana Krushna Parija Literature & Education Odisha
1955 Madapati Rao Social Work Andhra Pradesh
1955 Maneklal Sankalchand Thacker Literature & Education Delhi
1955 Attur Rangaswami Venkatachari Civil Service Tamil Nadu
1956 Rukmini Devi Arundale Arts Tamil Nadu
1956 Rajshekhar Basu Literature & Education West Bengal
1956 Dhyan Chand Sports Punjab
1956 Malur Srinivasa Thirumale Iyengar Civil Service Tamil Nadu
1956 Nawab Zain Yar Jung Public Affairs Andhra Pradesh
1956 Pushpavati Janardenrai Mehta Public Affairs Maharashtra
1956 Cottari Kankaiyah Nayudu Sports Tamil Nadu
1956 Muthulakshmi Reddi Medicine Tamil Nadu
1956 Kanwar Sain Civil Service Rajasthan
1956 Vir Singh Literature & Education Punjab
1956 Kasturi Srinivasan Literature & Education Punjab
1956 Mahadevi Varma Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1956 Tiruvadi Sambasiva Venkataraman Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1957 Bhikham Lal Atreya Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1957 T. Balasaraswati Arts Tamil Nadu
1957 Alagappa Chettiar Social Work Tamil Nadu
1957 Hazari Prasad Dwivedi Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1957 Abid Hussain Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1957 Mushtaq Hussain Khan Arts Madhya Pradesh
1957 Lakshmi Menon Public Affairs Kerala
1957 Radha Kumud Mukherjee Public Affairs West Bengal
1957 K. Covilagam Kutti Ettan Raja Civil Service Kerala
1957 Andal Venkatasubba Rao Social Work Andhra Pradesh
1957 Shrikrishna N. Ratanjankar Arts Uttar Pradesh
1957 Shyam Nandan Sahay Literature & Education Bihar
1957 Govind Sakharam Sardesai Literature & Education Maharashtra
1957 K. A. Nilakanta Sastri Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1957 Boshi Sen Science & Engineering West Bengal
1957 Siddheshwar Varma Literature & Education Chandigarh
1958 Salim Ali Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1958 Vijaya Anand Sports Uttar Pradesh
1958 D. P. Roy Choudhury Arts West Bengal
1958 Jeahangir Ghandy Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1958 Narayan Subarao Hardikar Social Work Karnataka
1958 Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar Arts Tamil Nadu
1958 Allauddin Khan Arts Uttar Pradesh
1958 Kumar Padma Siva Shankara Menon Civil Service Kerala
1958 Arathil C. Narayanan Nambiar Civil Service Kerala
1958 Kuppali Venkatappagowda Puttappa Literature & Education Karnataka
1958 Poola Tirupati Raju Literature & Education Rajasthan
1958 Kamalendumati Shah Social Work Delhi
1958 Rao Raja Hanut Singh Public Affairs Rajasthan
1958 Rustom Jal Vakil Medicine Maharashtra
1958 Surya Narayan Vyas Literature & Education Madhya Pradesh
1958 Darashaw Nosherwan Wadia Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1959 Sisir Kumar Bhaduri[c] Arts West Bengal
1959 Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Literature & Education Bihar
1959 Ali Yavar Jung Civil Service Maharashtra
1959 Hansa Jivraj Mehta Social Work Maharashtra
1959 Pammal Sambandha Mudaliar Arts Tamil Nadu
1959 Tiruppattur R. Venkatachala Murthi Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1959 Tenzing Norgay Sports Nepal
1959 Bhaurao Patil Social Work Maharashtra
1959 Jal Gawashaw Paymaster Medicine Maharashtra
1959 Dhanvanthi Rama Rau Social Work Maharashtra
1959 Nirmal Kumar Sidhanta Literature & Education West Bengal
1959 Kankanhalli Vasudevachary Arts Karnataka
1959 Bhargavaram Viththal Varerkar Public Affairs Maharashtra
1959 Ghulam Yazdani Science & Engineering Andhra Pradesh

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ The order of precedence is: Bharat Ratna, Param Vir Chakra, Ashoka Chakra, Padma Vibhushan and Padma Bhushan.[5]
  2. ^ Surender Kumar Dey was a USA citizen.
  3. ^ Sisir Kumar Bhaduri refused the award.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "PV Sindhu recommended for Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian award, by sports ministry". Firstpost. 25 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg' 
  3. ^ a b c "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Ayyar, N. M. (1955). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 15 January 1955): 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. All persons upon whom the decoration of 'Padma Vibhushan' ('Dusra Varg') was conferred under the Regulations issued with Notification No. 2-Pres./54, dated the 2nd January, 1954, shall, for all purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be persons on whom the decoration of Padma Bhushan has been conferred by the President. 
  5. ^ "Wearing of Medals: Precedence Of Medals". Indian Army. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Richelson, Jeffrey (13 April 2006). "U.S. Intelligence and the Indian Bomb". The National Security Archive. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 187. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  7. ^ "Tata Institute of Fundamental Research: History & Archives". Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  8. ^ "Bhabha Atomic Research Centre: Founder/Heritage". Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  9. ^ "Discover hockey's answer to Pele". BBC Sports Academy. BBC. Archived from the original on 1 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  10. ^ Meduri, Avanthi (2 March 2001). "Rukmini Devi, the visionary". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  11. ^ Kumbhojkar, Shraddha, ed. (2009). 19th Century Maharashtra: A Reassessment. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 19. ISBN 978-1-4438-0603-9. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. 
  12. ^ "Give Bharat Ratna to Salim Ali, demands AMU professor". IBN Live. 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  13. ^ "Supplement to the London Gazette, 1 January, 1921" (PDF). London Gazette. His Majesty's Stationery Office (published 21 January 1921): 2. 1921. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015. To be Honorary Captain:Rao Rlaja Hanut Singh, son of His Highness Maharaja Sir Partap Singh Bahadur, Riegent of Jodhpur. 
  14. ^ Muthiah, S. (30 July 2003). "The Mount Road congregations". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2016. 
  15. ^ Morris, Jan (14 June 1999). "The Conquerors Hillary & Tenzing". Time. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c "List of recipients of Padma Bhushan awards (1954–59)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 14 August 2013. pp. 1–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  17. ^ Sarkar, Chanchal (3 June 2001). "When is an apology not an apology: The losers". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 

External links[edit]