List of Palmyrene monarchs

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Below is a list of Palmyrene monarchs, the monarchs that ruled and presided over the city of Palmyra and the subsequent Palmyrene Empire in the 3rd century AD, and the later vassal princes of the Al Fadl dynasty which ruled over the city in the 14th century.

House of Odaenathus[edit]

Odaenathus, the lord of Palmyra, declared himself king before riding into battle against the Sassanians after news of the Roman defeat at Edessa reached him.[1] This elevated Palmyra from a subordinate city to a de facto independent kingdom allied to Rome.[2]

Odaenathus later elevated himself to the title of King of Kings, crowning his son co-King of Kings in 263.[3] The title was later passed to Vaballathus his son, before it was dropped for the title of King[4] and later Emperor.

Portrait Name Ruler From Ruler Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title Notes
Odenaethus bust.jpg Odaenathus 260 267 King
King of Kings
Founder of the Palmyrene monarchy, dropped the King title and started using King of Kings by 263
Hairan I.jpg Hairan I 263 267  • Son of Odaeanthus King of Kings Made co-King of Kings by his father.[5]
Maeonius.jpg Maeonius 267 267  • Odaenathus' cousin.[6] Emperor No evidence exist for his reign,[7] but he allegedly murdered Odaenathus and his son, Hairan and attempted a usurpation
Antoninian Vaballathus Augustus (obverse).jpg Vaballathus 267 272  • Son of Odaenathus King of Kings
King
Emperor
Dropped the "King of Kings" title in 270, replacing it with the Latin rex (king) and declared emperor in 271.[4] Reigned under the regency of his mother, Zenobia.[8]
Zenobia obverse.png Zenobia 267 272  • Mother of Vaballathus Queen
Empress
Ruled as a regent for her children and did not claim to rule in her own right.[8]
Antiochus 273 273  • Possibly a son of Zenobia.[9] Emperor

Al Fadl dynasty[edit]

Ruler Reigned Title Notes
Sharaf ad-Din Issa 1281–1284 Prince Appointed as a reward for aiding the Mamluks.[10]
Husam ad-Din Muhanna 1284–1293 Prince Imprisoned by the Mamluks.[11]
Husam ad-Din Muhanna 1295–1312 Prince Second reign.[11]
Fadl ibn Isa 1312–1317 Prince Brother of Muhanna.[11]
Husam ad-Din Muhanna 1317–1320 Prince Expelled with his tribe.[11]
Husam ad-Din Muhanna 1330–1335 Prince Fourth reign.[11]
Muzaffar al-Din Musa 1335–1341 Prince Son of Muhanna.[12]
Suleiman I 1341–1342 Prince Son of Muhanna.[13]
Sharaf al-Din Issa 1342–1343 Prince Son of Fadl bin Issa.[13]
Saif 1343–1345 Prince Son of Fadl bin Issa.[13]
Ahmad 1345–1347 Prince Son of Muhanna.[14]
Saif 1347–1348 Prince Second reign.[14]
Ahmad 1348 Prince Second reign.[14]
Fayad 1348 Prince Son of Muhanna.[15]
Hayar 1348–1350 Prince Son of Muhanna.[15]
Fayad 1350–1361 Prince Second reign.[15]
Hayar 1361–1364 Prince Second reign; rebelled and was dismissed.[13][15]
Zamil 1364–1366 Prince Son of Muhanna's brother Musa.[13]
Hayar 1366–1368 Prince Third reign; rebelled and was dismissed.[16]
Zamil 1368 Prince Second reign; rebelled and was dismissed.[16]
Mu'ayqil 1368-1373 Prince Son of Fadl bin Issa.[16]
Hayar 1373–1375 Prince Fourth reign.[16]
Malik 1375–1379 Prince Son of Muhanna.[16]
Zamil 1379–1380 Prince Third reign; ruled with Mu'ayqil.[16]
Mu'ayqil 1379–1380 Prince Second reign; ruled with Zamil.[16]
Nu'air bin Hayar 1380–0000 Prince Son of Hayar.[16]
Musa 0000–1396 Prince Son of Hayar's brother Assaf.[16]
Suleiman II 1396–1398 Prince Son of Hayar's brother 'Anqa.[17]
Muhammad 1398–1399 Prince Brother of Suleiman II.[18]
Nu'air bin Hayar 1399–1406 Prince Second reign.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dignas, Beate; Winter, Engelbert (2007) [2001]. Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-521-84925-8.
  2. ^ Young, Gary K. (2003) [2001]. Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy 31 BC - AD 305. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-134-54793-7.
  3. ^ Udo Hartmann (2001). Das palmyrenische Teilreich (in German). p. 178. ISBN 9783515078009.
  4. ^ a b Andrew M. Smith II (2013). Roman Palmyra: Identity, Community, and State Formation. p. 179. ISBN 9780199861101.
  5. ^ Maurice Sartre (2005). The Middle East Under Rome. p. 353. ISBN 9780674016835.
  6. ^ Trevor Bryce (2014). Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 292. ISBN 9780191002922.
  7. ^ George C. Brauer (1975). The Age of the Soldier Emperors: Imperial Rome, A.D. 244-284. Noyes Press. p. 163.
  8. ^ a b Pat Southern (2008). Empress Zenobia: Palmyra's Rebel Queen. p. 92. ISBN 9781441142481.
  9. ^ Alaric Watson (2004). Aurelian and the Third Century. p. 81. ISBN 9781134908158.
  10. ^ محمد عدنان قيطاز (1998). "مهنّا (أسرة)". الموسوعة العربية (in Arabic). 19. هيئة الموسوعة العربية. p. 788. Archived from the original on 2016-08-02. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
  11. ^ a b c d e Khayr al-Dīn Ziriklī (1926). al-Aʻlām,: qāmūs tarājim al-ashʾhur al-rijāl wa-al-nisāʾ min al-ʻArab wa-al-mustaʻrabīn wa-al-mustashriqīn, Volume 7 (in Arabic). p. 73.
  12. ^ Yūsuf al-Atābikī Ibn Taghrī Birdī (1451). al-Manhal al-ṣāfī wa-al-mustawfá baʻda al-wāfī (in Arabic). p. 373.
  13. ^ a b c d e Ibn Khaldūn (1375). Kitāb al-ʻibar wa-dīwān al-mubtadaʾ wa-al-khabar f̣ī ayyām al-ʻArab wa-al-ʻAjam ẉa-al-Barbar wa-man ʻāṣarahum min dhawī al-sulṭān al-al-akbar wa-huwa tarīkh waḥīd ʻaṣrih, Volume 5 - Part 30 (in Arabic). p. 105.
  14. ^ a b c Khalīl ibn Aybak Ṣafadī (1363). al-Wāfī bi-al-Wafayāt Vol.28 (in Arabic). p. 345.
  15. ^ a b c d Khalīl ibn Aybak Ṣafadī (1363). al-Wāfī bi-al-Wafayāt Vol.7 (in Arabic). p. 192.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ibn Khaldūn (1375). Kitāb al-ʻibar wa-dīwān al-mubtadaʾ wa-al-khabar f̣ī ayyām al-ʻArab wa-al-ʻAjam ẉa-al-Barbar wa-man ʻāṣarahum min dhawī al-sulṭān al-al-akbar wa-huwa tarīkh waḥīd ʻaṣrih, Volume 6 - Part 11 (in Arabic). p. 11.
  17. ^ Yūsuf al-Atābikī Ibn Taghrī Birdī (1451). al-Manhal al-ṣāfī wa-al-mustawfá baʻda al-wāfī, Volume 6 (in Arabic). p. 48.
  18. ^ a b Aḥmad Ibn-ʻAlī Ibn-ʻAbdalqādir al- Maqrīzī (1441). as-Sulūk li-maʻrifat duwal al-mulūk (in Arabic). p. 801.