List of Parthian kings

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Below is a list of rulers of the Iranian Parthian Empire (247 BC – 228 AD).

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne name Original name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family relations Note
Arsacid dynasty (247 BC – 228 AD)
Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces Coin of Arsaces I of Parthia.jpg King, Karen, Autocrator ?–211 BC 247 BC 211 BC A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II
Arsaces II Artabanus I or Arsaces Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia.jpg ?–185 BC 211 BC 185 BC[1] Son of Arsaces I
Arsaces III Phriapatius PhriapatiusCoinHistoryofIran.jpg ?–170 BC 185 BC 170 BC[1] Grandson of Tiridates I
Arsaces IV Phraates I Phraates I.jpg ?–167 BC 170 BC 167 BC[2] Son of Phriapatius
Arsaces V Mithridates I Mithradatesi.jpg The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene ?–132 BC 167 BC[2] 132 BC[3] Son of Phriapatius
Arsaces VI Phraates II PhraatesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros ?–127 BC 132 BC 127 BC[3] Son of Mithridates I Killed in battle with Scythians
Arsaces VII Artabanus II Coin of Artabanus I of Parthia.jpg King ?–126 BC 127 BC 126 BC[3] Son of Phriapatius Killed in battle with Tocharians
Arsaces VIII Vologases (?)[3] The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes ?–122 BC 126 BC 122 BC[3] Son of Phriapatius He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
Arsaces IX Artabanus (?)[3] The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–121 BC 122 BC 121 BC Son of Artabanus I Killed in battle with Medians
Arsaces X Mithridates II MithradatesII.jpg The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter ?–91 BC 121 BC[4] 91 BC Son of Artabanus I
Arsaces XI Gotarzes I Coin of Gotarzes I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator ?–87 BC 91 BC 87 BC Son of Mithridates II
Arsaces XII Artabanus (?)[2] The Great King, Theopator, Nicator ?–77? BC 91 BC 77? BC Probably son of Vologases (?)
Arsaces XIII Mithridates (III)[3] The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes ?–67 BC 88 BC 67 BC Probably son of Mithridates II
Arsaces XIV Orodes I Orodesi.jpg The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–75 BC 80 BC 75 BC Probably son of Mithridates II
Arsaces XV Sanatruces Coin of Sanatruces of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene 157–70 BC 77 BC 70 BC Probably son of Vologases (?)[2]
Arsaces XVI[2] ? The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes ?–66 BC 77 BC 66 BC ? The most obscure major monarch of the first millennium BC. Nothing about him is currently known.
Arsaces XVII Phraates III Coin of Phraates III of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–57 BC 70 BC 57 BC Son of Sanatruces Killed by Orodes II
Arsaces XVIII[2] ? The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–63 BC 66 BC 63 BC probably son of Arsaces XVI The second most obscure monarch of the first millennium BC, nothing about him is known.
Arsaces XIX Mithridates III The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene ?–54 BC 65 BC[2] 54 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Orodes II
Arsaces XX Orodes II Coin of Orodes II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes ?–38 BC 57 BC 38 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Phraates IV
Arsaces XXI Pacorus I Coin of Pacorus I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–38 BC 50 BC 38 BC Son of Orodes II Killed in battle with Romans
Arsaces XXII Phraates IV PhraatesIVProfile.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–2 BC 38 2 BC Son of Orodes II Killed by Musa
Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos ?–after 23 BC 30 BC 25 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXIV Mithridates (V)[5] ? ?–? BC 12 BC 9 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Musa Musa Parthian Queen Bust.jpg Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania ?–4? AD 2 BC 4 AD Queen of Phraates IV
Arsaces XXV Phraates V Coin of Phraates V of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–4 AD 2 BC 4 AD Son of Phraates IV & Musa Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXVI Orodes III OrodesIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–6 4 6 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Killed by Parthian aristocrats
Arsaces XXVII Vonones I Coin of Vonones I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus ?–19 8 12 Son of Phraates IV Deposed and went to Rome. Later, he was killed by Romans.
Arsaces XXVIII Artabanus III Coin of Artabanus II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–40 10 40 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III ? ?–? 35 36 Probably a descendant of Tiridates II Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXX Cinnamus ? ?–? 37 37 Son of Artabanus III Abdicated
Arsaces XXXI Gotarzes II Godarz.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 11–51 40 – 51 Son of Artabanus III
Arsaces XXXII Vardanes I VardanesICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–46 40 46 Son of Artabanus III Killed by Gotarzes II
Arsaces XXXIII Vonones II Vononesii.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–51 c. 45 51 Probably son of Artabanus III
Arsaces XXXIV Mithridates (VI)[6] ? ?–? 49 50 Son of Vonones I Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
Arsaces XXXV Vologases I VologasesI.JPG King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The Lord ?–77 51 77 Son of Vonones II
Arsaces XXXVI Vardanes II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–? 55 58 Son of Vologases I Deposed
Arsaces XXXVII Vologases II VologasesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–? 77 89/90 Probably the eldest son of Vologases I
Arsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II PacorusII.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–115 77 115 Probably the younger son of Vologases I
Arsaces XXXIX Artabanus IV King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–? 80 81 Probably son of Vologases I
Arsaces XL Osroes I Coin of Osroes I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–130 89/90 130 Probably son of Vologases I
Arsaces XLI Vologases III Coin of Vologases III of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–148 105 148 Probably son of Sanatruces I king of Armenia 89–109 who was brother of Osroes I He was also king of Armenia as Vologases I
Arsaces XLII Parthamaspates Coin of Parthamaspates of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–after 123 116 117 Son of Osroes I Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XLIII Mithridates IV Coin of Mithridates IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–c. 145 c. 130 c. 145 Probably son of Osroes I
Arsaces XLIV[7] ? King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–c. 140 c. 140 c. 140 ?
Arsaces XLV Vologases IV Coin of Vologases IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–191 148 191 Son of Mithridates IV
Arsaces XLVI Vologases V Coin of Vologases V of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–208 191 208 Son of Vologases IV
Arsaces XLVII Osroes II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–? c. 190 c. 195 Probably son of Vologases IV
Arsaces XLVIII Vologases VI Coin of Vologases VI of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 181–228 208 228 Son of Vologases V Killed by Ardashir I
Arsaces XLIX Artabanus V Artabanusiv.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–226 213 226 Son of Vologases V Killed by Ardashir I
Arsaces L Tiridates IV[8] King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–? 217 222 Son of Vologases IV He was also king of Armenia

There are some old chronologies that differ from the above list. Two of them are presented below:

Chronological Table of the Arsacid Kings of Parthia[9]
New Chronology Old Chronology
247 BC Arsacid era begins;
Andragoras autonomous as satrap
c. 250 BC Arsaces I
246 BC Arsaces I leads revolt in Parthia c. 248 BC Tiridates I
238 BC Arsaces I in control of Parthia
217 or 214 BC Arsaces II 211 BC Artabanus I
c. 191 BC Phriapatius c. 191 BC Phriapatius
c. 176 BC Phraates I c. 176 BC Phraates I
c. 171 BC Mithridates I c. 171 BC Mithridates I
c. 139/138 BC Phraates II c. 138/137 BC Phraates II
c. 127 BC Artabanus I c. 128 BC Artabanus II
c. 124/123 BC Mithridates II c. 123 BC Mithridates II
c. 90 BC Gotarzes I;
Orodes I
c. 91 BC Gotarzes I
c. 80 BC Orodes I
78/77 BC Sanatruces 76/77 BC Sanatruces
71/70 BC Phraates III 70/69 BC Phraates III
58/57 BC Orodes II 58/57 BC Mithridates III
before 53 BC Mithridates III (struck coins at Seleucia) c. 57 BC Orodes II
c. 40 BC Phraates IV c. 40 BC Phraates IV
c. 39 BC Death of Pacorus I 38 BC Death of Pacorus I
32–30 BC Invasion by Tiridates I 30–25 BC Tiridates II
27/26 BC Tiridates I strikes coins at Seleucia
3/2 BC Phraates V 3/2 BC Phraates V
5/6 AD Orodes III 4 AD Orodes III
8/9 AD Vonones I 7/8 AD Vonones I
10/11 AD Artabanus II 12 AD Artabanus III
36 AD Tiridates II 36 AD Tiridates III
37 AD Cinnamus 37 AD Cinnamus
39–45 AD Vardanes I 38 AD Gotarzes II
43/44–50/51 AD Gotarzes II 39–47/48 AD Vardanes I
50/51–76/77 AD Vologases I c. 51 AD Vonones II
55 AD Vardanes II 51/52–79/80 AD Vologases I
77/78–78/79 AD Vologases II
77/78–86/87 AD Pacorus II 78–115/116 AD Pacorus II
79/80–80/81 AD Artabanus III 80–81 AD Artabanus IV
92/93–95/96 AD Pacorus II
104/105–107/108 AD Vologases III 105/106–147 AD Vologases II
108/109–127/128 AD Osroes I;
Parthamaspates in 117 AD
109/110–128/129 AD Osroes I;
Parthamaspates in 117 AD
111/112–146/147 AD Vologases III
c. 130–147 AD Mithridates IV 128/129–147? AD Mithridates IV
147/148–190/191 AD Vologases IV 148–192 AD Vologases III
190/191–207/208 AD Vologases V 191–207/208 AD Vologases IV
207/208–221/222 AD Vologases VI 207/208–222/223 AD Vologases V
c. 213 – c. 224 AD Artabanus IV c. 213 – c. 224 AD Artabanus V

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Assar, 2004. Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BC" Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  4. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BC"
  5. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  6. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10
  7. ^ See: Unknown King (III) (c. AD 140)
  8. ^ See: Tiridates III (c. AD 224 – 228?)
  9. ^ This table appears in Bivar 1983, pp. 98–99, an appendix for his book chapter "The Political History of Iran Under the Arsacids" in The Cambridge History of Iran

References[edit]