List of wars involving Poland
Territorial Defence Force
This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces fought or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.
This list does not include peacekeeping operations (such as UNPROFOR, UNTAES or UNMOP), humanitarian missions or training missions supported by the Polish Armed Forces.
The list gives the name, the date, the Polish allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:
- Polish victory
- Polish defeat
- Another result (e.g., a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive)
- Ongoing conflict
During the Middle Ages, Poland sought to incorporate other fellow West Slavic peoples under the rule of the Polan dukes, such as Mieszko I, Boleslaw I Chrobry and their descendants, and then defend the lands acquired in the west from the Holy Roman Empire. In the east and south it struggled with Ruthenia, Bohemia and Tatar raiders. In the north-east, it encountered intermittent Lithuanian and Prussian raids.
|Date||Conflict||Combatant 1||Combatant 2||Result|
|963||Otto I's raid on Poland||Duchy of Poland||Holy Roman Empire||Polish defeat|
|963–967||Polish–Veletian War||Duchy of Poland
Duchy of Bohemia (967)
|Confederacy of the Veleti
|972||Fights of Mieszko I in Western Pomerania||Duchy of Poland||Sorbian March||Polish victory|
|979||Otto II's raid on Poland||Duchy of Poland||Holy Roman Empire||Polish victory|
|981||Polish raid on Pomerelia||Duchy of Poland||Pomerelia||Polish victory|
|981||Rus raid on Cherven Cities||Duchy of Poland||Kievan Rus'||Rus Victory|
|985||Polish-Saxon invasion of Veleti||Duchy of Poland Holy Roman Empire||Veleti||Polish and Saxon victory|
|988–990||Polish-Bohemian War||Duchy of Poland Holy Roman Empire||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|992||Polish-German invasion of Veleti||Duchy of Poland Holy Roman Empire||Veleti||Polish and German victory|
|995||Polish-German invasion of Obotrites||Duchy of Poland Holy Roman Empire||Obotrites||Polish and German victory|
||Duchy of PolandMoravians||Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Bohemia Kievan Rus'Veleti||Peace of Bautzen|
|1015–1019||Kyivan succession crisis, Feud of the Volodymyrovychi or Internecine war of Rus' (1015—1019)
|| Kyivan Rus' loyal to Svyatopolk I
Duchy of Poland (1018)
Kingdom of Hungary (1018)
|Kyivan Rus' loyal to Yaroslav I||Yaroslav victory|
||Polish-German War||Mieszko II Lambert Kingdom of Hungary||Holy Roman Empire Bezprym Duchy of Bohemia Kievan Rus'||Victory for Bezprym|
|1031||Rus'ian expedition against Poland||Duchy of Poland||Kievan Rus'||Rus Victory|
|1031–1032||Pagan reaction in Poland||Bezprym||Pagans and magnates||Defeat of Bezprym|
|1037–1038||1038 Popular Uprising in Poland||Duchy of Poland||Peasant insurgents||Polish victory|
|1038–1047||Miecław's Rebellion||Duchy of Poland
Duchy of Pomerelia
|1038–1039||Bretislav's invasion||Duchy of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1042||Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Lesser Poland||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1047||Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1050||Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1051||Polish-German invasion of Hungary||Kingdom of Poland Holy Roman Empire||Kingdom of Hungary||Polish-German victory|
|1060||Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish defeat|
|1060||Fights for the Hungarian throne||Béla I Kingdom of Poland||Andrew I||Béla I's victory|
|1063||Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Pomerelia||Kingdom of Poland||Pomerelia||Polish victory|
|1064||Pomeranians raid on Poland||Kingdom of Poland||Pomeranians||Polish victory|
|1069||Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus'||Kingdom of Poland||Kievan Rus'||Polish victory|
|1072||Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1074||Civil war between Solomon king and his cousins Géza and Ladislaus||Géza's army
Kingdom of Poland
| Solomon's army
Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bohemia
|1076||Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia||Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus'||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1077||Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Hungary||Kingdom of Poland||Kingdom of Hungary||Polish victory|
|1077||Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus'||Kingdom of Poland||Kievan Rus'||Polish victory|
|1077–1079||Internal conflicts||Bolesław II the Generous||Rebels and magnats||Bolesław II the Generous's defeat|
||Four raids on Western Pomerania||Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Bohemia||Western Pomerania||Polish defeat|
|1092||Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland||Kingdom of Poland||Kievan Rus'||Polish defeat|
||Władysław Herman and Sieciech's fight against Zbigniew and Bolesław||Władysław I Herman Sieciech Duchy of Bohemia||Zbigniew of Poland Bolesław III Wrymouth||Władysław and Sieciech's defeat|
|1099||Władysław I Herman'a raid on Halych||Kingdom of Poland||Principality of Halych||Indecisive|
|1100||Pomeranians raid on Poland||Kingdom of Poland||Western Pomerania||Polish victory|
|1101||Cuman raid on Poland||Kingdom of Poland||Kievan Rus'||Polish defeat|
||Fourteen Bolesław Wrymouth's raids on Pomerania||Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Denmark||Pomeranians||Polish victory|
|1103–1108||Internal conflicts||Bolesław III Wrymouth Kingdom of Hungary Kievan Rus'||Zbigniew of Poland Duchy of Bohemia||Bolesław III Wrymouth's victory|
|1108||Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians||Kingdom of Poland||Old Prussians||Polish victory|
|1108–1109||Three Polish raids on Moldava||Kingdom of Poland||Moldava||Polish victory|
|1108||Moravians raid on Silesia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1108||Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Bohemia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1109||Polish-German War||Kingdom of Poland||Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
||Three Bolesław III Wrymouth's raids on Bohemia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish victory|
|1110||Zbigniew's and Bohemians raid on Silesia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish defeat|
|1110–1111||Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians||Kingdom of Poland||Old Prussians||Polish victory|
|1117||Skarbimir's rebellion||Kingdom of Poland||Skarbimir||Polish victory|
||Fights in Rus'||Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Duchy of Bohemia Kingdom of Hungary||Principality of Halych||Polish victory|
|1120||Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland||Kingdom of Poland||Kievan Rus'||Polish defeat|
|1120||Polish raid into Pomerania||Kingdom of Poland||Western Pomerania||Control over Pomerania is reasserted|
|1126||Hungarian raid on Poland||Kingdom of Poland||Kingdom of Hungary||Polish defeat|
|1127||Polish raid on Hungary||Kingdom of Poland||Kingdom of Hungary||Polish victory|
|1131–1134||Six Bohemian raids on Silesia||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Bohemia||Polish defeat|
|1132||Bolesław III Wrymouth' raid on Hungary||Kingdom of Poland||Kingdom of Hungary||Polish defeat|
|1135||Fights in Rus'||Kingdom of Poland||Principality of Halych||Polish victory|
||Battles during feudal fragmentation
||Local dukes||Local dukes||The weakening and internal breakdown of the country|
|1139–1142||Fights between Duchy of Masovia and Rus'||Bolesław IV the Curly||Kievan Rus'||Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat|
|1144–1146||Two Polish-Ruthenian raids on Halych||Władysław II the Exile Kievan Rus'||Principality of Halych||Ruthenian and Polish victory|
|1146||Polish-German War||Mieszko III the Old||Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Bohemia||Mieszko III the Old's victory|
|1147||Albert the Bear and Mieszko III the Old's crusade for Polabian Slavs||Mieszko III the OldNorthern March||Polabian SlavsVeleti||The victory crusade|
|1147||Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians||Bolesław IV the Curly Kievan Rus'||Old Prussians||Bolesław IV the Curly's victory|
|1154–1155||Henry of Sandomir's crusade to Palestine||Polish knights||Saracen||Henry of Sandomir's victory|
|1157||Polish-German War||Bolesław IV the Curly||Holy Roman Empire||Peace of Krzyszkowo|
|1166||Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians||Bolesław IV the Curly||Old Prussians||Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat|
|1180||Duke Wasylek's fight for Brześć||Principality of Drohiczyn Casimir II the Just||Kievan Rus'||Rus victory|
||Dispute over Brest||Casimir II the Just Kievan Rus'||Peasant Revolt||Rus'ian - Polish victory|
|1184||Frederick I Barbarossa's raid on Poland||Casimir II the Just||Holy Roman Empire||Indecisive|
|1187||Prince Roman's intervention in Halych||Casimir II the Just Prince Roman of Brest||Vladimir II Yaroslavich||Prince Roman's victory|
|1189||Hungarian invasion of Halych||Casimir II the Just Prince Roman of Brest||Kingdom of Hungary Vladimir II Yaroslavich||Hungarian victory|
|1189 - 1191||Vladimirko's invasion of lesser Poland||Casimir II the Just||Vladimir II Yaroslavich||Halych victory|
|1194||Casimir II the Just's raid on Yotvingians||Casimir II the Just||Yotvingians||Casimir II the Just's victory|
|1199||Leszek I the White's intervention in the reconquest of Halych||Prince Roman of Vladimir-in-Volhynia Leszek I the White||Principality of Halych||Rus'ian-Polish victory|
|1205||Roman the Great's raid on Poland||Leszek I the White||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Leszek I the White's victory|
|1207||Leszek I the White's raid on Rus'||Leszek I the White Konrad I of Masovia||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Leszek I the White's defeat|
||First War For Lebus||Henry I the Bearded Władysław III Spindleshanks||Sorbian March||Henry I the Bearded and Władysław III Spindleshanks's victory|
|1212||Polish raid into Pomerania||Kingdom of Poland||Denmark||Polish victory
|1215||Hungarian raid on Poland||Casimir II the Just||Kingdom of Hungary||Casimir II the Just's defeat|
|1219||Polish expedition against Vladimir-in-Volhynia||Leszek I the White||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Leszek I the White's defeat|
|1221||Polish-Hungarian-Ruthenian War||Leszek I the White Kingdom of Hungary||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Leszek I the White's defeat|
||Three Old Prussians raids on Lesser Poland||Konrad I of Masovia||Old Prussians||Konrad I of Masovia's defeat|
|1222–1223||Two Polish raids on Old Prussians||Local dukes||Old Prussians||Polish Victory|
|1225||Prussian raid on Lesser Poland||Konrad I of Masovia||Old Prussians||Konrad I of Masovia's defeat|
|1225–1230||Second War For Lebus||Henry I the Bearded||Landgraviate of Thuringia||Henry I the Bearded's victory|
|1234||Polish-Teutonic crusade on Old Prussians||Local dukes Teutonic Knights||Old Prussians||Polish-Teutonic victory|
||Wars between Konrad I of Masovia and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Konrad I of Masovia||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Konrad I of Masovia's defeat|
||Third War For Lebus||Henry I the Bearded||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Henry I the Bearded's victory|
|1241||First Mongol invasion of Poland||Local dukes Military orders||Mongol Empire||Polish defeat|
|1247–1252||Przemysł I's fight against Brandenburg||Przemysł I||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Przemysł I's victory|
|1248–1455||Three raids on Yotvingians||Bolesław V the Chaste Siemowit I of Masovia Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Yotvingians||Bolesław V the Chaste's victory|
|1259||Second Mongol invasion of Poland||Bolesław V the Chaste||Mongol Empire||Polish defeat|
|1260||Bohemian-Hungarian War||Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Silesia Duchy of Austria||Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Poland||Bohemian victory|
|1262||Lithuanian raid on Lesser Poland||Siemowit I of Masovia||Grand Duchy of Lithuania||Siemowit I of Masovia's defeat|
|1264||Fights against Yotvingians||Bolesław V the Chaste||Yotvingians||Bolesław V the Chaste's victory|
||Fights against Brandenburg||Bolesław V the Chaste Przemysł II||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Bolesław V the Chaste's victory|
|1278||Fights for Bohemian throne||Ottokar II of Bohemia Bolesław V the Chaste Przemysł II Henryk IV Probus||Rudolph I of Germany||Przemysł II's defeat|
|1280||War between Leszek II the Black and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Leszek II the Black||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Leszek II the Black's victory|
||Three Lithuanian-Yotvingian raids on Poland||Leszek II the Black||Yotvingians Grand Duchy of Lithuania||Leszek II the Black's victory|
||Third Mongol invasion of Poland||Leszek II the Black||Mongol Empire||Polish victory
||Six Vytenis's raids on Lesser Poland||Local dukes||Grand Duchy of Lithuania||Polish defeat|
|1296||Brandenburgian raid on Rogoźno||Przemysł II||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Przemysł II's defeat|
|1308||Brandenburgian raid on Gdańsk||Władysław I the Elbow-high||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat|
|1308||Capture of Gdańsk by the Teutonic Knights||Władysław I the Elbow-high||Teutonic Knights||Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat|
|1309||Capture of Świecie by the Teutonic Knights||Władysław I the Elbow-high||Teutonic Knights||Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat|
|1311–1312||Rebellion of mayor Albert||Władysław I the Elbow-high||AlbertBurghers of Kraków||Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory|
|1316||Polish-Brandenburgian fights in Greater Poland||Władysław I the Elbow-high||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory|
|1323||Polish-Hungarian raid on Ruthenia||Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia||Polish-Hungarian victory|
|1323||Władysław I the Elbow-high raid on Płock||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Płock||Polish victory|
|1326–1329||Polish-Brandenburgian fights||Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Polish victory|
||Polish–Teutonic War||Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Hungary||Teutonic Knights Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Masovia||Indecisive|
|1332||Casimir III the Great's raid on Głogów||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Głogów||Polish victory|
||Galicia–Volhynia Wars||Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Masovia Kingdom of Hungary||Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Grand Duchy of Lithuania Crimean Khanate||Polish victory|
|1343||Fights for Wschowa||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Głogów||Polish victory|
||Polish-Czech War||Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Hungary||Kingdom of Bohemia||Treaty of Namslau|
|1352–1358||Maćko Borkowic's confederation||Kingdom of Poland||Maćko BorkowicNobles of Greater Poland Margraviate of Brandenburg||Polish victory|
|1355||Teutonic raid on Masovia||Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Masovia||Teutonic Knights||Polish defeat|
|1359||Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia||Kingdom of Poland||Principality of Moldavia||Polish defeat|
|1368||Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia||Kingdom of Poland||Principality of Moldavia||Polish defeat|
|1370||Branderburgian raid on Santok and Drezdenko||Kingdom of Poland||Margraviate of Brandenburg||Polish defeat|
|1370||Fights for Płock||Kingdom of Poland||Duchy of Masovia||Polish defeat|
||Władysław the White's rebellion||Kingdom of Poland||Władysław the White's forces
Duchy of Gniewkowo
Ulrich von Osten's forces (1374–1375)
Burgundian military units of Philip the Bold (from 1374)
|1376||Lithuanian raid on Poland||Kingdom of Poland|| Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Duchy of Belz
|Polish territory raided and approximately 23 000 people took into captivity|
|1382–1385||Greater Poland Civil War||Grzymała||Nałęcz||Victory of the Nałęcz clan|
|1381–1385||Siemowit IV's fight for Polish throne||Kingdom of Poland Kingdom of Hungary||Duchy of Masovia||Polish victory|
For much of its early history as a Christian state, Poland had to contend with Pomeranians, Prussians, Lithuanians and other Baltic peoples in continuous border wars without clear results or end in sight. After the Teutonic Order conquered and assimilated the Prussians, it began incursions into both Polish and Lithuanian territories. This represented a far greater threat to both Poland and Lithuania, and the two countries united in a defensive alliance by the crowning of the Lithuanian Duke Jogaila as King of Poland (as Władysław II) which led to a major confrontation at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 and subsequent wars until 1525, when the Order became a vassal to the Polish Crown.
The 17th century saw fierce rivalry between the then major Eastern European powers – Sweden, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. At its heyday, the Commonwealth comprised the territories of present-day Poland, and large parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Russia, and represented a major European power. However, by the end of the 18th century a series of internal conflicts and wars with foreign enemies led to the dissolution of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the partitioning of most of its dependent territories among other European powers.
During the 18th century, European powers (most frequently consisting of Russia, Sweden, Prussia and Saxony) fought several wars for the control of the territories of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the end of the 18th century, some Poles attempted to defend Poland from growing foreign influence in the country's internal affairs. These late attempts to preserve independence eventually failed, ultimately ending in Poland's partition and the final dissolution of the remains of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
19th century and World War I
Poles unsuccessfully struggled to win back their independence throughout the 19th century. At first, they put their hopes in Napoleon. Later, they tried to ignite national uprisings every now and then – most of them bloodily repressed.
In the turmoil of the First World War, Poles managed to regain independence and then to expand their territory in a series of local wars and uprisings; only to be occupied again during the next world war. The second half of the 20th century was more peaceful, but still tense, as Poland was involved in the Cold War on the Soviet side. Later, at the beginning of the 21st century Poland is involved in the War against terrorism on the NATO side.
- History of the Polish Army
- List of wars – Overview of and topical guide to war
- Military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – Overview of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's military
- Polish Armed Forces – Combined military forces of Poland
- Polish–Ottoman Wars
- Polish–Russian Wars
- Polish–Swedish wars – History of military conflicts between the nations
- Polish–Teutonic War
- Warfare in Medieval Poland
- ^ Duchy of Warsaw as a state was in effect fully occupied by Russian and Prussian forces by May 1813, though most Poles remained loyal to Napoleon
- ^ also called Polish–Russian War of 1830–31
- ^ Russian and Polish historians tend to assign victory to their respective countries. Outside assessments vary, mostly between calling the result a Polish victory or inconclusive. Lenin, in his secret report to the 9th Conference of the Bolshevik Party on 20 September 1920, called the outcome of the war, "In a word, a gigantic, unheard-of defeat."
- ^ Lithuanian historiography: Spring 1919 – November 29, 1920 Polish historiography: September 1 – October 7, 1920
- ^ Reuter 1995, p. 262, 549.
- ^ a b c Reuter 1995, p. 262.
- ^ Nicolle, p. 8
- ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 203–214.
- ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 283–291.
- ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 291–292.
- ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 299–301.
- ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 301–311.
- ^ Re-entered the war as an ally of France after signing the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso.
- ^ a b The French Revolutionary Army overthrew the Dutch Republic and established the Batavian Republic as a puppet state in its place.
- ^ Formed in French-allied Italy in 1797, following the abolition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Third Partition in 1795.
- ^ a b Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel with France.
- ^ Left the war after signing the Treaty of Paris with France.
- ^ Virtually all of the Italian states, including the neutral Papal States and the Republic of Venice, were conquered following Napoleon's invasion in 1796 and became French satellite states.
- ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 435–451.
- ^ Officially neutral but Danish fleet was attacked by Britain at the Battle of Copenhagen.
- ^ Abolished following the restoration of the neutral Papal States in 1799.
- ^ Short lived state that replaced the Kingdom of Naples in 1799.
- ^ Nominally the Holy Roman Empire, of which the Austrian Netherlands and the Duchy of Milan were under direct Austrian rule. Also encompassed many other Italian states, as well as other Habsburg states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
- ^ a b Joined the Confederation of the Rhine on 11 December 1806.
- ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 469–490.
- ^ Kubijovic, V. (1963). Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
- Gąsowski, Tomasz (1999). Bitwy polskie: leksykon. Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak. ISBN 83-7006-787-5.
- Kozłowski, Eligiusz; Wrzosek, Mieczysław (1984). Historia oręża polskiego 1795–1939. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. ISBN 83-214-0339-5.
- Lawson, M. K. (2004). Cnut – England's Viking King (2nd ed.). Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2964-7.
- Nowak, Tadeusz M.; Wimmer, Jan (1981). Historia oręża polskiego 963–1795. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. ISBN 83-214-0133-3.
- Reuter, Timothy (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 3, c.900–c.1024. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 891. ISBN 9780521364478. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
- Sikorski, Janusz (1972). Zarys historii wojskowości powszechnej do końca wieku XIX. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej. OCLC 20835374.
- Winged Hussars, Radoslaw Sikora, Bartosz Musialowicz, BUM Magazine, 2016.