List of Phi Kappa Psi chapters and colonies
Phi Kappa Psi, also called "Phi Psi," is an American collegiate social fraternity founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania on February 19, 1852. There are 104 chapters and 4 colonies at accredited four year colleges and universities throughout the United States. More than 112,000 men have been initiated into Phi Kappa Psi since its founding.
The Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity is composed of chapters and alumni associations, the former of which is the scope of this list. Each chapter is chartered to an individual host institution. These host institutions must be accredited four year degree granting colleges and universities in a state, province, territory, or federal district of Canada or the United States. To date, chapter charters have only been granted to groups at U.S. institutions.
When Phi Kappa Psi is extending to an institution that does not currently have a chapter, a probationary group called a "colony" is formed. After criteria are met, that colony receives its charter and becomes a chapter.
A chapter becomes inactive when it relinquishes its charter, or the charter is revoked by the fraternity.
Chapter naming convention
The chapter naming convention is composed of the top level subnational division of that chapter's host institution, and a Greek letter in alphabetical order from when the charter was originally issued. For example, the first Phi Psi chapter is from Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The first letter in the Greek alphabet is Alpha. The chapter name is Pennsylvania Alpha. The second chapter was installed at the University of Virginia, so it is the Virginia Alpha chapter. The third chapter was installed at Washington & Lee University, in Virginia, so it is the Virginia Beta chapter. The George Washington University chapter is only one ever chartered in the District of Columbia, so it is the District of Columbia Alpha chapter.
If borders change, the chapter name does not. Virginia Delta was chartered at Bethany College in 1859. After the Civil War, Bethany College was in West Virginia, but the chapter remained Virginia Delta.
Chapters are named based on when the charter is granted, not when it is installed. As a result, there have been rare instances when the chapter naming convention may not appear to be consistent with the charter dates. For example, four charters have been granted in Iowa. The second granted was the fourth installed, so Iowa Beta chartered after Iowa Gamma and Iowa Delta.
List of chapters and colonies
- Italicization of an entire row indicates an inactive chapter or a colony.
- The S column indicates the status of a chapter or colony:
— Active chapter
— Inactive or suspended chapter
- The # column indicates in which each chapter originally chartered.
|Washington & Jefferson College||Grand Chapter (1852–1856). Founded at Jefferson College, which merged with Washington College (home of Pennsylvania Delta) in 1865 to create Washington & Jefferson College. At that time, Pennsylvania Alpha and Pennsylvania Delta merged, and continued under the name of Pennsylvania Alpha|||
|Virginia, University ofUniversity of Virginia||Grand Chapter (1856–1861), inactive during the Civil War|||
|Washington and Lee University||First fraternity at Washington & Lee, inactive during the Civil War. At chapter's request, a new fraternity, founded at Washington & Lee in 1865, changed its name because of similarities from Phi Kappa Chi to Kappa Alpha Order|||
|Inactive||4||Pennsylvania ΒBeta||1855.2||Allegheny College||First fraternity at Allegheny. The Pennsylvania Beta chapter of Phi Kappa Psi is the oldest continuously-chartered chapter of any college fraternity in U.S. history.|||
|Bucknell University||First fraternity at Bucknell, this chapter existed as an alumni chapter from 1873 until 1880 as a response to the university's anti-fraternity legislation|||
|Inactive||6||Pennsylvania ΔDelta||1855.4–1865||Washington College||Grand Chapter (1861–1866), merged into Pennsylvania Alpha when their host institutions merged|||
|Hampden–Sydney College||Inactive during the Civil War, reestablished soon after. Charter was withdrawn by the fraternity in 1900 due to declining enrollment and a saturated fraternity system|||
|colony||8||Pennsylvania ΕEpsilon||1855-2012.6||Gettysburg College||First fraternity at Gettysburg, which is the site of Miller Hall, 1882, the first chapter house built in the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity and the oldest building in the inter-fraternity world on its original site that is still in use by undergraduates. Grand Chapter (1884–1886)|||
|Inactive||9||South Carolina ΑAlpha||1857.1–1861,
|South Carolina, University ofUniversity of South Carolina||Went inactive at the beginning of the Civil War, re-chartered in 1867 and remained active until the university's decision to desegregate in 1872 led to the withdrawal of almost the entire student body. Re-chartered in 1884 and remained active until state politics crippled the university to the point that the student body dramatically decreased in size and the chapter closed in 1892. The 1972 rechartering remained in force until the chapter was no longer viable due to low membership|||
|Mississippi, University ofUniversity of Mississippi||University and chapter closed during American Civil War. Re-chartered in 1881, but anti-fraternity legislation closed all fraternities on campus in 1912. Re-chartered in 1930|||
|Inactive||11||Virginia ΔDelta||1859.1–1882||Bethany College||First fraternity at school, which is now in West Virginia. Served as Grand Chapter (1866–1869.) In 1880 because of a faculty refusal to punish a student guilty of a vicious assault on a member of the chapter the members voted to all leave the college|||
|Inactive||12||Tennessee ΑAlpha||1859.2–1860||LaGrange Synodical College||In 1861 every member of the chapter enlisted in the Confederate Army. In 1863 the college was burned to the ground by the Union Army and never recovered|||
|Inactive||13||Pennsylvania ΖZeta||1859.3–2007||Dickinson College||Grand Chapter (1869–1875)|||
|active||14||Pennsylvania ΗEta||1860.1||Franklin & Marshall College||Phi Beta Tau, founded in 1858 in opposition to the perceived arrogance of the two existing fraternities, became a Phi Psi chapter two years later|||
|Cumberland University||Ceased operating during the Civil War, returned as a viable chapter until the chapter membership became concentrated in the law department, and all but one member withdrew or graduated in 1877|||
|Inactive||16||Mississippi ΒBeta||1860.3–1861||Mississippi College||First fraternity at college, the chapter had been in existence only a few weeks when the Civil War broke out and every member enlisted. Several were killed and the chapter never recovered|||
|Inactive||17||Ohio ΑAlpha||1861 - 2016||Ohio Wesleyan University||Grand Chapter (1875–1878), instrumental in the establishment of the New York Alpha chapter at Cornell University; closed by the University in Spring, 2016 after a new pledge of the chapter was found dead in the Delaware run, a creek close to campus, earlier in the year.|||
|Northwestern University||Only chapter established during the Civil War. Oldest active fraternity at Northwestern.|||
|active||19||Indiana ΑAlpha||1865.1||DePauw University||Instrumental in the establishment of the chapters at Indiana University, University of Missouri and Wabash College|||
|Inactive||20||Kentucky ΑAlpha||1865.2–1866||Transylvania University||Faculty opposition forced the chapter to disband, it is the smallest and shortest lived in Phi Kappa Psi's history|||
|Chicago, University ofUniversity of Chicago||Illinois Beta was chartered at a University of Chicago that opened in 1857, but closed in 1886. A new University of Chicago was created in 1890, and Illinois Beta was revived when Phi Kappa Psi chartered there in 1894|||
|Wittenberg University||Oldest fraternity on campus|||
|Iowa, University ofUniversity of Iowa||Grand Chapter award recipient (2002, 2008)|||
|Inactive||24||District of Columbia ΑAlpha||1868.1–1899,
|George Washington University||Grand Chapter (1881–1884), in 1899 the entire active membership enlisted in the Spanish–American War and the charter was recalled. Chapter suspended in 2016|||
|Inactive||25||Iowa ΓGamma||1868.2–1871||Cornell College||First fraternity at the school, disbanded at the request Cornell College's President due to anti-fraternity sentiment|||
|active||26||New York ΑAlpha||1869.1–1877,
|Cornell University||Chartered in the same year that Cornell began teaching by three Phi Psis who transferred from the Ohio Wesleyan chapter. New York Alpha went inactive in 1877 when Psi Upsilon recruited existing members into their chapter, a practice that is now prohibited by all members of the North-American Interfraternity Conference, of which both fraternities belong. The chapter re-chartered in 1886 from the efforts of six Phi Psis, one from this chapter, two from the Syracuse University chapter, and three from the Hobart College chapter.|||
|active||27||Pennsylvania ΘTheta||1869.2||Lafayette College||Grand Chapter (1878–1881)|||
|inactive||28||Indiana ΒBeta||1869-2014.3||Indiana University||Delta Psi Theta was a local fraternity that chose to go national, considered three fraternities, and selected Phi Kappa Psi in 1869|||
|Missouri, University ofUniversity of Missouri||First fraternity established on this campus, it occupies a house that is a former plantation|||
|Inactive||30||Tennessee ΓGamma||1870.1–1875||Nashville, University ofUniversity of Nashville||Chapter closed as result of an outbreak of Asiatic Cholera that caused the institution to close|||
|Wabash College||Chartered at the initiative of the DePauw University chapter, Indiana Gamma closed in 1901 after enrollment in the college dropped dramatically. A local fraternity, Gamma Phi, was formed in 1947 by Phi Psis with the intention of becoming a Phi Kappa Psi chapter, and succeeded in 1948|||
|Inactive||32||Ohio ΓGamma||1871.1–1892||Wooster, College ofCollege of Wooster||First fraternity at the school, a conflict between the student body and the faculty caused a substantial amount of the student body to withdraw, which made the chapter nonviable|||
|Inactive||33||Illinois ΓGamma||1871.2–1884||Monmouth College||After four years the college ordered its fraternities to disband, but for ten years thereafter the chapter continued sub rosa until pressure from the faculty resulted in the chapter agreeing to disband|||
|Inactive||34||Virginia ΕEpsilon||1871.3–1879||Randolph–Macon College||Founded largely through the efforts of a Phi Kappa Psi alumnus, who was a member of the faculty; after he died, the chapter quickly faded away|||
|Inactive||35||New York ΓGamma||1872–1876,
|Wisconsin–Madison, University ofUniversity of Wisconsin–Madison||Phi Kappa Psi was the third fraternity to establish a chapter at Madison.|||
|active||37||Kansas ΑAlpha||1876.1||Kansas, University ofUniversity of Kansas||Grand Chapter Award recipient (2004)|||
|Michigan, University ofUniversity of Michigan|||
|Inactive||39||Wisconsin ΒBeta||1876.3–1877||Racine College||College no longer exists. There was a faculty of 5 and a student body of 50|||
|Pennsylvania, University ofUniversity of Pennsylvania|||
|Johns Hopkins University|||
|active||42||Ohio ΔDelta||1880||Ohio State University|||
|Inactive||43||California ΑAlpha||1881.1–1892||Pacific, University of theUniversity of the Pacific||First chapter in the fraternity to own and occupy a house in which the members lived. Members transferred to the new Stanford University and became the founders of California Beta.|||
|Inactive||44||New York ΔDelta||1881.2–1892||Hobart College||The chapter was always small, and with fewer than 100 students in attendance at the college, fraternity prospects were scarce|||
|Inactive||46||Iowa ΔDelta||1882–1889||Simpson College||College declined and students scattered|||
|Inactive||47||Minnesota ΑAlpha||1883–1888||Carleton College||Most of the members became the founders of Minnesota Beta|||
|active||48||New York ΒBeta||1884–1995,
|Inactive||49||New York ΕEpsilon||1887–1982||Colgate University||Formerly named Madison University. In the 1980s the university launched an effort to accommodate women on the formerly all-male campus. The university offered an interest-free loan to the chapter to be used for house repaired in exchange for accepting coed members. The house corporation donated the chapter house to Colgate|||
|active||50||Minnesota ΒBeta||1888||Minnesota, University ofUniversity of Minnesota|||
|Inactive||51||Pennsylvania ΚKappa||1889–1963||Swarthmore College||Chapter returned charter in 1963 and became a local fraternity today known as "Phi Psi"|||
|Inactive||52||West Virginia ΑAlpha||1890–2013||West Virginia University||Suspended in 2013|||
|active||53||California ΒBeta||1891.1||Stanford University||Grand Chapter Award recipient (2001, 2005, 2007, 2010)|||
|Inactive||54||New York ΖZeta||1891.2–1912||Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn|||
|active||55||Nebraska ΑAlpha||1895.1||Nebraska–Lincoln, University ofUniversity of Nebraska–Lincoln|||
|Inactive||56||Massachusetts ΑAlpha||1895.2–1948||Amherst College||The chapter charter was revoked by the fraternity Executive Council after the chapter broke its promise to the EC in a matter involving membership selection|||
|Inactive||57||New Hampshire ΑAlpha||1896–1967||Dartmouth College|||
|California, Berkeley, University ofUniversity of California, Berkeley|||
|active||59||Indiana ΔDelta||1901.1||Purdue University|||
|inactive||61||Rhode Island ΑAlpha||1902–1978,
|Brown University||Chapter turned in its charter in 1978 when it decided that it did not want to be part of the national fraternity. It changed its name to "Phi Psi." The local fraternity soon changed its mind, was accepted back as a colony, and re-chartered in 1984|||
|active||62||Texas ΑAlpha||1904.1||Texas at Austin, University ofUniversity of Texas at Austin||Chartered from the last chapter of the regional fraternity Phi Phi Phi (Tri-Phi), which was founded in 1897|||
|active||63||Illinois ΔDelta||1904.2||Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University ofUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign|||
|active||64||Ohio ΕEpsilon||1906||Case Western Reserve University|||
|active||65||Pennsylvania ΛLambda||1912||Pennsylvania State University|||
|Iowa State University|||
|Colorado at Boulder, University ofUniversity of Colorado at Boulder|||
|active||68||Washington ΑAlpha||1914.2||Washington, University ofUniversity of Washington|||
|Oklahoma, University ofUniversity of Oklahoma|||
|Oregon, University ofUniversity of Oregon||Chapter house can be seen in the 1978 movie Animal House. It was used for exterior shots of Omega House|||
|active||71||California ΔDelta||1927.1||Southern California, University ofUniversity of Southern California|||
|Inactive||72||Pennsylvania ΜMu||1927.2–1934||Carnegie Mellon University|||
|Colony||73||California ΕEpsilon||1931–2011, 2015-Present||California, Los Angeles, University ofUniversity of California, Los Angeles||UCLA's Phi Kappa Psi chapter was suspended for at least four years and declared "null and void" by the national chapter due to unspecified inappropriate actions.|||
|Inactive||74||North Carolina ΑAlpha||1934–2001||Duke University|||
|Arizona, University ofUniversity of Arizona||Former Phi Kappa Psi Executive Director Ralph "Dud" Daniel was a founding father in 1947. Charter revoked on January 20, 2012 primarily because of "repeated instances of hazing over a period of time," which remain unproven.|||
|active||76||Oregon ΒBeta||1948||Oregon State University|||
|Bowling Green State University|||
|active||78||Ohio ΗEta||1950.2||Toledo, University ofUniversity of Toledo||The chartering of Ohio Eta initiated the most members at one time in Phi Kappa Psi history, as 150 men were initiated into the fraternity|||
|active||79||New York ΗEta||1950.3–1970,
|Buffalo, University atUniversity at Buffalo||The chapter was discontinued after the University dissolved all of Greek Life and came to life again after the University re-instituted Greek Life in 1984|||
|active||80||Indiana ΕEpsilon||1953.1||Valparaiso University||Chartered on February 21, 1953 from the local fraternity Phi Delta Psi, which was founded in 1914. When it became Phi Kappa Psi, it was the first local fraternity at Valparaiso University to go national. Grand Chapter Award recipient (2003)|||
|active||81||Texas ΒBeta||1953.2||Texas Tech University||Chartered from the Centaur Club, which was founded in 1929. One of the original eight national fraternities at the college|||
|active||82||Michigan ΒBeta||1954||Michigan State University|||
|Inactive||83||Connecticut ΑAlpha||1956–1970||Trinity College|||
|Inactive||84||Missouri ΒBeta||1960–1976||Westminster College|||
|Florida State University|||
|Inactive||86||Arizona ΒBeta||1962–2007.2||Arizona State University||Suspended 2006. Chapter started by two colonizers from Washington Alpha|||
|active||87||Alabama ΑAlpha||1964.1||Alabama, University ofUniversity of Alabama|||
|California, Santa Barbara, University ofUniversity of California, Santa Barbara|||
|Inactive||89||New Jersey ΑAlpha||1965.1–1993||Rider University||The chapter ended as a result of hazing and racial insensitivity by a chapter Fraternity Educators, and the chapter's cover-up. The charter was suspended by emergency order of the national fraternity president and Executive Director|||
|active||90||Nebraska ΒBeta||1965.2||Creighton University|||
|colony||91||Rhode Island ΒBeta||1966.1–1988,
|Rhode Island, University ofUniversity of Rhode Island||Expelled from campus in 2008 for four years|||
|active||92||Ohio ΘTheta||1966.2||Ashland University||Grand Chapter Award recipient (2000)|||
|active||93||California ΗEta||1966.3||California Polytechnic State University|||
|active||94||Louisiana ΑAlpha||1966.4||Louisiana State University|||
|Florida, University ofUniversity of Florida|||
|Inactive||96||Oklahoma ΒBeta||1967.2–1991||Oklahoma State University|||
|active||97||Tennessee ΕEpsilon||1967.3||Tennessee, University ofUniversity of Tennessee|||
|Colony||98||California ΘTheta||1967.4–1995||California State University, Northridge||Cal Theta was CSUN's third fraternity, founded in 1958 as a local fraternity, Kappa Delta Psi, which then affiliated with Phi Kappa Psi in 1967. The damage done to the CSUN campus by the 1994 Northridge earthquake had a dramatic effect on lessening the size of subsequent freshmen classes, and as result, some of the university's fraternities and sororities including Phi Kappa Psi were forced to close|||
|active||99||New Jersey ΒBeta||1967.5–1994,
|Texas State University|||
|Louisiana at Lafayette, University ofUniversity of Louisiana at Lafayette||The Louisiana Beta chapter returned to campus as a Colony in 2013.|||
|active||102||Minnesota ΓGamma||1969.3||Minnesota State University, Mankato|||
|Inactive||103||New Mexico ΑAlpha||1969.4–2006||Eastern New Mexico University|||
|active||104||Pennsylvania ΝNu||1970.1||Indiana University of Pennsylvania|||
|active||105||Ohio Iota||1970.2–1997||Akron, University ofUniversity of Akron|||
|Inactive||106||Tennessee ΖZeta||1970.3–1985||Memphis, University ofUniversity of Memphis|||
|active||107||Indiana ΖZeta||1971.1||Butler University|||
|colony||108||Ohio ΚKappa||1971.2–1978||Kent State University||The chapter was organized by the fraternity staff and came concurrent with a wave of student protest on the campus culminating with the Kent State shootings|||
|active||109||Ohio ΛLambda||1972||Miami University||Grand Chapter Award recipient (1992, 1994, 1998)|||
|Inactive||111||Montana ΑAlpha||1975–1983||Montana, University ofUniversity of Montana|||
|colony||112||Virginia ΖZeta||1976–2010.12016||Virginia Tech||Phi Kappa Psi has announced that "Despite being closed since 2010, the Fraternity is returning to Virginia Tech University". |||
|active||113||Georgia ΑAlpha||1976.2||Georgia, University ofUniversity of Georgia|||
|California, Davis, University ofUniversity of California, Davis|||
|Inactive||115||Arkansas ΑAlpha||1979.2–1991||University of Arkansas||The chapter was never able to acquire a chapter house through the university. When they lost the property they were using as a chapter house, membership declined to the point that the charter was pulled.|||
|active||116||Pennsylvania ΞXi||1984||Edinboro University of Pennsylvania|||
|active||117||Illinois ΕEpsilon||1985.1||Illinois State University|||
|active||118||Delaware ΑAlpha||1985.2–1990, 2014||Delaware, University ofUniversity of Delaware|||
|Inactive||119||Pennsylvania ΟOmicron||1985.3–1992||Lehigh University|||
|active||120||Indiana ΗEta||1987.1||Indiana State University|||
|active||121||New Jersey ΓGamma||1987.2–1995,
|Inactive||122||Pennsylvania ΠPi||1987.3–1993||Temple University|||
|active||123||Kentucky ΒBeta||1988.1||Kentucky, University ofUniversity of Kentucky|||
|Inactive||124||Texas ΔDelta||1988.2–1997||Southern Methodist University|||
|Inactive||125||Maryland ΒBeta||1988.3–1996||Maryland, Baltimore County, University ofUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore County|||
|active||126||New Jersey ΔDelta||1990||New Jersey, The College ofThe College of New Jersey|||
|active||127||California ΚKappa||1991.1||California, Irvine, University ofUniversity of California, Irvine||Suspended in October 2016 pending an ongoing investigation into hazing. Had been under investigation since August when pictures showing alleged hazing were brought to the attention of UC Irvine. |||
|active||128||Massachusetts ΒBeta||1991.2||Brandeis University|||
|active||129||North Carolina ΒBeta||1991.3||East Carolina University|||
|active||130||New York ΘTheta||1992.1||Rochester Institute of Technology||Grand Chapter Award recipient (2006, 2013)|||
|active||131||Pennsylvania ΡRho||1992.2||York College of Pennsylvania|||
|active||132||Louisiana ΓGamma||1993.1||Loyola University New Orleans|||
|active||133||Illinois ΖZeta||1993.2||DePaul University|||
|active||134||California ΛLambda||1996.1||San Diego State University||On 6 May 2008, four members of Phi Kappa Psi at San Diego State University were among 96 individuals, including 75 students, arrested as the result of an undercover investigation into drug trafficking on the University's campus after multiple overdose deaths around the campus. The chapter was suspended for 18 months before being fully reinstated on May 1, 2010|||
|active||135||Pennsylvania ΣSigma||1996.2||Sciences, University of theUniversity of the Sciences|||
|active||136||Illinois ΗEta||1999||Southern Illinois University Edwardsville|||
|active||137||New Jersey ΕEpsilon||2000.1||Rowan University||Grand Chapter Award recipient (2012)|||
|active||138||Georgia ΒBeta||2000.2||Georgia Institute of Technology|||
|active||139||Pennsylvania ΥUpsilon||2002.1||Drexel University|||
|Inactive||140||Pennsylvania ΤTau||2002.2–2003||Penn State Altoona|||
|active||141||Texas ΕEpsilon||2002.3||Stephen F. Austin State University|||
|active||142||Minnesota ΔDelta||2002.4||Minnesota Duluth, University ofUniversity of Minnesota Duluth|||
|active||143||Illinois ΘTheta||2003||Illinois at Chicago, University ofUniversity of Illinois at Chicago|||
|active||144||Pennsylvania ΩΦPhi||2004.1||Lycoming College|||
|active||145||New York ΙIota||2004.2||Binghamton University|||
|active||146||New York ΚKappa||2004.3||Oneonta, State University of New York atState University of New York at Oneonta||First chapter to charter at a Grand Arch Council (San Diego 2004)|||
|active||147||Ohio ΜMu||2005||Dayton, University ofUniversity of Dayton||Grand Chapter Award recipient (2009, 2011)|||
|active||148||Illinois ΙIota||2007.1||Northern Illinois University|||
|active||149||Maryland ΓGamma||2007.2||Maryland, College Park, University ofUniversity of Maryland, College Park|||
|active||150||Texas ΖZeta||2008.1||Houston Baptist University|||
|active||151||Ohio ΝNu||2008.2||Ohio University|||
|active||152||California ΜMu||2008.3||Occidental College|||
|active||153||Indiana ΘTheta||2008.4||Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis|||
|active||154||California ΝNu||2009||California, Riverside, University ofUniversity of California, Riverside|||
|active||155||Ohio ΞXi||2010.1||Capital University|||
|active||156||California ΞXi||2010.2||California State University, Long Beach|||
|active||157||Ohio ΟOmicron||2011.1||Muskingum University|||
|active||158||Virginia ΗEta||2012.1||Virginia Commonwealth University|
|active||999 159||ΩIndiana Iota||2012||Ball State University|||
|active||999 160||ΩAlabama Gamma||2015||University of Alabama Huntsville|||
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. III 83.
- Collinsworth 2010, p. 6.
- Phi Kapppa Psi 2009, p. xv.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 61–85 Chapter describing the Grand Chapter form of government
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 168.
- Campbell 1952, pp. 12, 223.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 169–171.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 205.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 172–173.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. III 56.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 174.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 23.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 176.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 179.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 71.
- Harper 1989, p. 38.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 182–183.
- Jones et al. 2002, p. 164.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 183–185.
- Gorgas 1952, p. 149.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 17.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 185–187.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 187.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 189–190.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 192–193.
- Campbell 1952, pp. 108–109.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 116.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 191.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 209.
- Campbell 1952, p. 98.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 198.
- Campbell 1952, p. 104.
- Jones et al. 2002, p. 159.
- Van Cleve 1902, p. 200.
- Phi Kapppa Psi 1997, p. ii.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 219.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 207–208.
- Jones et al. 2002, p. 146.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 45.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 205–206.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 208–210.
- Phi Kapppa Psi 2009, p. xvi.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 211–212.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 117.
- Miller 2009 gives the history of the Missouri Alpha chapter house and the land it occupies.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 216–218.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 219–222.
- Gorgas 1952, pp. 701–703.
- Anson & Marchesani 1991, p. II 220.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 225–226.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 222–224.
- Van Cleve 1902, pp. 224–225.
- Miller 2011a.
- Phi Kapppa Psi 2010, p. 3.
- Collinsworth, Shawn. "Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity Suspends the Charter of its Chapter at West Virginia University". Phi Kappa Psi. Phi Kappa Psi. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Reed 2010.
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- Peart 2010.
- ACME Animal House Filming Locations - College as it should have been
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At the center of the case against the chapter were repeated instances of hazing over a period of time. The chapter’s efforts to hide the truth and mislead those investigating the allegations also contributed to the final action. All of these factors were in addition to multiple chapter violations of the Fraternity’s risk management policy and those rules and regulations of the University of Arizona.External link in
- Strietelmeier 1959, p. 57.
- "Rider College Is Closing Fraternity". The New York Times. New York. 30 January 1993. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
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- Associated Press (May 6, 2008). "Dozens of college students busted in drug sting". msnbc.com.
- Nour, Reem (May 10, 2010). "Fraternity reinstated at SDSU". The Daily Aztec. Archived from the original on May 14, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- Rakowski 2005, p. 25.
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- Van Cleve, Charles L. (1902). Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity From Its Foundation In 1852 To Its Fiftieth Anniversary. Philadelphia: Franklin Printing Company. OCLC 2140880.
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