List of Presidents of Peru

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President of
the Republic of Peru
Presidential Standard of Peru.svg
Presidential standard
Ollanta Humala 2014.jpg
Incumbent
Ollanta Humala

since July 28, 2011
Residence Government Palace
Appointer Direct popular election
Term length Five years, not eligible for reelection immediately
Inaugural holder José de San Martín
Formation July 28, 1821
Website www.presidencia.gob.pe
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution

Established in the Constitution of 1993, the President of Peru, officially the President of the Republic of Peru (Presidente de la República del Perú), is the head of state and head of government of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. The presidential term is five years, with no immediate reelection. A former president can run again after being out of office for a full term.[1] Ollanta Humala was elected as president in 2011.

The change of government takes place on July 28, which is the date of independence from Spain and thus a national holiday.

History[edit]

During its more than 180 years of independence, Peru has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically-elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, coups and violence. More than once, several individuals claimed the right to be president at the same time.

Different titles have been used, such as "Protector of Peru" (used by José de San Martin), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).

Presidents of the Republic[edit]

The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as president of Peru.

Picture President
(Birth–Death)
Dates in office Form of entry Title
José de San Martín (retrato, c.1828).jpg José de San Martín
(1778–1850)
July 28, 1821 – September 20, 1822 Indirect elections Protector of Peru
LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro September 20, 1822 – September 22, 1822 Indirect elections Interim caretaker
LaMar1.jpg José La Mar
(1778–1830)
September 22, 1822 – February 27, 1823 Elected by Congress President of the Government Junta
José Bernardo de Tagle.png José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-Tagle
(1779–1825)
February 27, 1823 – February 28, 1823 Indirect elections Interim caretaker
JRivaAguero01.jpg José de la Riva Agüero
(1783–1858)
February 28, 1823 – June 23, 1823 Elected by Congress
Gran marical de ayacucho.jpg Antonio José de Sucre
(1795–1830)
June 23, 1823 – July 17, 1823 Elected by Congress
José Bernardo de Tagle.png José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-Tagle
(1779–1825)
July 17, 1823 – February 17, 1824 Elected by Congress Supreme Delegate
Bolivar Arturo Michelena.jpg Simón Bolívar
(1783–1830)
February 17, 1824 – January 28, 1827 Elected by Congress
Andréssantacruz2.jpg Andrés de Santa Cruz
(1792–1865)
January 28, 1827 – June 9, 1827 Elected by Congress President of the Government Council
Msalazaryb.png Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano
(1777–1850)
June 9, 1827 – August 22, 1827 Elected by Congress Interim caretaker
LaMar1.jpg José La Mar
(1778–1830)
August 22, 1827 – June 7, 1829 Direct Elections
Agutierrezf.png Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
(1796–1878)
June 7, 1829 – September 1, 1829 Coup d'état
Agustín Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra
(1785–1841)
September 1, 1829 – December 20, 1833 Elected by Congress
LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro
(1780–1855)
December 20, 1833 – December 21, 1833 Elected by Congress Interim caretaker
Orbegoso1.jpg Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada
(1795–1847)
December 21, 1833 – August 11, 1836 Elected by Congress
Pablo bermudez 1.jpg Pedro Pablo Bermúdez
(1793–1852)
[2]
January 4, 1833 – April 24, 1834 Coup d'état Provisional Supreme Ruler
Salaverry2.jpg Felipe Santiago Salaverry
(1805–1836)
[3]
February 23, 1835 – February 7, 1836 Coup d'état Supreme Legislator
Andréssantacruz2.jpg Andrés de Santa Cruz
(1792–1865)
[4]
August 11, 1836 – August 25, 1838 Supreme Protector of the Confederation
Agustín Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra
(1785–1841)
August 25, 1838 – November 18, 1841 Elected by Congress
Manuel Menéndez.jpg Manuel Menéndez
(1793–1847)
November 18, 1841 – August 16, 1842 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
Torrico1.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Torrico
(1808–1875)
August 16, 1842 – October 17, 1842 Coup d'état
Vidal1.jpg Juan Francisco de Vidal
(1800–1863)
[5]
October 17, 1842 – March 15, 1843 Coup d'état
Figuerola.jpg Justo Figuerola
(1771–1854)
March 15, 1843 – March 20, 1843 Coup d'état
Vivanco1.jpg Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco
(1806–1873)
March 20, 1843 – June 17, 1844 Self-proclaimed President
Domingonieto.jpg Domingo Nieto
(1803–1844)
March 20, 1843 – February 17, 1844 Elected by the Government Junta President of the Government Junta - Grand Marshal of Peru
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla
(1797–1867)
February 17, 1844 – August 10, 1844 Elected in place of Domingo Nieto
Domingo Elias.jpg Domingo Elías
(1797–1867)
June 17, 1844 – August 10, 1844 Self-proclaimed President
Manuel Menéndez.jpg Manuel Menéndez
(1793–1847)
August 10, 1844 – August 11, 1844 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
Figuerola.jpg Justo Figuerola
(1771–1854)
August 11, 1844 – October 7, 1844 Coup d'état
Manuel Menéndez.jpg Manuel Menéndez
(1793–1847)
October 7, 1844 – April 20, 1845 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla
(1797–1867)
April 20, 1845 – April 20, 1851 Direct Elections
1851joseechenique.jpg José Rufino Echenique
(1808–1887)
April 20, 1851 – January 5, 1855 Direct Elections
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla
(1797–1867)
January 5, 1855 – October 24, 1862 Coup d'état
Direct Elections
Miguelsanroman.png Miguel de San Román
(1802–1863)
October 24, 1862 – April 3, 1863 Direct Elections
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla
(1797–1867)
April 3, 1863 – April 9, 1863 Revolution
Selfproclaimed President
Pedro Diez Canseco.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco
(1815–1893)
April 3, 1863 – August 5, 1863 Interim caretaker Second Vicepresident
President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet
(1809–1879)
August 5, 1863 – April 25, 1865 First Vicepresident
Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado
(1826–1901)
April 25, 1865 – June 24, 1865 Coup d'état
President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet
(1809–1879)
June 24, 1865 – November 8, 1865
Pedro Diez Canseco.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco
(1815–1893)
November 8, 1865 – November 28, 1865 Interim caretaker
Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado
(1826–1901)
November 28, 1865 – January 8, 1868 Direct Elections
Pedro Diez Canseco.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco
(1815–1893)
January 8, 1868 – August 2, 1868 Interim caretaker
Balta1.jpg José Balta
(1814–1872)
August 2, 1868 – July 22, 1872 Direct Elections
Tgutierrez.png Tomás Gutiérrez
(d. 1872)
July 22, 1872 – July 26, 1872 Coup d'état Supreme Leader of the Nation
Francisco Diez Canseco.jpg Francisco Diez Canseco
(1821–1884)
July 26, 1872 – July 27, 1872 Interim caretaker
HerenciaZevallos.jpg Mariano Herencia Zevallos
(1820–1873)
July 27, 1872 – August 2, 1872 Interim caretaker
Mpardol.png Manuel Pardo
(1834–1878)
August 2, 1872 – August 2, 1876 Direct Elections
Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado
(1826–1913)
August 2, 1876 – December 23, 1879 Direct Elections
Nicolas Pierola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola
(1839–1913)
December 23, 1879 – November 28, 1881 Coup d'état Commander in Chief of the State
Garcia Calderon.jpg Francisco García Calderón
(1834–1905)
March 12, 1881 – September 28, 1881 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Lima)
Provisional President of the Republic
LizardoMontero.jpg Lizardo Montero Flores
(1832–1905)
September 28, 1881 – November 6, 1881 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Arequipa)
Provisional President of the Republic
Andres Caceres.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres
(1836–1923)
November 6, 1881 – December 25, 1882 Self-proclaimed
Chilean Occupation
(Central Peru)
President of the Republic
Miguel Iglesias colaboracionista con Chile.jpg Miguel Iglesias
(1830–1909)
November 6, 1881 – December 25, 1882 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Cajamarca)
Regenerator President of the Republic
Antarenas.png Antonio Arenas
(1808–1891)
December 3, 1885 – June 5, 1886 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
Andres Caceres.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres
(1836–1923)
June 5, 1886 – August 10, 1890 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Remigio Morales Bermudez Presidente.jpg Remigio Morales Bermúdez
(1836–1894)
August 10, 1890 – April 1, 1894 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Justiniano Borgoño presidente.jpg Justiniano Borgoño
(1836–1921)
April 1, 1894 – August 10, 1894 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
Andres Caceres.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres
(1836–1923)
August 10, 1894 – March 20, 1895 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo
(1841–1904)
March 20, 1895 – September 8, 1895 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
Nicolas Pierola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola
(1839–1913)
September 8, 1895 – September 8, 1899 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Eduardo Lopez de Romana.jpg Eduardo López de Romaña
(1847–1912)
September 8, 1899 – September 8, 1903 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo
(1841–1904)
September 8, 1903 – May 7, 1904 Direct Elections Constitutional President
SerapioCalderon.jpg Serapio Calderón
(1843–1922)
May 7, 1904 – September 24, 1904 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
Pardo y Barreda.jpg José Pardo y Barreda
(1864–1947)
September 24, 1904 – September 24, 1908 Direct Elections Constitutional President
LEGUIA.JPG Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
(1863–1932)
September 24, 1908 – September 24, 1912 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Guillermo Billinghurst 3.jpg Guillermo Billinghurst
(1851–1915)
September 24, 1912 – February 4, 1914 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Óscar Benavides.jpg Óscar Benavides
(1876–1945)
February 4, 1914 – August 18, 1915 Coup d'état
Pardo y Barreda.jpg José Pardo y Barreda
(1864–1947)
August 18, 1915 – July 4, 1919 Direct Elections Constitutional President
LEGUIA.JPG Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
(1863–1932)
July 4, 1919 – August 25, 1930 Direct Elections
Coup d'état
Constitutional President
Manuel María Ponce.jpg Manuel María Ponce Brousset
(1874–1966)
August 25, 1930 – August 27, 1930 Interim caretaker
Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
(1889–1933)
August 27, 1930 – March 1, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
Ricardo Leoncio Elias.jpg Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias
(1874–1951)
March 1, 1931 – March 5, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
Gustavo A Jimenez.jpg Gustavo Jiménez
(1886–1933)
March 5, 1931 – March 11, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
Samanez Ocampo.jpg David Samanez Ocampo
(1866–1947)
March 11, 1931 – December 8, 1931 Interim caretaker President of the Southern Junta
Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
(1889–1933)
December 8, 1931 – April 30, 1933 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Óscar Benavides.jpg Óscar Benavides
(1876–1945)
April 30, 1933 – December 8, 1939 Elected by Congress Constitutional President
President Don Manuel Prado.JPG Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
(1889–1967)
December 8, 1939 – July 28, 1945 Direct Elections Constitutional President
José Luis Bustamante y Rivero (1968).jpg José Bustamante y Rivero
(1894–1989)
July 28, 1945 – October 29, 1948 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Manuel A. Odría.jpg Manuel A. Odría
(1896–1974)
October 29, 1948 – June 1, 1950 Coup d'état
Zenón Noriega.jpg Zenón Noriega Agüero
(1900–1957)
June 1, 1950 – July 28, 1950 Interim caretaker
Manuel A. Odría.jpg Manuel A. Odría
(1896–1974)
July 28, 1950 – July 28, 1956 Direct Elections Constitutional President
President Don Manuel Prado.JPG Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
(1889–1967)
July 28, 1956 – July 18, 1962 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Ricardo Pérez Godoy
(1905–1982)
July 18, 1962 – March 3, 1963 Coup d'état 1st President of the Military Junta
Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Nicolás Lindley López
(1908–1995)
March 3, 1963 – July 28, 1963 Coup d'état 2nd President of the Military Junta
Fernando Belaúnde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry
(1912–2002)
July 28, 1963 – October 3, 1968 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Juan Velasco Alvarado.jpg Juan Velasco Alvarado
(1910–1977)
October 3, 1968 – August 30, 1975 Coup d'état 1st President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
Francisco Morales Bermúdez
(1921–)
August 30, 1975 – July 28, 1980 Coup d'état 2nd President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
Fernando Belaúnde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry
(1912–2002)
July 28, 1980 – July 28, 1985 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Garciaalan09112006.jpg Alan García Pérez
(1949–)
July 28, 1985 – July 28, 1990 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Al Fujimori.jpg Alberto Fujimori
(1938–)
July 28, 1990 – April 5, 1992 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Al Fujimori.jpg Alberto Fujimori
(1938–)
April 5, 1992 – July 28, 1995 Self-Coup d'État De facto President
Al Fujimori.jpg Alberto Fujimori
(1938–)
July 28, 1995 – July 28, 2000 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Al Fujimori.jpg Alberto Fujimori
(1938–)
July 28, 2000 – November 22, 2000[6] Direct Elections Constitutional President
VPC May 2003.jpg Valentín Paniagua
(1936–2006)
November 22, 2000 – July 28, 2001 Interim caretaker[7] President of Transition Government
Alejandro Toledo (8682).jpg Alejandro Toledo
(1946–)
July 28, 2001 – July 28, 2006 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Garciaalan09112006.jpg Alan García Pérez
(1949–)
July 28, 2006 – July 28, 2011 Direct Elections Constitutional President
Ollanta Humala 2014.jpg Ollanta Humala
(1962–)
July 28, 2011 – present Direct Elections Constitutional President
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.jpg Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
(1938–)
President-elect
(Taking office on July 28, 2016)
Direct Elections Constitutional President

Titles and styles[edit]

The President of the Republic of Peru is the Head of the Peruvian State and the Supreme Commander of the Peruvian Armed Forces

The official style is:

His/Her Excellency - name of the president -

Line of succession[edit]

Names of incumbents as of 2015 listed President of the Republic: His Excellency Ollanta Humala Tasso

1- First Vice-President of the Republic: Marisol Espinoza

2- Second Vice-President of the Republic: Vacant

3- President of the Congress of the Republic: Luis Iberico

4- First Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Natalie Condori

5- Second Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Mariano Portugal

6- Third Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Luis Galarreta

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Political Constitution of Peru, Article 112" (PDF). 
  2. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegoso in Arequipa.
  3. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegoso in Lima.
  4. ^ The Republic of Peru and the Republic of Bolivia were united into a federal state called the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Peru was divided in the states of North Peru and South Peru, each one of them with its own President.
  5. ^ No effective central government existed after the Coup d'état against Francisco Vidal, with several generals claiming the Presidency in different cities around the country.
  6. ^ Alberto Fujimori submitted his resignation on November 19, 2000. His resignation was rejected by the Peruvian Congress, who declared him "Morally Unfit" for the Presidency and impeached him on November 22, 2000.
  7. ^ As President of Congress, Paniagua was 3rd in the line of succession. Raised to power after the President was impeached and both VP resigned.

See also[edit]