List of Polish cardinals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of Polish cardinals. It includes all ethnic Poles, living and deceased, who were raised to the rank of cardinal by popes of the Roman Catholic Church. Cardinals are senior officials of the Church who collectively form the College of Cardinals, a body that elects and advises the supreme pontiff.

This list includes cardinals who were born or carried out their pastoral services outside Poland, such as Cardinal Kazimierz Świątek who was born in Estonia and worked as a bishop in Belarus. People of other ethnic origins who were naturalized in Poland, such as the 17th-century Hungarian-born Cardinal Báthory Endre, are not included.

Three of the Polish cardinals, namely Fryderyk Jagiellończyk, Jan Olbracht Waza and Jan Kazimierz Waza, were of royal blood. The latter was elected king of Poland after he had renounced his cardinalate. Karol Wojtyła was the only Polish cardinal to be elected pope. As Pope John Paul II, he elevated ten of his compatriots to cardinalate, the largest number of Polish cardinals created by a single pope.

Roughly one out of two Polish cardinals was a bishop of one of Poland's historically two most important episcopal sees: Gniezno, the capital city of Poland until 1034, and Kraków, Poland's capital from 1038 to 1596. All bishops of Kraków since 1890, as well as all primates of Poland (an honorific title traditionally bestowed on the archbishop of Gniezno), since 1919 have been created cardinals.

Cardinals are sorted in chronological order by date of elevation to cardinalate, indicated in the Elevated column. Cardinals elevated during the same century are marked by the same color on the bar on the left-hand side of the table. The date of elevation is the date of the consistory during which a given person was officially proclaimed cardinal by the pope. In some cases, especially in former times, a cardinal may have received the red hat after the consistory or never. Those, whose elevation was intended by a pope, but died before the consistory, as well as pseudocardinals elevated by antipopes, are listed in italics.

Two of the cardinals listed here, Jan Olbracht Waza and Marian Jaworski, were elevated in pectore, which means that their names were kept secret by the pope and revealed only on later consistories. In these cases, the date of elevation is the date of the in pectore elevation, not the date of the subsequent publication.

Cardinals are technically deacons or priests of Roman churches known as tituli. Their ranks (cardinal deacon or cardinal priest; there have been no cardinal bishops of Polish origin) and titular churches are indicated in the Cardinal title column. The "Other titles" column shows other, especially episcopal, titles held by the given person during his cardinalate.

The Conclaves column lists all conclaves, that is papal elections, that took place during a person's cardinalate and indicates whether he participated in a given conclave or not. Since Ingravescentem Ætatem in 1970, cardinals who are 80 years or older at the beginning of a conclave are ineligible to participate.[1]

The Ref. column provides links to external online references.

Name Born Elevated Cardinal title Other titles Conclaves Died Notes Ref. Image
Zbigniew Oleśnicki Sienno,
5 December 1389
18 December 1439 by Pope Eugene IV Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca Bishop of Kraków 1447 – absent Sandomierz,
1 April 1455
Also created pseudocardinal by Antipope Felix V in 1440, which nomination Oleśnicki declined. Pope Nicholas V confirmed Eugene's nomination and sent Oleśnicki his red hat in 1449. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Zbigniew Olesnicki". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
Miranda
Zbigniew Oleśnicki
Alexander of Masovia Płock,
1400
2 October 1440 by Antipope Felix V Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso Bishop of Trent None Vienna, Austria
2 June 1444
Pseudocardinal Miranda Alexander of Masovia
Wincenty Kot Dębno,
ca.1395
6 April 1444 by Antipope Felix V Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono Archbishop of Gniezno None Gniezno,
14 April 1448
Pseudocardinal; resigned the pseudocardinalate on 2 October 1447. Applied for recognition of his promotion from Pope Nicholas V, but died before obtaining it. Miranda Wincenty Kot
Fryderyk Jagiellończyk Kraków,
27 April 1468
20 September 1493 by Pope Alexander VI Cardinal Priest of S. Lucia in Septisolio Archbishop of Gniezno, Bishop of Kraków None Kraków,
14 March 1503
Son of King Casimir IV of Poland, brother of Saint Casimir Miranda Fryderyk Jagiellończyk
Stanisław Hozjusz Kraków,
5 May 1504
26 February 1561 by Pope Pius IV Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna Bishop of Ermland 1565 – absent; 1572 – participated Capranica, Italy,
5 August 1579
"Stanislaus Hosius". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Stanisław Hozjusz
Jerzy Radziwiłł Wilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania),
31 May 1556
12 December 1583 by Pope Gregory XIII Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto Bishop of Wilno until 1591, later Bishop of Kraków 1585, Sep 1590, Oct 1590 – absent; 1591, 1592 – participated Rome, Italy,
21 January 1600
"Jerzy Radziwiłł". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Jerzy Radziwiłł
Bernard Maciejowski 1548 9 June 1604 by Pope Clement VIII Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina Bishop of Kraków until 1606, later Archbishop of Gniezno Mar 1605, May 1605 – absent Kraków,
19 January 1608
"Bernard Maciejowski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Bernard Maciejowski
Jan Olbracht Waza Kraków,
25 May 1612
19 November 1629 in pectore by Pope Urban VIII Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro Bishop of Kraków None Padua, Italy,
29 December 1634
Son of King Sigismund III of Poland. Elevated in pectore, announced on 20 December 1632. "Jan Olbracht Waza". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Jan Olbracht Waza
Jan Kazimierz Waza Kraków,
22 May 1609
28 May 1646 by Pope Innocent X (Never received the red hat and the title) None None Nevers, France,
16 December 1672
Son of King Sigismund III of Poland. Resigned the cardinalate in 1647, resignation accepted by the pope on 6 July 1648. King of Poland 1648–1668. Miranda Jan Kazimierz Waza
Michał Radziejowski Poznań,
3 December 1645
2 September 1686 by Pope Innocent XI Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace Bishop of Ermland until 1688, later Archbishop of Gniezno 1689, 1691, 1700 – absent Gdańsk,
11 October 1705
"Michał Radziejowski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Michał Radziejowski
Jan Kazimierz Denhoff Warsaw,
8 June 1649
2 September 1686 by Pope Innocent XI Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina Bishop of Cesena, Italy; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals 1695–1696 1689, 1691 – participated Rome,
20 June 1697
"Jan Kazimierz Denhoff". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Jan Kazimierz Denhoff
Jan Aleksander Lipski 15 June 1690 20 December 1737 by Pope Clement XII (Never received the red hat and the title) Bishop of Kraków 1740 – absent Kielce,
20 February 1746
"Jan Aleksander Lipski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Jan Aleksander Lipski
Leon Michał Przyłuski Strzeszynek (now part of Poznań),
5 October 1789
Elevation intended by Pope Pius IX to take place on 22 June 1866 (Died before consistory) Archbishop of Gnesen-Posen (Gniezno-Poznań) None Poznań,
12 March 1865
The pope intended to elevate Przyłuski to cardinalate, but the bishop died before the consistory was announced. "Leon Michał Przyłuski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Leon Michał Przyłuski
Mieczysław Ledóchowski Górki,
29 October 1822
15 March 1875 by Pope Pius IX Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Ara Coeli Archbishop of Gnesen-Posen (Gniezno-Poznań) until 1896, later Prefect of the Congregation for Propagation of the Faith 1878 – participated Rome,
22 July 1902
"Mieczysław Ledóchowski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Mieczysław Ledóchowski
Włodzimierz Czacki Poryck (now Pavlivka, Ukraine),
16 April 1834
25 September 1882 by Pope Leo XIII Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana Titular Archbishop of Salamis, Apostolic Nuncio to France None Rome,
8 March 1888
"Włodzimierz Czacki". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Włodzimierz Czacki
Albin Dunajewski Stanislau (now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine),
1 March 1817
23 June 1890 by Pope Leo XIII Cardinal Priest of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio Bishop of Krakau (Kraków) None Krakau (Kraków),
18 June 1894
"Albin Dunajewski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Albin Dunajewski
Jan Puzyna Gwoździec (now Hvizdets, Ukraine)
13 September 1842
15 April 1901 by Pope Leo XIII Cardinal Priest of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio Bishop of Krakau (Kraków) 1903 – participated Krakau (Kraków),
8 September 1911
At the conclave of 1903, Puzyna vetoed the election of Cardinal Mariano Rampolla in the name of Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary. "Jan Puzyna". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Jan Puzyna
Edmund Dalbor Ostrowo (now Ostrów Wielkopolski),
30 October 1869
15 December 1919 by Pope Benedict XV Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina Archbishop of Gniezno-Poznań 1922 – participated Poznań,
13 February 1926
"Edmund Dalbor". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Edmund Dalbor
Aleksander Kakowski Dębiny,
5 February 1862
15 December 1919 by Pope Benedict XV Cardinal Priest of S. Agostino Archbishop of Warsaw 1922 – participated Warsaw,
30 December 1938
Member of the Regency Council 1917–1918 "Aleksander Kakowski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Aleksander Kakowski
August Hlond Myslowitz (now Mysłowice),
5 July 1881
20 June 1927 by Pope Pius XI Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace Archbishop of Gniezno-Poznań until 1946, later Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw 1939 – participated Warsaw,
22 October 1948
Beatification process started in 1992. "August Hlond". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

August Hlond
Adam Stefan Sapieha Krasiczyn,
14 May 1867
18 February 1946 by Pope Pius XII Cardinal Priest of S. Maria Nuova Archbishop of Kraków None Kraków,
21 July 1951
"Adam Stefan Sapieha". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Adam Stefan Sapieha
Stefan Wyszyński Zuzela,
3 August 1901
12 January 1953 by Pope Pius XII Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw 1958, 1963, Aug 1978, Oct 1978 – participated Warsaw,
28 May 1981
Impeded from attending the consistory, he received the red hat on 18 May 1957. Beatification process started in 1989. "Stefan Wyszyński". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Stefan Wyszyński
Karol Wojtyła Wadowice,
18 May 1920
26 June 1967 by Pope Paul VI Cardinal Priest of S. Cesareo in Palatio Archbishop of Kraków Aug 1978 – participated; Oct 1978 – participated, elected Rome,
2 April 2005
Elected pope on 16 October 1978, took the name John Paul II. Canonized in 2014. "Karol Wojtyła". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

John Paul II (Karol Wojtyła)
Bolesław Kominek Radlin,
23 December 1903
5 March 1973 by Pope Paul VI Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in via Flaminia Archbishop of Wrocław None Wrocław,
10 March 1974
"Bolesław Kominek". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Bolesław Kominek
Bolesław Filipiak Ośniszczewko,
1 September 1901
24 May 1976 by Pope Pope Paul VI Cardinal Deacon of S. Giovanni Bosco in via Tuscolana Titular Bishop of Plestia, Dean of the Roman Rota Aug 1978 – absent (poor health); Oct 1978 – absent (died on the first day) Poznań,
14 October 1978
"Bolesław Filipiak". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Władysław Rubin Toki (now in Ukraine),
20 September 1917
30 June 1979 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata Titular Bishop of Serta, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches until 1985 None Rome,
28 November 1990
"Władysław Rubin". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Franciszek Macharski Kraków,
20 May 1927
30 June 1979 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina Archbishop of Kraków until 2005 2005 – participated; 2013 – no voting rights Kraków,
2 August 2016
Lost electoral rights in 2007 "Franciszek Macharski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Franciszek Macharski
Józef Glemp Inowrocław,
18 December 1929
2 February 1983 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere Archbishop of Gniezno until 1992, Archbishop of Warsaw until 2006 2005 – participated Warsaw, 23 January 2013 Lost electoral rights in 2009 "Józef Glemp". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Józef Glemp
Andrzej Maria Deskur Sancygniów,
29 February 1924
25 May 1985 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio (title elevated to Cardinal Priest in 1996) Titular Archbishop of Thenae, President of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications until 1984 2005 – no voting rights Rome,
3 September 2011
Lost electoral rights in 2004 "Andrzej Maria Deskur". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Henryk Gulbinowicz Wilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania),
17 October 1923
25 May 1985 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Priest of Immacolata Concezione di Maria a Grottarossa Archbishop of Wrocław until 2004 2005, 2013 – no voting rights Living Lost electoral rights in 2003 "Henryk Gulbinowicz". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Henryk Gulbinowicz
Kazimierz Świątek Valga, Estonia,
21 October 1914
26 November 1994 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Priest of S. Gerardo Maiella Archbishop of Minsk-Mohilev, Belarus, until 2006 2005 – no voting rights Pinsk, Belarus,
21 July 2011
Never had electoral rights. First cardinal from Belarus. "Kazimierz Świątek". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Kazimierz Świątek
Adam Kozłowiecki Huta Komorowska,
1 April 1911
21 February 1998 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Priest of S. Andrea al Quirinale Titular Archbishop of Potentia in Piceno 2005 – no voting rights Lusaka, Zambia,
28 September 2007
Never had electoral rights. First cardinal from Zambia. "Adam Kozłowiecki". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Adam Kozłowiecki
Marian Jaworski Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine),
21 August 1926
21 February 1998 in pectore by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto Archbishop of Lviv, Ukraine, until 2008 2005 – participated; 2013 – no voting rights Living Elevated in pectore, announced on 21 February 2001. Lost electoral rights in 2006. "Marian Jaworski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Marian Jaworski
Zenon Grocholewski Bródki,
11 October 1939
21 February 2001 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Titular Archbishop of Acropolis, Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education until 2015 2005, 2013 – participated Living "Zenon Grocholewski". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Zenon Grocholewski
Stanisław Nagy Berun (now Bieruń),
30 September 1921
21 October 2003 by Pope John Paul II Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria della Scala Titular Archbishop of Hólar 2005, 2013 – no voting rights Kraków,
5 June 2013
Never had electoral rights. "Stanisław Nagy". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Stanisław Nagy
Stanisław Dziwisz Raba Wyżna,
27 April 1939
24 March 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo Archbishop of Kraków until 2016 2013 – participated Living "Stanisław Dziwisz". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Stanisław Dziwisz
Ignacy Jeż Radomyśl Wielki,
31 July 1914
Elevation intended by Pope Benedict XVI to take place on 24 November 2007 (Died before consistory) Bishop Emeritus of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg None Rome,
16 October 2007
The pope intended to elevate Jeż to cardinalate, but the bishop died one day before the consistory was announced. The pope later confirmed that Jeż should be counted as a cardinal. "Ignacy Jeż". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda
KAI

Ignacy Jeż
Stanisław Ryłko Andrychów,
4 July 1945
24 November 2007 by Pope Benedict XVI Cardinal Deacon of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re Titular Archbishop of Novica, President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity until 2016 2013 – participated Living "Stanisław Ryłko". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Stanisław Ryłko
Kazimierz Nycz Stara Wieś,
1 February 1950
20 November 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI Cardinal Priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti Archbishop of Warsaw 2013 – participated Living "Kazimierz Nycz". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. 

Miranda

Kazimierz Nycz

Polish cardinals eligible for participation in a conclave[edit]

As of 2016, four of the living Polish cardinals listed above are less than 80 years old and hence eligible to participate in a conclave. They are listed below by date of birth.

Name Born Age Electoral rights expire
Stanisław Dziwisz 27 April 1939 78 27 April 2019
Zenon Grocholewski 11 October 1939 77 11 October 2019
Stanisław Ryłko 4 July 1945 71 4 July 2025
Kazimierz Nycz 1 February 1950 67 1 February 2030

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Pope Paul VI, Ingravescentem Aetatem, 21 November 1970