List of Pakistani heads of state or government

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  1. REDIRECTList of Prime Ministers of Pakistan
Chief Executive of the
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
وزیر اعظم
Flag of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.svg
Standard of the Prime Minister of Pakistan
Nawaz Sharif detail, 981203-D-9880W-117.jpg
Incumbent
Nawaz Sharif

since 5 June 2013
Style His Excellency
Residence Prime Minister's House
Appointer National Assembly of Pakistan
Term length Five years; Expires with the dissolution of the Nation Assembly
Inaugural holder Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Formation 14 August 1947; 67 years ago (1947-08-14)
Website www.pakistan.gov.pk/

Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947. The independence legislation created the office of Governor-General to represent the Crown in the new dominion. While a post-independence constitution was being drafted by the Constituent Assembly, the new country continued to be governed in accordance with a modified version of the Government of India Act 1935, with the Governor-General of Pakistan carrying out certain functions previously performed by the Governor-General of India, such as giving formal assent to legislation, etc. The Governor-General was appointed upon the formal advice of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Upon Pakistan's independence Jinnah continued to dominate government until his death in 1948; his successors as Governor-General, particularly Malik Ghulam Muhammad, continued to exercise a powerful role, in particular dismissing several Prime Ministers.

The office of Governor-General was replaced by the office of President of Pakistan when Pakistan became a republic in 1956; the then Governor-General, Iskander Mirza, became Pakistan's first President.

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وَزِیرِ اَعظَم‎ — Wazīr-ē Aʿẓam, Urdu pronunciation: [ʋəˈziːr-ˌeː ˈɑː.zəm]; lit. "Grand Vizier"), is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's chief executive.[1] By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government, where the Prime Minister is the executive authority and political leader of the country and presides over the Cabinet. Nawaz Sharif is the current Prime Minister of Pakistan.

The Prime Minister is elected by the people-elected National Assembly, members of which are elected by popular vote. Most commonly, the leader of the party or coalition with the most votes becomes the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations, taking and authorising executive decisions, appointments and recommendations that require executive confirmation of the Prime Minister.[1] The XVII imposed a check on this power, making it subject to Supreme Court approval or veto. However, in 2010, the XVII Amendment was reversed and is replaced with more effective XVIII Amendment to the Constitution, clearly turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary democratic republic.[2]

List of Heads and Chief Executives of Pakistan[edit]

N0 Name Position Portrait Term Prime Minister/Presidents/Govenor-General Party Notes
1 Muhammad Ali Jinnah Governor-General of Pakistan Quaidportrait.jpg 14 August 1947 – 11 September 1948 Liaquat Ali Khan Muslim League Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General and Head of Dominion of Pakistan after its independence in 14 -Aug-1947.
2 Liaquat Ali Khan Prime Minister of Pakistan A black-and-white head and shoulder shoot of a man with spetacles, wearing coat and a tie. 11 September 1948 – 17 October 1951 Khawaja Nazimuddin Muslim League Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan by the |Muhammad Ali Jinnah Governor-General in 1947. After the death of |Muhammad Ali Jinnah in 1948 the executive authority and power was transferred to the Prime Minister's office. He was assassinated in 1951, and Khawaja Nazimuddin took the office after him
3 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin Governor-General of Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
Khawaja Nazimuddin of Pakistan.JPG 17 October 1951 – 17 April 1953 Liaquat Ali Khan
Malik Ghulam Muhammad
Muslim League After the early death of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Sir Khawaja succeeded him as the Governor-General of Pakistan but the post was ceremonial as Executive powers were transferred to the Prime Minister's office . Nazimuddin became Prime Minister of Pakistan after the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan in 1951.He left the office when governor general Malik Ghulam Muhammad dissolved his government in 1953.
4 Malik Ghulam Muhammad Governor-General of Pakistan Malik Muhammad.jpg 17 April 1953 – 7 August 1955 Khawaja Nazimuddin
Muhammad Ali Bogra
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali
Independent Ghulam Muhammad, the Governor-General, asked the Prime Minister to step down. Sir Khawaja refused, but Ghulam Muhammad got his way by invoking a reserve power that allowed him to dismiss the Prime Minister.At this point of time the executive powers were transferred to Governor General's office.Ghulam Muhammad's health deteriorated, and he took a leave of absence in 1955. The acting Governor-General, Iskander Mirza, dismissed him, and Ghulam Muhammad died the next year in 1956.
5 Iskander Mirza Governor-General of Pakistan
President of Pakistan<
Iskander Mirza.jpg 7 August 1955 - 27 October 1958 Chaudhry Muhammad Ali
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
Feroz Khan Noon
Republican Party Mirza served as the last Governor-General of Pakistan and became its first president after the 1956 Constitution was promulgated, which established a republic. He was deposed in a 1958 coup d'état by General Ayub Khan, whom Mirza had appointed as the Chief Martial Law Administrator in 1957.
6 Ayub Khan Chief Martial Law Administrator
President of Pakistan
A black and white portrait of Ayub Khan 27 October 1958 – 25 March 1969 None Pakistan Army Ayub took control over the country after the 1958 coup d'état. He led Pakistan into the 1965 war against India.[3] In 1969, Ayub resigned under pressure from opposition and handed over power to General Yahya Khan.
7 Yahya Khan Chief Martial Law Administrator
President of Pakistan
A portrait of Yahya Khan 25 March 1969- 20 December 1971 Nurul Amin Pakistan Army Yahya took office after the resignation of Ayub Khan in 1969. He resigned after Pakistan's defeat to India in the 1971 war.
8 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Chief Martial Law Administrator
President of Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
A black and white photo of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, during a meeting 20 December 1971 – 5 July 1977- Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry Pakistan Peoples Party Bhutto Took the office as the President of Pakistan after the resignation of Yahya Khan Bhutto resigned as president to become the Prime Minister after the 1973 Constitution was promulgated, which established a parliamentary system of government and Executive powers were transferred to the Prime Minister.[4]
9 Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq Chief Martial Law Administrator
President of Pakistan
Muhammad Zia-ul-haq in black Sherwani, looking towards the camera 5 July 1977 – 17 August 1988 Muhammad Khan Junejo Pakistan Army Zia took de facto control over the country by leading the 1977 coup d'état. He served as the Chief Martial Law Administrator until 1979. He was killed in a plane crash, becoming the only president to die in office.[5]
10 Ghulam Ishaq Khan President of Pakistan Ghulam Ishaq Khan, awarding General Shamim Alam Khan 17 August 1988- 2 December 1998 Benazir Bhutto Independent Khan took office after the Zia's 1988 death. Until the results of Pakistani general election, 1988 he served as Chief Executive of Pakistan.
11 Benazir Bhutto Prime Minister of Pakistan A head and shoulder shoot of a woman in traditional Pakistani dress. 2 December 1988 -6 August 1990 Ghulam Ishaq Khan Pakistan Peoples Party Benazir Bhutto became the first woman in Pakistan to head an Islamic State, a major political party, in 1988. Six years later, she became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state.[6]
(10) Ghulam Ishaq Khan President of Pakistan Ghulam Ishaq Khan, awarding General Shamim Alam Khan 6 August 1990 – 6 November 1990 Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi Independent Khan Dismissed Benazir's Government and served as Chief Execuitve till the results of Pakistani general election, 1990
12 Nawaz Sharif Prime Minister of Pakistan A head and shoulder shoot of a man from the left. 6 November 1990 – 18 April 1993 Ghulam Ishaq Khan Pakistan Muslim League (N) Sharif was elected as the 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan on 1 November 1990.[7] President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved his government in April 1993, which was later on reinstated by the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
(10) Ghulam Ishaq Khan President of Pakistan Ghulam Ishaq Khan, awarding General Shamim Alam Khan 18 April 1993 – 18 July 1993 Balakh Sher Mazari Independent He attempted to dismiss the Nawaz Sharif government in 1993, but the Supreme Court overturned the president's decision. Khan eventually resigned, along with Sharif, in an agreement brokered by the Armed Forces.
(A) Wasim Sajjad Interim President of Pakistan 18 July 1993 – 19 October 1993 Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi (Acting)
Benazir Bhutto
Pakistan Muslim League (N) He was Chairman of the Senate, serving his first term as acting President.
(11) Benazir Bhutto Prime Minister of Pakistan A head and shoulder shoot of a woman in traditional Pakistani dress. 19 October 1993 – 5 November 1996 Farooq Leghari Pakistan Peoples Party Bhutto was re-elected for a second term, in 1993. She survived an attempted coup d'état in 1995. Bhutto's government was dismissed by president Farooq Leghari in November 1996.[8][9]
13 Farooq Leghari President of Pakistan 5 November 1996 - 17 Febuarary 1997 Malik Meraj Khalid (Acting)
Nawaz Sharif
Pakistan Peoples Party Leghari was elected president in 1993, after the resignation of Ghulam Ishaq Khan. Afterwards, Leghari clashed with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, and he finally resigned after being forced by the conservatives and persuaded by the Armed Forces.[10]
(12) Navaz Sharif Prime Minister of Pakistan A head and shoulder shoot of a man from the left. 17 Febuarary 1997 - 12 October 1999 Rafiq Tarar Pakistan Muslim League (N) Sharif was re-elected as Prime Minister with an exclusive mandate from all over Pakistan for a non-consecutive second term, in February 1997.[11][12] His government was deposed by General Pervez Musharraf in October 1999, and Martial law was imposed in the entire country.[13]
14 Pervez Musharraf Chief Executive of Pakistan
President of Pakistan
A portrait of Pervez Musharraf 12 October 1999 – 18 August 2008 Zafarullah Khan Jamali
Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain
Shaukat Aziz
Muhammad Mian Soomro
Yousaf Raza Gillani
Pakistan Army
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
Musharraf took de facto control over the country by leading the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état. He served as the Chief Executive until 2002.[14] Musharraf resigned the presidency in 2008, to avoid impeachment.[15]
15 Yousaf Raza Gillani Prime Minister of Pakistan A shoot of a man during a meeting. 18 August 2008 – 19 June 2012 Asif Ali Zardari Pakistan Peoples Party Gillani was elected as prime minister in March 2008. He was disqualified from his seat in the parliament in April 2012 by the Supreme Court for contempt of court.
16 Raja Pervez Ashraf Prime Minister of Pakistan 19 June 2012 – 25 March 2013 Asif Ali Zardari Pakistan Peoples Party Ashraf assumed the post of Prime Minister in June 2012, after Yousaf Raza Gillani was disqualified over contempt of court charges
(A) Mir Hazar Khan Khoso Acting Prime Minister of Pakistan 25 March 2013 – 5 June 2013 Asif Ali Zardari Independent Khoso was appointed by the Election Commission of Pakistan on 24 March,[16] and took oath on 25 March 2013.[17]
(12) Navaz Sharif Prime Minister of Pakistan A head and shoulder shoot of a man from the left. 5 June 2013 – present Asif Ali Zardari
Mamnoon Hussain
Pakistan Muslim League (N) On 5 June 2013, Sharif took office for a third non-consecutive term. He took oath under Asif Ali Zardari, the president of Pakistan.[18]

      Independent       Republican Party/Pakistan Muslim League (N)       Pakistan Muslim League (Q)       Pakistan Peoples Party       Military/|| Muslim League


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References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Prime minister". BBC News. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  2. ^ "Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan" (PDF). National Assembly of Pakistan. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  3. ^ "Lessons of the 1965 War". Daily Times. 7 September 2005. Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
  4. ^ Tasleem, Nauman (27 June 2004). "20 prime ministers since independence". Daily Times. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  5. ^ Anthony Hyman, Muhammed Ghayur, Naresh Kaushik (1989). Pakistan: Zia and after. Abhinav Publications. pp. 20–35. ISBN 978-81-7017-253-6. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  6. ^ Muhammad Najeeb in Rawalpindi & Hasan Zaidi in Karachi (28 December 2007). "Benazir Bhutto: Daughter of Tragedy". India Today. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  7. ^ John, Wilson; Vikram Sood and Akmal Hussain (2009). Pakistan's economy in historical perspective: The Growth, Power and Poverty. Pakistan: the struggle within. (New Delhi and Washington, D.C.: Dorling Kindersly (Pvt) limited, India and the Library of Congress). p. 220. ISBN 978-81-317-2504-7. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  8. ^ Ranjha, Khalid (1 June 1995). "Altaf accuses Benazir of 'racism'". DawnWireService. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  9. ^ Burns, John F (5 November 1996). "Pakistan's Premier Bhutto is put under house arrest". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  10. ^ Burns, John F. (8 November 1996). "Pakistan's Bhutto Quandary". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  11. ^ Akbar, M.K. "Pakistan Under Navaz Sharif". Pakistan Today. New Delhi, India: Mittal Publications. p. 230. ISBN 81-7099-700-3. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  12. ^ Hassan, Syed Shoaib (12 March 2009). "Profile: Nawaz Sharif". BBC News. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  13. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (14 October 1999). "Pakistan Calm After Coup; Leading General Gives No Clue About How He Will Rule". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  14. ^ Rohde, David (4 November 2007). "Musharraf Declares Emergency Rule". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  15. ^ "Pakistan's Musharraf will resign". BBC News. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  16. ^ "Justice (r) Mir Hazar Khan Khoso named interim PM of Pakistan". The Express Tribune. AFP/Web Desk. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  17. ^ "Pakistan's caretaker PM Mir Hazar Khan Khoso sworn in". BBC News. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  18. ^ "Lucky number three: Nawaz Sharif takes oath as prime minister". The Express Tribune. Web Desk/AFP. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.