List of Presidents of Venezuela

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The following is a list of Presidents of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: Presidentes de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela).

The President is both the head of state and head of government in Venezuela's presidential system. The current presidential term is for six years with the constitutionally guaranteed recourse of holding a popular recall referendum any time within the last three years of a presidential term. A 2009 referendum removed the previous restrictions which limited the President to two terms.[1] The current president of Venezuela is Nicolás Maduro, since April 19, 2013.

History[edit]

Before 1830[edit]

The presidential designation encompasses only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Venezuela following Venezuela's declaration of independence from Spanish colonial rule, which took effect on July 5, 1811. The first president, taking office on July 5, 1811, was actually the president of a triumvirate of the first established Republic of Venezuela that rotated the presidency weekly. The person serving as president during the week of July 5 was one of the three signatories of the Declaration of Independence: Cristóbal Mendoza. Mendoza shared the triumvirate with Juan Escalona and Baltasar Padrón. A second triumvirate followed on April 3, 1812 whose members were Francisco Espejo, Fernando Toro and Francisco Javier Ustariz.[2][3]

Owing to the profound confusion of the Venezuelan War of Independence and the period of Gran Colombia over what is now Venezuela, this page has gaps between 1813 and 1819. For this period in time, historians refer to the Republic of Venezuela as the Second Republic of Venezuela (1813–1814) and the Third Republic of Venezuela (1817–1819) as Simon Bolivar twice reestablished the republic. The Congress of Angostura appointed Simón Bolívar "Jefe Supremo de la República de Venezuela" (Supreme Commander of the Republic of Venezuela) from 1819 until 1830.

After 1830[edit]

In 1830, José Antonio Páez declared Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia and became president, taking office on January 13, 1830. Although he was not the first president of Venezuela (having in mind Cristóbal Mendoza in 1811), he was the first head of state of independent Venezuela, after the dissolution of Gran Colombia.

Presidents of Venezuela since independence (1830–present)[edit]

The list below includes interim "caretaker" as well as regular serving presidents, and democratically installed presidents as well as those installed by other means (e.g.; Marcos Pérez Jiménez).

State of Venezuela (1830–1864)[edit]

Political parties       Conservative Party       Liberal Party       Independent       Military government

Flag of Venezuela (1836-1859).svg President of the State of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela (1830-1836).svg
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in office

Political party
Form of entry Occupation
Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
13 January 1830 20 January 1835 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
Andres Narvarte 000.jpg Andrés Narvarte
(1781–1853)
13 January 1835 9 February 1835 Interim government Lawyer
Conservative Party
José María Vargas.jpg José María Vargas
(1786–1854)
9 February 1835 9 July 1835 Indirect elections Physician
Conservative Party
José María Carreño, RHV.jpg José María Carreño
(1792–1849)
27 July 1835 20 August 1835 Interim government General
Conservative Party
José María Vargas.jpg José María Vargas
(1786–1854)
20 August 1835 24 April 1836 Restoration Physician
Conservative Party
Andres Narvarte 000.jpg Andrés Narvarte
(1781–1853)
24 April 1836 20 January 1837 Interim government Lawyer
Conservative Party
José María Carreño, RHV.jpg José María Carreño
(1792–1849)
27 January 1837 11 March 1837 Interim government General
Conservative Party
Carlos Soublette.jpg Carlos Soublette
(1789–1870)
11 March 1837 1 February 1839 Interim government General
Conservative Party
Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
1 February 1839 28 January 1843 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
Carlos Soublette.jpg Carlos Soublette
(1789–1870)
28 January 1843 20 January 1847 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
Jose tadeo monagas.jpg José Tadeo Monagas
(1784–1868)
20 January 1847 5 February 1851 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
JoseGregorioMonagas.jpg José Gregorio Monagas
(1795–1858)
5 February 1851 20 January 1855 Indirect elections General
Liberal Party
Jose tadeo monagas.jpg José Tadeo Monagas
(1784–1868)
20 January 1855 15 March 1858 Indirect elections General
Liberal Party
Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
15 March 1858 18 March 1858 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Juliancastro.jpg Julián Castro
(1810–1875)
18 March 1858 2 August 1859 Coup d'état General
Military
Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
2 August 1859 29 September 1859 Interim government Lawyer
Independent
Manuel Felipe Tovar.jpg Manuel Felipe de Tovar
(1803–1866)
29 September 1859 20 May 1861 Coup d'état
(first term)
Direct elections
(second term)
Politician
Liberal Party
Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
20 May 1861 29 August 1861 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
29 August 1861 15 June 1863 Dictatorship General
Military
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Falcón
(1820–1870)
15 June 1863 25 April 1868 Victory in the Federal War
(first term)
Indirect elections
(second term)
General
Military

United States of Venezuela (1864–1953)[edit]

Political parties       Conservative Party       Liberal Party       Independent       Military government

Flag of Venezuela (1863-1905).svg President of the United States of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela (1871).svg
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in office

Political party
Form of entry Occupation
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Falcón
(1820–1870)
15 June 1863 25 April 1868 Victory in the Federal War
(first term)
Indirect elections
(second term)
General
Military
Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual 1.jpg Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual
(1832–1868)
25 April 1868 28 June 1868 Interim government Officer
Independent
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
28 June 1868 20 February 1869 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
JRMonagas.jpg José Ruperto Monagas
(1831–1880)
20 February 1869 16 April 1870 Revolution General
Military
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
16 April 1870 27 April 1870 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
27 April 1870 27 February 1877 Revolution
(first term)
Indirect elections
(second term)
General/Lawyer
Liberal Party
Antonio Esteban Frías 1911 000.jpg Francisco Linares Alcántara
(1825–1878)
27 February 1877 30 November 1878 Indirect elections General
Liberal Party
José Gregorio Valera - El Cojo Ilustrado.jpg José Gregorio Valera 30 November 1878 26 February 1879 Interim government General
Liberal Party
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
26 February 1879 26 April 1884 Elections by Federal States General/Lawyer
Liberal Party
Joaquín Crespo portrait.jpg Joaquín Crespo
(1830–1898)
26 April 1884 15 September 1886 Elections by Federal States General
Liberal Party
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
15 Septiembre 1886 8 August 1887 Elections by Federal States General/Lawyer
Liberal Party
Hermógenes López.jpg Hermógenes López
(1830–1898)
8 August 1887 2 July 1888 Interim government General
Independent
Presidente Rojas Paúl (1890) by Cristobal Rojas.jpg Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl
(1826–1905)
2 July 1888 19 March 1890 Elections by Federal States Lawyer
Liberal Party
Raimundo Andueza Palacio.jpg Raimundo Andueza Palacio
(1846–1900)
19 March 1890 17 June 1892 Elections by Federal States Lawyer
Conservative Party
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
17 June 1892 31 August 1892 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido
(1854–1949)
31 August 1892 7 October 1892 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Joaquín Crespo portrait.jpg Joaquín Crespo
(1841–1898)
7 October 1892 February 28 1898 Revolution
(first term)
Elections by Federal States
(second term)
General
Military
Ignacio Andrade 2.jpg Ignacio Andrade
(1839–1925)
28 February 1898 20 October 1899 Direct elections Politician
Liberal Party
Cipriano Castro 1908.jpg Cipriano Castro
(1858–1924)
20 October 1899 19 December 1908 Revolution General
Military
Juan Vicente Gómez, 1911.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
19 December 1908 5 August 1913 Coup d'état General
Military
Portrait of Gil Fortoul - 1932.jpg José Gil Fortoul
(1861–1943)
5 August 1913 19 April 1914 Interim government Lawyer
Independent
Presidente Victorino Marquez Bustillos.jpg Victorino Márquez Bustillos
(1858–1922)
19 April 1914 24 June 1922 Interim government[4] Lawyer
Independent
Gómez, 1928.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
24 June 1922 30 May 1929 General
Military
Juan Bautista Pérez.jpg Juan Bautista Pérez
(1869–1952)
30 May 1929 13 June 1931 Indirect elections Lawyer
Independent
Juan vicente GOMEZ.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
13 June 1931 17 December 1935 Indirect election General
Military
Eleazar López Contreras.jpg Eleazar López Contreras
(1883–1973)
18 December 1935 5 May 1941 Interim government
(first term)
Indirect elections
(second term)
General
Independent
Presidente Medina.jpg Isaías Medina Angarita
(1897–1953)
5 May 1941 18 October 1945 Indirect elections General
Democratic Party
Rómulo Betancourt, 1946.JPG Rómulo Betancourt
(1908–1981)
18 October 1945 17 February 1948 Coup d'état Politician
Democratic Action
Presidente Gallegos.jpg Rómulo Gallegos
(1884–1969)
17 February 1948 24 November 1948 Direct elections Writer
Democratic Action
Carlos Delgado Chalbaud1.jpg Carlos Delgado Chalbaud
(1909–1950)
24 November 1948 30 November 1950 Coup d'état Officer
Military
President Germán Suárez Flamerich.jpg Germán Suárez Flamerich
(1907–1990)
30 November 1950 2 December 1952 Interim government Lawyer
Independent

Republic of Venezuela (1953–1999)[edit]

Venezuela took the name of Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República de Venezuela) with the adoption of the 1953 constitution, written by the Constituent Assembly elected in November 1952. The Presidents of Venezuela under this constitution (as well as the 1961 Constitution, which kept the name) were officially styled as President of the Republic of Venezuela.

This period of the history of Venezuela began with the presidency of Marcos Pérez Jiménez, widely perceived to be a dictator.[5][6] After a short period of political instability following Pérez Jiménez's exile in 1958, democracy was restored in the country with the election of Democratic Action leader Rómulo Betancourt as President in 1959. This marked the beginning of the so-called Fourth Republic of Venezuela, which was characterized by the prevalence of the Punto Fijo Pact and the bipartidism of the two main political parties in the country at the time, Democratic Action and Copei.

The second presidency of Carlos Andrés Pérez (1989–93) saw a deep economic crisis, major riots in which hundreds were killed by security forces (the Caracazo, 1989), two coup attempts in 1992, and the 1993 impeachment of Pérez. That same year, Rafael Caldera became the first President of Venezuela not to belong to either Democratic Action or Copei in over forty years, having been elected under the banner of National Convergence. The Fourth Republic officially ended in 2001 when a new constitution entered in force.

Political parties       Democratic Party       Democratic Action       Copei       National Convergence       Fifth Republic Movement

Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg President of the Republic of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in office

Political party
Form of entry Occupation
Marcos Pérez Jiménez 1952.JPG Marcos Pérez Jiménez
(1914–2001)
2 December 1952 23 January 1958 Indirect elections Officer
Military
Coat of arms of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Wolfgang Larrazábal
(1911–2003)
23 January 1958 14 November 1958 Coup d'état Rear admiral
Independent
Coat of arms of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Edgar Sanabria
(1911–1989)
14 November 1958 13 February 1959 Coup d'état Rear admiral
Independent
RB 1975.jpg Rómulo Betancourt
(1908–1981)
13 February 1959 13 March 1964 Direct elections Politician
Democratic Action
Raúl Leoni 1965.jpg Raúl Leoni
(1905–1972)
13 March 1964 11 March 1969 Direct elections Lawyer
Democratic Action
Caldera, Rafael.jpg Rafael Caldera
(1916–2009)
11 March 1969 12 March 1974 Direct elections Lawyer
Copei
Carlos Andrés Pérez - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 1989.jpg Carlos Andrés Pérez
(1922–2010)
12 March 1974 12 March 1979 Direct elections Politician
Democratic Action
To illustrate the articule about former Venezuelan president Luis Herrera Campins.jpg Luis Herrera Campins
(1925–2007)
12 March 1979 2 February 1984 Direct elections Lawyer
Copei
Lusinchi 89.JPG Jaime Lusinchi
(1924–2014)
2 February 1984 2 February 1989 Direct elections Lawyer
Democratic Action
Carlos Andrés Pérez - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 1989.jpg Carlos Andrés Pérez
(1922–2010)
2 February 1989 21 May 1993[7] Direct elections Politician
Democratic Action
Octavio Lepage, 2009.jpg Octavio Lepage
(1923–)
21 May 1993 5 June 1993 Interim government[8] Lawyer
Democratic Action
Ramón J. Velásquez, 2009.jpg Ramón José Velásquez
(1916–2014)
5 June 1993 2 February 1994 Interim government Writer
Democratic Action
Caldera en los años 90.jpg Rafael Caldera
(1916–2009)
2 February 1994 2 February 1999 Direct elections Lawyer
National Convergence
Chavez141610-2.jpg Hugo Chávez
(1954–2013)
2 February 1999 10 January 2001 Direct elections Officer (Lt. Colonel)
Fifth Republic Movement

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (1999–present)[edit]

Venezuela became the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela) with the adoption of the 1999 constitution, which renamed the country in honor of Simón Bolívar. The new constitution was promulgated by President Hugo Chávez, who served de jure from 1999 until his death in 2013. The new constitution augmented the presidential term from five years to six years.

Chávez's presidency was interrupted shortly in 2002 following a failed coup d'état attempt that put Pedro Carmona in office for a day. After government-loyal forces ousted Carmona from Miraflores, Vice President Diosdado Cabello assumed executive control for a couple of hours until Chávez could be restored. In 2009, a constitutional referendum approved the elimination of term limits, which allowed Chávez to be re-elected again in 2012. However, the President died in March 2013, only three months into his fourth term, and was succeded by his Vice President Nicolás Maduro, who was elected as President for a six-year term the following month.

Political paties       Fifth Republic Movement/United Socialist Party       Independent

Flag of Venezuela.svg President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela.svg
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in office Party Vice President(s)
Chavez141610-2.jpg Hugo Chávez
(1954–2013)
10 January 2001 12 April 2002[9] Fifth Republic Movement Rodríguez
Bastidas
Cabello
Re-elected at the 2000 presidential election (first election under the new constitution); rule by decree (2000–2001); 2001 strikes; 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt.
Coat of arms of Venezuela.svg Pedro Carmona
(1941–)
12 April 2002 13 April 2002 Independent vacant
Businessman, union leader and president of the Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce; installed as interim president by rebel military in the 2002 coup d'état attempt.
Diosdado Cabello 2013.jpg Diosdado Cabello
(1963–)
13 April 2002 14 April 2002 Fifth Republic Movement vacant
Engineer and politician. Acting president as Vice President. Would go on to become speaker of the National Assembly, Minister of Interior and Justice, governor of Miranda and two-times deputy of the National Assembly.
Chavez141610-2.jpg Hugo Chávez
(1954–2013)
14 April 2002 5 March 2013[10] Fifth Republic Movement Rangel
Rodríguez
Carrizales
Jaua
Maduro
United Socialist Party
Restoration. Venezuelan general strike of 2002–03; Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004; introduction of the Bolivarian Missions; speech at the UN; creation of ALBA; 2006 presidential election; 2007 referendum; 2009 referendum; 2012 presidential election; death and state funeral.
Nicolas Maduro-05-2013.jpg Nicolás Maduro
(1962–)
5 March 2013 Incumbent United Socialist Party Arreaza
Istúriz
Former union leader and bus driver.[11]Acting president as Vice President following Chávez's death. Elected as President at the 2013 election. Rule by decree (2013–2014); shortages and recession; 2014–16 protests; rule by decree (2015–2016); 2015 parliamentary election.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Chavez wins chance of fresh term". BBC News Online. February 16, 2009. 
  2. ^ (Spanish) "Presidentes de Venezuela". Consulado General de Bucaramanga. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. 
  3. ^ Briceño Perozo, Mario. "Mendoza, Cristóbal de" in Diccionario de Historia de Venezuela, Vol. 3. Caracas: Fundación Polar, 1999. ISBN 978-980-6397-37-8.
  4. ^ Bustillos was appointed to the presidency in a provisional fashion after Juan Vicente Gómez, after himself being elected (by the National Assembly) as president. Gómez opted not to assume the presidency, instead choosing to continue in the role of commanding the Venezuelan Army.
  5. ^ Rohter, Larry (22 September 2001). "Marcos Pérez Jiménez, 87, Venezuela Ruler". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Ledezma, Eurídice (21 September 2001). "Obituary: General Marcos Pérez Jiménez". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  7. ^ On May 21, 1993, Pérez resigned after being accused of corruption by the Attorney General.
  8. ^ Octavio Lepage was the President of Congress and was in charge of the government until Ramón J. Velásquez was elected by Congress on June 5, 1993.
  9. ^ On April 11, 2002, senior military officers refused Chávez's orders to carry out Plan Ávila. They launched a coup d'état attempt, arrested Chávez (saying he had resigned), and Pedro Carmona assumed the presidency on April 12. Following an uprising, aided by sectors of the military loyal to Chávez, the new government collapsed and Chávez was restored to power early on April 14. Between the deposing of Carmona on April 13 and the return of Chávez, Vice President Diosdado Cabello assumed the presidency.
  10. ^ Chávez was never inaugurated for his fourth term due to his illness, and he died before inauguration could take place.
  11. ^ Wallis, Daniel (March 6, 2013). "Venezuela's Maduro: from bus driver to Chavez's successor". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]