List of Pokémon
The Pokémon franchise revolves around 802 eponymous fictional species of characters, each having unique designs and skills. The vast array of creatures is commonly divided into "Generations", with each division encompassing new main series titles and a change of handheld platform. Generation I refers to Red, Green, Blue and Yellow; Generation II refers to Gold, Silver, and Crystal; Generation III refers to Ruby, Sapphire, and Emerald; Generation IV refers to Diamond, Pearl , and Platinum; Generation V refers to Black, White, Black 2, and White 2, Generation VI refers to X and Y; and Generation VII refers to Sun, Moon. Each Generation is also marked by the addition of new Pokémon: 151 in Generation I, 100 in Generation II, 135 in Generation III, 107 in Generation IV, 156 in Generation V, 72 in Generation VI, and 81 in Generation VII.
Originally, all Pokémon were designed by Ken Sugimori, however, by 2013 a team of 20 artists worked together to create new species designs. Sugimori and Hironobu Yoshida lead the team and determine the final designs. Designs, in general, have become increasingly complex and thematic in newer games. The new Pokémon of Generation VI, for example, are heavily influenced by the culture and fauna of Europe (namely France). Each iteration of the series has brought about praise and criticism over the numerous creatures. Multiple Pokémon feature alternate forms that change their appearance, stats, and viable attacks; however, these do not count as separate species. Furthermore 48 creatures are capable of undergoing Mega Evolution or Primal Reversion, a variant of normal evolution that is akin to a form change (including a modest change in appearance alongside stat buffs).
Due to the large number of Pokémon, listing of each species is divided into articles by generation. All 801 Pokémon are organized by their number in the National Pokédex—an in-game electronic encyclopedia that provides various information on Pokémon. The National Pokédex is subdivided into regional Pokédex series, each revolving around species introduced at the time of their respective generations along with older generations. For example, the Johto Pokédex, Generation II, covers the 100 species introduced in Gold and Silver in addition to the original 151 species. The encyclopedias follow a general ordering: starter Pokémon are listed first, followed by species obtainable early in the respective games, and are concluded with Legendary and Mythical Pokémon.
The premise of Pokémon in general was conceived by Satoshi Tajiri—who later founded Game Freak—in 1989 or 1990, when the Game Boy was released. The creatures that inhabit the world of Pokémon are also called Pokémon. The word "Pokémon" is a romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター Poketto Monsutā?). The concept of the Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general fictional world of Pokémon, stems most notably from Tajiri's childhood hobby of insect collecting. Other influences on the concept include Ultraman, anime, and playing video games in general. Throughout his early life, Tajiri saw his rural, nature-filled hometown (Machida, Tokyo) transform into an urban center. The urbanization of his town drove away wildlife and he and others living in the area were eventually unable to collect insects. Through Pokémon, Tajiri sought to bring back this outdoor pastime and share it with the world. The ability to capture, battle, trade, and care for numerous creatures catapulted Pokémon to international popularity and it has become a multi-billion dollar franchise and the second-best selling video game series, only behind the Mario franchise.
At the start of a main series Pokémon game, the player character receives one of three "starter" Pokémon, with which they can battle and catch other Pokémon. Each Pokémon has one or two "types", such as Fire, Water, or Grass. In battle, certain types are strong against other types. For example, a fire-type attack will do more damage to a grass-type Pokémon than a water-type attack. This form of gameplay is frequently compared to that of rock-paper-scissors, though players have to strategize which Pokémon and which of their attacks to use against various opponents. As Pokémon become stronger, they may eventually evolve into a different kind of Pokémon. This process gives the Pokémon a significant power-boost and may change their type.
Though the Pokémon franchise is primarily intended for younger players, each Pokémon has various complex attributes such as natures, characteristic traits, Individual Values (IVs), and Effort Values (EVs). These, according to Game Freak Board Director Junichi Masuda, are intended for people "who enjoy battling and want to go more in depth." These individual statistics were also included because the basic concept of the franchise is to train one's Pokémon. Designer Takeshi Kawachimaru stated that IVs and EVs "help to make each Pokemon in the game individual," as it adds unique aspects to them.
Each Pokémon game introduces a few "Legendary" and "Mythical" Pokémon that are powerful, rare, and hard to catch. Pokémon Sun and Moon introduced "Ultra Beasts", which are described as "beings from another dimension" that appeared in the Alola region and are similarly powerful and rare.
Lists of Pokémon
Detailed lists by generation
|Generation||Years||Main titles||Enhanced remakes||Number of Pokémon|
|Generation I||1996–1998||Red, Green, Blue and Yellow||None||151||151|
|Generation II||1999–2001||Gold, Silver, and Crystal||None||100||251|
|Generation III||2002–2005||Ruby, Sapphire, and Emerald||FireRed and LeafGreen||135||386|
|Generation IV||2006–2009||Diamond, Pearl, and Platinum||HeartGold and SoulSilver||107||493|
|Generation V||2010–2012||Black, White, Black 2, and White 2||None||156||649|
|Generation VI||2013–2015||X and Y||Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire||72||721|
|Generation VII||2016–present||Sun and Moon||None||81||802|
List of species
Design and development
The design for Pokémon are often highly analogous to real-life creatures, but also encompass inanimate objects. Director Junichi Masuda and graphic designer Takao Unno have stated that inspiration for Pokémon designs can come from anything. The variety of animals and culture across the world provide the basis for countless ideas to be incorporated into the franchise. The simpler roots of designs in Generation I prompted greater complexity in later games. However, by the release of X and Y in 2013, Sugimori stated he wishes to return to the simpler roots of the franchise.
Originally, all Pokémon were designed by Ken Sugimori, a long-time friend of Tajiri, and a team of fewer than ten people. By 2013 a team of 20 artists worked together to create new species designs. A committee of five people determine which designs are incorporated into the games, with Sugimori and Hironobu Yoshida finalizing the look of each creature. Furthermore, Sugimori is responsible for all of the official artwork for the games. According to Yoshida, the number of rejected Pokémon designs is 5 to 10 times more than the number that are finalized in each game. In rare cases, rejected designs are brought back and released in a later generation. Each iteration of the series has brought about praise and criticism over the numerous creatures.
In an interview with GamesRadar in 2009, Masuda stated that simple Pokémon take around six months to design and develop, whereas Pokémon that play a more important part in the games (such as starter Pokémon) may take over a year. Masuda added, "We also want the designer to have as much freedom as possible, we don't want to narrow down their imagination by saying 'We want this kind of Pokemon.' When we talk to the designer we always stress that they shouldn't think of Pokemon necessarily, but should instead just be as creative as they can." It is after the Pokémon is designed when it is sent to the "Battle Producer", who decides for the moves and parameters the Pokémon should have.
The environment a Pokémon would live in is taken into account when they are designed. Masuda has stated that each element of a design has a functioning reason. In some cases, the design team creates a footprint that a Pokémon could make and designs a creature around that. Typing assignment varies during the design process, sometimes a Pokémon receives a type after it is created and other times they are designed around a particular type.
Masuda considers the starter Pokémon to be among the most important in the franchise; Yoshida goes further and calls them "the face of that generation" and that "they're the ones that should be on the packaging". The three starter Pokémon of each generation are Grass-, Water-, and Fire-types, a trio that Masuda considers to be the easiest to understand for new players.
The designs of the original 151 Pokémon from Generation I were finalized by Ken Sugimori. The majority of Pokémon in this generation had relatively simple designs and were highly analogous to real-life creatures including but not limited to: Pidgey (a pigeon), Rattata (a rat), Ekans (a snake), and Seel (a seal). Many Pokémon in the original games served as the base for repeating concepts in later series.
Ruby and Sapphire introduced 135 new Pokémon, almost all of which completely unrelated to those of the previous two generations. The game also introduced eight legendary Pokémon – more than ever before. Though many of the Pokémon in Ruby and Sapphire were criticized for being unoriginal, combat in the third generation became much more strategic as many Pokémon with an unusual combination of primary and secondary types were introduced.
Masuda revealed that the three main themes of Pokémon X and Y to be beauty, bonds, and evolution. Beauty was the core focus and Masuda felt France to be a prime example of such; he brought a team to the country for study in 2011. With the games taking place in a region based on France (called Kalos), design inspiration stemmed more from European culture. The legendary trio of Xerneas, Yveltal, and Zygarde have their roots in Norse Mythology, for example. More focus than usual was placed on giving new Pokémon unique elements for this generation.
A major design change for the franchise was the shift from two-dimensional sprites to three-dimensional polygons. This required a larger development team than past games, with more than 500 people involved with the games' development, inclusive of localization teams. A new type was also added into the game for the first time since Gold and Silver: Fairy-type. A new mechanic called Mega Evolution—a temporary form change akin to normal evolution—was also added for more dynamic battles and stemmed from the concepts of bonds and evolution. Mega Evolutions "refined designs to a new extreme" according to Yoshida, and required considerable effort. Multiple Pokémon, such as Kangaskahn and Mewtwo, received Mega Evolutions. They were made temporary to retain balance in battles, and only made possible when a Pokémon is holding their respective Mega Stone to prevent players from giving them a different advantageous hold item. A variant of Mega Evolution called Primal Reversion was introduced for Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire; this mechanic is exclusive to Groudon and Kyogre.
Pokémon Sun and Moon were officially revealed on February 26, 2016, during a Nintendo Direct presentation which commemorated the franchise's 20th anniversary. Concept art shown in the trailer hint at the new region being tropical with palm trees and Pokémon Centers resembling tropical huts. Magearna and an unnamed bird Pokémon are the only known new species in the games as of their announcement.
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