List of states during the Middle Ages

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Post-classical history (also called the Post-classical Era is the period of time that immediately followed the end of ancient history. Depending on the continent, the era generally falls between the years AD 200-600 and AD 1200–1500. The name of this era of history derives from classical antiquity (or the Greco-Roman era) of Europe. Though, the everyday context in use is reverse (such as historians reference to Medieval China). In European history, "post-classical" is synonymous with the medieval time or Middle Ages, the period of history from around the 5th century to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: Antiquity, Medieval period, and Modern period. The Medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, the High, and the Late Middle Ages.

Development of states[edit]

The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers, marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia c. 3700 BC, in Egypt c. 3300 BC, in the Indus Valley c. 2500 BC, India c. 1700 BC,and in China c. 1600 BC. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. Professor Gil Stein at the University of Chicago Oriental Institute states "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] This list's the main types state that existed in Africa, Americas, Central Asia, East Asia, Europe, Eurasian Steppe, South Asia, and West Asia, from the end of Late Antiquity to the end of the Middle Ages a period of 800 years.

Africa[edit]

Map of the world during the early Middle Ages 700 AD
Name Capital State type Existed
Abbasid Caliphate Baghdad Empire (religious) 750 - 1256 AD
Adal Zeila, Dakkar, Harrar Sultanate 1415 - 1559 AD
Aghlabids Kairouan Emirate 800 - 909 AD
Ajuran Empire Mareeg, Qelafo, Mecca Empire 13th - 17th centuries AD
Aksumite Empire Aksum Empire 100 - 960 AD
Alodia Soba Empire 680 - 1504 AD
Angoche Angoche, Moma Kingdom 1485 - 1910 AD
Ayyubid Cairo Confederated principalities/empire 1171 - 1341 AD
Benin Empire Benin City Empire 1440 - 1897 AD
Bornu Empire Ngazargamu Empire 1380 - 1893 AD
Blemmyes Tribal Kingdom 600 BC - 8th century AD
Ethiopian Empire Addis Ababa Empire 1137 - 1975 AD
Fatimid Caliphate Mahdia, Al-Mansuriya, Cairo Empire 909 - 1171 AD
Ghana Empire Koumbi Saleh Empire 400 - 1235 AD
Idrisids Fez Empire (religious) 788 - 985 AD
Kanem Empire Njimi Empire 700 - 1387 AD
Kongo São Salvador Kingdom/client 1390 - 1914 AD
Makuria Dongola Kingdom 340-1312 AD
Mapungubwe Not specified Kingdom 1075 - 1220 AD
Medri Bahri Debarwa Kingdom 1137 - 1890 AD
Mutapa Zvongombe Kingdom 1430 - 1760 AD
Mamluk Cairo Sultanate 1250 - 1517 AD
Nobatia Pachoras Kingdom 350-650 AD
Nri Igbo-Ukwu Kingdom 948 - 1911 AD
Oyo Empire Oyo-Ile Kingdom 1400 - 1905 AD
Shilluk Fashoda Kingdom 1490 - 1865 AD
Songhai Empire Gao Empire 1464 - 1591 AD
Umayyad Caliphate Damascus, Harran Empire (religious) 661 - 750 AD

Americas[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Aztec Empire Tenochtitlan Empire 1428 - 1521 AD
Cañari Tumebamba Tribal Confederacy 500 - 1533 AD
Maya Various Kingdom City States 2000 BC - 900AD
Moche Moche-Trujillo. United Independent Polities 100 - 800 AD
Nazca Various Tribal chiefdom's 100 BC - 800 AD
Pueblo Various Tribal chiefdom's 12th century BC - 14th century AD
Teotihuacan Empire Teotihuacan Empire 100 BC - 8th century AD
Tiwanakun Empire Tiwanaku Empire 300 - 1000 AD
Wari Empire Huari Empire 500 - 1100 AD
Zapotec Kingdom City States 700 BC - 1521 AD

Europe[edit]

North and West[edit]

Map of the world 11th century AD
Ruthenia Capital Vassal Existed
Ailech Grianán Ailigh Kingdom 450 - 1617 AD
Airgíalla Clogher Tribal Federation/kingdom 331 - 1590 AD
Alba (Scotland) Clogher Kingdom 900 - 1286 AD
Angevin Empire No official Empire 1154 - 1242 AD
Austrasia Metz Kingdom 511 - 751 AD
Avar Khaganate Khaganate 567 - 804 AD
Bavaria Dukedom 508 - 788 AD[2]
Béarn Various Viscounty 9th century - 1620 AD
Bouillon Bouillon Dukedom 1456 - 1794 AD
Brabant Brussels Duchy 1183 - 1430 AD
Breifne Croghan Kingdom 700 - 1256 AD
Brittany Various Dukedom 939 - 1547 AD
Brycheiniog Kingdom 450 - 1045 AD
Burgundy Dijon Dukedom 1032 - 1477 AD
Cait Tribal kingdom 25 - 871 AD
Carantania Karnburg Principality 658 - 828 AD
Carolingian Empire Aachen Empire 800 - 888 AD
Ce Tribal kingdom 1st century - 900 AD
Dal Riada Dunadd Kingdom 501 - 878 AD
Denmark Various Kingdom c. 900 AD - state exists today
Desmond Killarney Kingdom 1118 - 1596 AD
Dumnonia Isca Dumnoniorum Principality 360 - 710 AD
Dyfed Kingdom 410 - 910 AD
Dithmarschen Heide Republic c. 1320 - 1559
England Winchester, London Kingdom 927 - 1707 AD
East Angles Rendlesham, Dommoc Kingdom 6th century - 918 AD
France Paris, Versailles Kingdom 843 - 1792 AD
Frisia Dorestad, Utrecht Tribal kingdom 600 - 734 AD
Frisia (Upstalsboom Confederacy) Confederacy c. 1200 - c. 1500 AD
Flanders Various Countship 862 - 1795 AD
Fortriu Tribal kingdom 1 - 850 AD
Frankish Empire Tournai, Paris Kingdom/Empire 481 - 843 AD
Galicia–Volhynia Various Principality/kingdom/client 1199-1349 AD
Galloway Kingdom c. 1000 - 1234 AD
Gododdin Kingdom 5th - 8th centuries AD
Golden Horde Sarai Batu Khanate 1240 - 1502 AD
Gwent Caerwent, Porth-is-Coed Kingdom 420 - 1081 AD
Glywysing Cardiff Kingdom 490 - 1063 AD
Guelders Geldern Countship/dukedom 1096 - 1795 AD
Gwynedd Various Kingdom 420 - 1216 AD
Haestingas Hastings Tribal kingdom 6th century - 771 AD
Holland The Hague Countship 11th century - 1795 AD
Holy Roman Empire No official Empire 962 - 1806 AD
Icelandic Þingvellir Commonwealth (federation) 930 - 1262 AD
Ireland Dublin Lordship 1171 - 1542 AD
Kalmar Copenhagen (from 1443) Union 1397 - 1523 AD
Kent Durovernum Kingdom 488 - 871 AD
Kiev Kiev Principality 1132 - 1471 AD
Leinster Kingdom 436 - 1632 AD
Lindsey Lindum Kingdom/Client 410 - 775 AD
Lorraine Nancy Dukedom 959 - 1766 AD
Lotharingia Kingdom 855 - 959 AD
Magna Frisia Dorestad, Utrecht Kingdom 600 - 734 AD
Mann and Isles Kingdom 848 - 1266 AD
Merania Dukedom/client 1153 - 1248 AD
Mongol Empire Avarga, Karakorum, Dadu Empire 1206 - 1368 AD
Meath Dublin Kingdom 1st century - 1173 AD
Mercia Tamworth Kingdom 527 - 918 AD
Moray Kingdom c. 970 - 1130 AD
Moscow Moscow Grand Duchy / client 1283 - 1547 AD
Normandy Rouen Duchy 911 - 1259 AD
Northumbria Bamburgh Kingdom 653 - 954 AD
Norway Various Kingdom 872 AD - state exists today
Novgorod Novgorod Republic 1136 - 1478 AD
Old Saxony Dukedom 758 - 804 AD
Orange Orange, Vaucluse Principality 1163 - 1717 AD
Ossory Kilkenny Kingdom 150 - 1185 AD
Pictland Kingdom 250 BC - 850 AD [3]
Pomerania Various Duchy 1121 - 1637 AD
Poher Vorgium Principality 520 - 936 AD
Powys Various Kingdom 488 - 1160 AD
Raetia Curiensis Chur Bishopric (religious) 452 - 1176 AD
Saxons Tribal confederation 5th century BC - 754 AD
Scotland Stirling, Edinburgh Kingdom 843 - 1707 AD
Strathclyde Dumbarton, Govan Kingdom 450 - 1093 AD
Sussex Selsey Kingdom 477 - 825 AD
Sweden Various Kingdom c.970 - state exists today
Swiss Confederacy Various Confederaacy c. 1300 - 1798
Terra Mariana Various Confederated bishopric principalities (religious) 1207 - 1561 AD
Thomond Ennis Kingdom 1118 - 1543 AD
Thuringia Duchy 450 - 1247 AD
Tver Tver Principality 1246 - 1485 AD
Tyrconnell Dun na nGall Kingdom 464 - 1607 AD
Ulster Kingdom 465 - 1177 AD
Uí Failghe Rathangan, Daingean Kingdom 507 - 1550 AD
Visigothic Various Kingdom 418 - 720 AD
Vladimir-Suzdal Vladimir Grand Dukedom/client 1157 - 1231 AD
Wales Aber Garth Celyn Principality 1216 - 1542 AD
Wessex Winchester Kingdom 519 - 1018 AD

South and East[edit]

Name Capital/s State type Existed
Achaea Andravida, Mystras Principality 1205 - 1432 AD
Aragon Not specified Kingdom 1162 - 1716 AD
Arbanon Kruja Principality 1190 - 1255 AD
Archipelago Naxos Duchy 1207 - 1579 AD
Argos & Nauplia Nauplia Lordship/client 1212 - 1388 AD
Asturias Various Kingdom 718 - 924 AD
Athens Athens Duchy 1205 - 1458 AD
Avar Khaganate Not specified Khaganate 567 - 804 AD
Benevento Benevento Dukedom/Principality/Client 571 - 1074 AD
Bodonitsa Benevento Marquisate/client 1204 - 1414 AD
Byzantine Empire Constantinople Empire 330 - 1453 AD
First Bulgarian Empire Various Empire 681 - 1018 AD
Second Bulgarian Empire Various Empire 1185 - 1396 AD
Carolingian Empire Aachen Empire 800 - 888 AD
Castile Various Kingdom 1230 - 1516 AD
Ceva Ceva Marquisate 1125 - 1427 AD
Córdoba Córdoba Principality 756 - 929 AD
Cordoba Córdoba Kingdom 929 - 1031 AD
Crete Chandax Principality 824 - 961 AD
Crimean Khanate Stary Krym, Bakhchisaray Khanate 1449 - 1783 AD
Croatian duchy Various Principality c. 800 - 925 AD
Croatia Various Kingdom 925 - 1102 AD
Cumania Not specified Nomadic confederation 900 - 1220 AD
Florence Florence Republic 1115 - 1532 AD
Frankish Empire Tournai, Paris Kingdom/Empire 431 - 768 AD
Galicia Santiago de Compostela Kingdom 409 - 1833 AD
Genoa Genoa Republic 1005 - 1797 AD
Golden Horde Sarai Batu Nomadic kingdom 1240 - 1502 AD
Hispanica Girona? Marquisate 795 - 801 AD
Holy Roman Empire No official Empire 962 - 1806 AD
Hungary Esztergom, Székesfehérvár Principality 895 - 1000 AD
Hungary Various Kingdom 1000-1918/ 1920-1946 AD
Kievan Rus' Kiev Federated principalities 882 - 1283 AD
Khazar Khaganate Various Nomadic Kingdom 618 - 1048 AD
Kutrigurs Nomadic confederation/client 453 - 8th century AD
Latin Empire Constantinople Empire 1204 - 1261 AD
León Leon Kingdom 910 – 1230 AD
Lithuania Vilnius Grand Dukemond 1236 - 1569 AD
Lombard Pavia Kingdom 568 – 774 AD
Lower Pannonia Various Principality/client 839 – 875 AD
Lucca Lucca Republic 1160 – 1805 AD
Magyar Not specified Tribal Confederation/Principality 1100 BC - 895 AD
Majorca Palma, Perpignan Kingdom 1231 - 1715 AD
Mongol Empire Avarga, Karakorum, Dadu Empire 1206 - 1368 AD
Navarre Pamplona Kingdom 824 - 1620 AD
Narentines Tribal chiefdom/countship/dukedom 6th - 10th centuries AD
Papal Rome Pontifical states 754 - 1870 AD
Philippopolis Philippopolis Duchy 1204 - 1205 AD
Portugal Various Kingdom 1139 - 1910 AD
Ragusa Ragusa Republic 1358 - 1807 AD
San Marino San Marino Republic 301 AD - state exists today
Sardinia Cagliari, Turin Kingdom 1324 - 1861 AD
Savoy Not specified Dukedom 1416 - 1714
Serbia Ras Principality 768 - 969
Serbian Ras Grand Principality 1101 - 1217
Serbian Empire Skopje, Prizren Empire 1346 - 1371
Serbian Despotate Principality 1402–1540
Serbian Sklavinia Not specified Tribal kingdom 520-768 AD
Sicily Various Kingdom 1130 - 1816 AD
Spain Toledo, Madrid Kingdom 1479 AD - state exists today
Taifa Various Confederation of kingdoms/principalities 1011 - 1571 AD
Travunia Trebinje Principality/client 850 - 1482 AD
Thessalonica Thessalonica Kingdom 1204 - 1224 AD
Tridentum Benevento Dukedom/Principality (religious) 574 - 1802 AD
Valencia Valencia Kingdom 1238 - 1707 AD
Venice Venice Republic 697 - 1797 AD
Visigothic Various Kingdom 418 - 720 AD

Eurasian Steppe and Central Asia[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Afrighid Kath Kingdom/client 305 - 995 AD
Avar Khaganate Khaganate 567 - 804 AD
Balhae Empire Dongmo Empire 698 - 926 AD
Barsil Tribal union 600 - 700 AD
First Bulgarian Empire Various Empire 681 - 1018 AD
Cumania Not specified Nomadic confederation 900 - 1220 AD
Georgia Kutaisi, Tbilisi Kingdom 1008 - 1491 AD
Göktürk Khaganate Ordu Baliq Nomadic confederation 552 - 747 AD
Golden Horde Sarai Batu Khanate 1240 - 1502 AD
Ghurid Various Sultanate 879 - 1215 AD
Iberia Tbilisi Principality 580 - 891 AD
Ilkhanate Various Nomadic Kingdom 1256 - 1335 AD
Khamag Mongol Tribal confederation/khanate 1120 - 1206 AD
Kara-Khanid Khanate Various Nomadic confederation 840 - 1212 AD
Kashgar Kashgar Kingdom/Client 80 - 850 AD
Kievan Rus' Kiev Federated principalities 882 - 1283 AD
Khazar Khaganate Various Nomadic kingdom 618 - 1048 AD
Khitan Shangjing Kingdom/client 388 -1211 AD
Lazica Phasis Kingdom/client 1st century BC - 7th century AD
Magyar Tribal Confederation/principality 1100 BC - 895 AD
Mongol Empire Various Empire 1206 - 1368 AD
Rus' Khaganate Not specified Tribal kingdom 830 - 899 AD
Sarir Humraj Kingdom/client 453 - 1000 AD
Song Empire Bianjing, Lin'an Empire 960 - 1279 AD
Tang Empire Chang'an, Luoyang Empire 618 - 907 AD
Tatar Not specified Confederation 8th century - 1202 AD
Tibetan Empire Lhasa, Pho brang Empire 618 - 841 AD
Turgesh Khaganate Balasagun Nomadic Empire 699 -766 AD
Umayyad Caliphate Dammascus, Harran Empire (religious) 661 - 750 AD
Volga Bulgaria Bolghar, Bilär Kingdom 660 - 1236 AD
Yuan Empire Khanbaliq Nomadic empire 1271 – 1368 AD

East Asia[edit]

Map of the world 13th century AD
Name Capital State type Existed
Balhae Empire Dongmo Empire 698 - 926 AD
Bruneian Empire Various Empire 7th - 19th centuries AD
Butuan Butuan Kingdom 1001 - 1521 AD
Champa Indrapura, Vijaya, Panduranga Kingdom 192 – 1832 AD
Chenla Bhavapura, Isanapura Kingdom 550–706 AD
Chūzan Urasoe Kingdom 1314–1429 AD
Dharmasraya Dharmasraya, Muaro Jambi Kingdom 1183–1347 AD
Göktürk Khaganate Ordu Baliq Nomadic Confederacy 552 - 747 AD
Hokuzan Nakijin Kingdom 1322 - 1466 AD
Great Jin Various Empire 1115 - 1254 AD
Japan Various Principalities/Empire 660 BC - present day
Kara-Khanid Khanate Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand Nomadic confederation 840 - 1212 AD
Khitan Shangjing Kingdom/Client 388 -1211 AD
Khotan Khotan Kingdom 56 - 1006 AD
Langkasuka Kedah, Pattani Kingdom 100 - 1516 AD
Lavo Lavo, Ayodhaya Kingdom 450 – 1388 AD
Madya-as Not specified Confederation 1200 - 1569 AD
Melayu Jambi Kingdom 4th - 13th centuries AD
Mongol Empire Avarga, Karakorum, Dadu Empire 1206 - 1368 AD
Nanzan Nanzan Kingdom 13th century - 1429 AD
Pyu Sri Ksetra Federated City States 250 BC - 1085 AD
Ryukyu Shuri Kingdom 1429 BC - 1879 AD
Silla Gyeongju Kingdom 55 BC - 935 AD
Song Empire Bianjing, Lin'an Empire 960 - 1279 AD
Sulu Various Sultanate/client 1405 - 1915 AD
Sunda Pakuan Pajajaran, Kawali Kingdom 669 - 1579 AD
Tang Empire Chang'an, Luoyang Empire 618 - 907 AD
Tibetan Empire Lhasa, Pho brang Empire 618 - 841 AD
Thaton Thaton Kingdom 300 BC - 1085 AD
Usan Kingdom 512 – 930 AD
Yuan Empire Khanbaliq Nomadic Empire 1271 – 1368 AD

South Asia[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Anuradhapura Anuradhapura Kingdom 377 BC - 1017 AD
Ay Aykudi Kingdom 4th century BC - 12th century AD
Bahmani Gulbarga, Bidar Kingdom 1347 - 1527 AD
Bumthang Chakhar Gutho Kingdom 7th - 17th centuries AD
Cochin Various Kingdom 12th century - 1947 AD
Eastern Chalukya Vengi, Rajamundry Kingdom 624 - 1129 AD
Garhwal Various Kingdom 888 - 1949 AD
Ghurid Various Sultanate 879 - 1215 AD
Gurjara Pratihara Empire Kannauj Empire 650 - 1036 AD
Ilkhanate Maragha, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh Nomadic kingdom 1256 - 1335 AD
Jaisalmer Jaisalmer Principality 1156 - 1947 AD
Kamarupa Pragjyotishpur, Haruppeswara, Durjaya Kingdom 350 - 1140 AD
Kabul Shahi Kabul, Waihind Kingdom/Empire 6th century - 1026 AD
Maitraka Empire Vallabhi Empire 475 - 767 AD
Maukhari Empire Kannauj Empire 550 - 700 AD
Mongol Empire Avarga, Karakorum, Dadu Empire 1206 - 1368 AD
Mysore Mysore, Srirangapatna Kingdom 1399 - 1947 AD
Pallava Empire Kanchi Empire 250 BC - 800 AD
Rajarata Anuradhapura, Sigiriya, Polonnaruwa Kingdom 377 BC -1310 AD
Sirmoor Sirmür Principality 1095 - 1948 AD
Tibetan Empire Lhasa, Pho brang Empire 618 - 841 AD
Umayyad Caliphate Dammascus, Harran Empire (religious) 661 - 750 AD
Western Ganga Kolar, Talakad Kingdom 350 - 1000 AD
Yuan Empire Khanbaliq Nomadic Empire 1271 – 1368 AD

West Asia[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Antioch Antioch Principality/client 1098 - 1268 AD
Armenian Cilicia Tarsus, Sis Kingdom 1198 - 1375 AD
Arminiya Dvin Principality/client 653 - 884 AD
Ayyubid Cairo Confederated principalities/empire 1171 - 1341 AD
Byzantine Empire Constantinople Empire 330 - 1453 AD
Cumania Not specified Nomadic confederation 900 - 1220 AD
Cyprus Nicosia Kingdom 1192 - 1489 AD
Edessa Edessa, Turbessel Countship 1098- 1150 AD
Fatimid Caliphate Mahdia, Al-Mansuriya, Cairo Empire 909 - 1171 AD
Galilee Tiberias Principality/client 1099 - 1187 AD
Ghassanid Balka, Harith, Petra, Sideir Kingdom 220 - 712 AD
Ghurid Various Sultanate 879 - 1215 AD
Ilkhanate Maragha, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh Nomadic kingdom 1256 - 1335 AD
Jaffa and Ascalon Jaffa Countship/client 1100 - 1268 AD
Jerusalem Jerusalem Kingdom 1099 - 1291 AD
Khazar Khaganate Atil, Balanjar,Semender Nomadic kingdom 618 - 1048 AD
Mongol Empire Avarga, Karakorum, Dadu Empire 1206 - 1368 AD
Nizari Ismaili Alamut Castle Not specified (religious) 1090 - 1256 AD
Oultrejordain Lordship/client 1118 - 1199 AD
Rüm Nicaea, Iconium Sultanate 1077 - 1307 AD
Sidon Sidon Lordship/client 1110 - 1260 AD
Trebizond Empire Trebizond Empire/client 1204 - 1461 AD
Tripoli Tripoli Countship/client 1102 - 1289 AD
Umayyad Caliphate Dammascus, Harran Empire (religious) 661 - 750 AD
Uyunid Al Hasa, Awal, Qatif Emirate 1076 - 1253 AD
Zengid Aleppo Emirate 1127 - 1250 AD

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379. 
  2. ^ "Early Germanic tribes". 2013. Regnal Chronologies. Retrieved 17 May 2014. 
  3. ^ Salway, Peter. "Gaelic Kingdoms: Kingdoms of Caledonia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 

External links[edit]