List of Presidents of Romania

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Coat of arms of Romania
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Romania

The President of Romania serves as the head of state of Romania. The office was created by the Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu in 1974 and has developed into its modern form after the Romanian Revolution and the adoption of the 1991 constitution.

The current President of Romania is Klaus Iohannis, who has served since 21 December 2014.

List[edit]

Political Parties

  Independent
  Romanian Communist Party
  National Salvation Front
  Social Democratic Party
  Democratic Liberal Party
  National Liberal Party

Socialist Republic of Romania (1974–1989)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Ref.
1 Crop-Nicolae Ceaucescu 1978.jpg Nicolae Ceaușescu
(1918–1989)
28 March 1974 22 December 1989 Romanian Communist Party [1]
The first President of Romania, Ceaușescu maintained his country under a communist state. Despite his country's membership in the Warsaw Pact, Ceaușescu recognised the state of Israel, supported the Romanian national identity, and denounced the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. With his 1971 July Theses speech, Ceaușescu launched a quasi-Maoist and Neo-Stalinist reform. He and his wife were deposed during the 1989 Romanian Revolution and were executed three days later.

Interim State (1989–1990)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Ref.
Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg Ion Iliescu
(1930–)
26 December 1989 20 June 1990 National Salvation Front [2]
A former Romanian Communist Party (PCR) member, Iliescu joined in the National Salvation Front (FSN) before the 1989 Revolution. As a member of the FSN Triumvirate, Iliescu served as the acting head of state of Romania for almost six months during its transition to democracy.

Romania (1990–present)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office;
Electoral mandates
Political Party Ref.
2 Ion Iliescu (2004) (cropped).jpg Ion Iliescu
(1930–)
20 June 1990 29 November 1996 Independent [2]
1990, 1992
The second President of Romania and the first to be democratically elected, Iliescu was an "independent social democrat." He earned a reputation as being populist and charismatic after his handling of the Mineriad's miner interventions in Bucharest. Under his term, the Constitution of Romania was introduced.
3 Defense.gov News Photo 980717-D-9880W-030 (cropped 2).jpg Emil Constantinescu
(1939–)
29 November 1996 20 December 2000 Independent
1996
Constantinescu struggled with the slow implementation of the modernization and privatization process, which was bogged down by excessive bureaucracy. After another Mineriad in 1998, which ended with the arrest of Miron Cozma, his term suffered a political crisis between the majority parties. The country was further damaged by a drought in 2000. His term ended with little progress in economic privatization, as the state still controlled 80% of the economy.
4 Ion Iliescu (2004) (cropped).jpg Ion Iliescu
(1930–)
20 December 2000 20 December 2004 Independent [2]
2000
Iliescu was elected to his third non-consecutive term in 2000.
5 EPP Summit; Meise, Dec. 2013 (11449226465) (cropped 2).jpg Traian Băsescu
(1951–)
20 December 2004 20 April 2007 Independent
2004
Elected with the support of the right-leaning list PNL-PDL, Băsescu fought against political corruption and resolved a hostage crisis in Iraq, resulting in the rescue of three Romanian journalists. Băsescu also tackled the issue of homelessness in 2005, after a series of floods during the spring and summer.[citation needed] Despite the opposition of the Left, he publicly condemned the former Communist regime. Băsescu internationally aligned Romania closer to the United States, the European Union and Serbia.[citation needed] He was impeached in 2007.
Nicolae Văcăroiu (cropped).jpg Nicolae Văcăroiu
(1943–)
20 April 2007 23 May 2007 Social Democratic Party
Văcăroiu, the President of the Senate, served as Interim President following Băsescu's impeachment.
(5) EPP Summit; Meise, Dec. 2013 (11449226465) (cropped 2).jpg Traian Băsescu
(1951–)
23 May 2007 10 July 2012 Independent
2009
After a 2007 referendum that overturned his parliamentary impeachment, Băsescu returned as President and was re-elected to a second time in 2009. During his term, Romania joined in the European Union. Băsescu was impeached a second time and was suspended on 10 July 2012.
Crin Antonescu.jpg Crin Antonescu
(1959–)
10 July 2012 27 August 2012 National Liberal Party
Antonescu, the President of the Senate, served as Interim President, following Băsescu's second impeachment.
(5) EPP Summit; Meise, Dec. 2013 (11449226465) (cropped 2).jpg Traian Băsescu
(1951–)
27 August 2012 21 December 2014 Independent
2009
The Romanian constitutional court invalidated the 2012 impeachment referendum because of its low turnout, allowing Băsescu to return as President. His second term was marked by a landslide victory by the opposition coalition in Parliament amid heavy losses for the presidential party.
6 Klaus Iohannis at EPP Summit, March 2015, Brussels (cropped).jpg Klaus Iohannis
(1959–)
24 December 2014 Incumbent Independent [3]
2014
Won a surprise victory against rival Victor Ponta's government. His platform focused on anti-corruption, judicial independence, and fiscal relaxation.

See also[edit]

Footnotes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Grosescu, R. (2004). The Political Regrouping of Romanian Nomenklatura during the 1989 Revolution. Romanian Journal of Society and Politics, 4(1), 97-123.
  2. ^ a b c Rulers.org
  3. ^ "Klaus Iohannis wins Romanian presidential election". The Guardian. November 16, 2014. Archived from the original on November 17, 2014. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  • Bulei, Ion, O istorie a românilor, Editura Meronia, Bucureşti, 2007, pg. 266-267