List of Presidents of Venezuela

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The Miraflores Palace is the president's official workplace, the center of the administration, and a prominent symbol of the office.
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Under the Venezuelan Constitution, the President of Venezuela is the head of state and head of government of Venezuela. As chief of the executive branch and face of the government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the country by influence and recognition. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the Venezuelan Armed Forces. The president is directly elected through a popular vote to a six-year term. Since the 2009 constitutional referendum, any person can be elected to the office an indefinite number of times. Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent president, the vice president assumes the office. The president must be at least 30 years of age, and has to be a "natural born" citizen of Venezuela, and cannot possess any other citizenship.

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the establishment of the independent State of Venezuela, which took place on 13 January 1830. There have been 46 people sworn into office, and 64 presidencies, as several politicians (most prominently between 1830 and 1953) have held the office more than once. José Antonio Páez, the first president, was inaugurated in 1830. Antonio Guzmán Blanco served during the most number of terms, with three. Juan Vicente Gómez has served during the longest (although interrupted by interim presidencies), with over 27 years. Hugo Chávez served the longest uninterrupted period in office with 11 consecutive years, starting after his restoration to power in April 2002 and until his death in March 2013. The current president, Nicolás Maduro, was elected to his first term in 2013.

History[edit]

Before 1830[edit]

The presidential designation encompasses only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Venezuela following Venezuela's declaration of independence from Spanish colonial rule, which took effect on July 5, 1811. The first president, taking office on July 5, 1811, was actually the president of a triumvirate of the first established Republic of Venezuela that rotated the presidency weekly. The person serving as president during the week of July 5 was one of the three signatories of the Declaration of Independence: Cristóbal Mendoza. Mendoza shared the triumvirate with Juan Escalona and Baltasar Padrón. A second triumvirate followed on April 3, 1812 whose members were Francisco Espejo, Fernando Toro and Francisco Javier Ustariz.[1][2]

Owing to the profound confusion of the Venezuelan War of Independence and the period of Gran Colombia over what is now Venezuela, this page has gaps between 1813 and 1819. For this period in time, historians refer to the Republic of Venezuela as the Second Republic of Venezuela (1813–1814) and the Third Republic of Venezuela (1817–1819) as Simon Bolivar twice reestablished the republic. The Congress of Angostura appointed Simón Bolívar "Jefe Supremo de la República de Venezuela" (Supreme Commander of the Republic of Venezuela) from 1819 until 1830.

After 1830[edit]

In 1830, José Antonio Páez declared Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia and became president, taking office on January 13, 1830. Although he was not the first president of Venezuela (having in mind Cristóbal Mendoza in 1811), he was the first head of state of independent Venezuela, after the dissolution of Gran Colombia.

Presidents of Venezuela since independence (1830–present)[edit]

The list below includes interim "caretaker" as well as regular serving presidents, and democratically installed presidents as well as those installed by other means (e.g.; Marcos Pérez Jiménez).

State of Venezuela (1830–1864)[edit]

Flag of Venezuela (1836-1859).svg President of the State of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela (1830-1836).svg

  Conservative Party   Liberal Party   Independent   Military government


[3]
Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
State Term of office Term
[4]
Party
1 Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG    José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
Portuguesa 13 January 1830

20 January 1835
1
(1831–35)
Conservative Party
2 Andres Narvarte 000.jpg Andrés Narvarte
(1781–1853)
Vargas 20 January 1835

9 February 1835
Conservative Party
3 José María Vargas.jpg José María Vargas
(1786–1854)
Vargas 9 February 1835

9 July 1835
2
(1835–39)
Conservative Party
4 José María Carreño, RHV.jpg José María Carreño
(1792–1849)
Miranda 27 July 1835

20 August 1835
Conservative Party
5 José María Vargas.jpg José María Vargas
(1786–1854)
Vargas 20 August 1835

24 April 1836
Conservative Party
6 Andres Narvarte 000.jpg Andrés Narvarte
(1781–1853)
Vargas 24 April 1836

20 January 1837
Conservative Party
7 José María Carreño, RHV.jpg José María Carreño
(1792–1849)
Miranda 27 January 1837

11 March 1837
Conservative Party
8 Carlos Soublette.jpg Carlos Soublette
(1789–1870)
Vargas 11 March 1837

1 February 1839
9 Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
Portuguesa 1 February 1839

28 January 1843
3
(1839–43)
Conservative Party
10 Carlos Soublette.jpg Carlos Soublette
(1789–1870)
Vargas 28 January 1843

20 January 1847
4
(1843–47)
Conservative Party
11 Jose tadeo monagas.jpg José Tadeo Monagas
(1784–1868)
Monagas 20 January 1847

5 February 1851
5
(1847–51)
Conservative Party
12 JoseGregorioMonagas.jpg José Gregorio Monagas
(1795–1858)
Monagas 5 February 1851

20 January 1855
6
(1851–55)
Liberal Party
13 Jose tadeo monagas.jpg José Tadeo Monagas
(1784–1868)
Monagas 20 January 1855

15 March 1858
7
(1855–60)
Liberal Party
14 Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
Caracas 15 March 1858

18 March 1858
Liberal Party
15 Juliancastro.jpg Julián Castro
(1810–1875)
Miranda 18 March 1858

2 August 1859
Military
16 Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
Caracas 2 August 1859

29 September 1859
Independent
17 Manuel Felipe Tovar.jpg Manuel Felipe de Tovar
(1803–1866)
29 September 1859

20 May 1861
Liberal Party
8
(1860–64)
18 Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
Caracas 20 May 1861

29 August 1861
Liberal Party
19 Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
Portuguesa 29 August 1861

15 June 1863
Military
20 Juan Crisóstomo Falcón.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Falcón
(1820–1870)
Falcón 15 June 1863

25 April 1868
Military
9
(1864–73)

United States of Venezuela (1864–1953)[edit]

Flag of Venezuela (1863-1905).svg President of the United States of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela (1871).svg

  Democratic Action   Conservative Party   Liberal Party   Independent   Military government


[3]
Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
State Term of office Term
[4]
Party
20 Juan Crisóstomo Falcón.jpg    Juan Crisóstomo Falcón
(1820–1870)
Falcón 15 June 1863

25 April 1868
9
(1864–73)
Military
21 Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual 1.jpg Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual
(1832–1868)
Magdalena
(Gran Colombia)
25 April 1868

28 June 1868
Independent
22 Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
Carabobo 28 June 1868

20 February 1869
Liberal Party
23 JRMonagas.jpg José Ruperto Monagas
(1831–1880)
Monagas 20 February 1869

16 April 1870
Military
24 Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
Carabobo 16 April 1870

27 April 1870
Liberal Party
25 Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
Caracas 27 April 1870

27 February 1877
Liberal Party
10
(1873–77)
26 Antonio Esteban Frías 1911 000.jpg Francisco Linares Alcántara
(1825–1878)
Aragua 27 February 1877

30 November 1878
11
(1877–82)
Liberal Party
27 José Gregorio Valera - El Cojo Ilustrado.jpg José Gregorio Valera 30 November 1878

26 February 1879
Liberal Party
28 Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
Caracas 26 February 1879

26 April 1884
Liberal Party
12
(1882–88)
29 Joaquín Crespo portrait.jpg Joaquín Crespo
(1830–1898)
Aragua 26 April 1884

15 September 1886
Liberal Party
30 Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
Caracas 15 September 1886

8 August 1887
Liberal Party
31 Hermógenes López.jpg Hermógenes López
(1830-1898)
Carabobo 8 August 1887

2 July 1888
Independent
32 Presidente Rojas Paúl (1890) by Cristobal Rojas.jpg Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl
(1826–1905)
Caracas 2 July 1888

19 March 1890
13
(1888–90)
Liberal Party
33 Raimundo Andueza Palacio.jpg Raimundo Andueza Palacio
(1846–1900)
Portuguesa 19 March 1890

17 June 1892
14
(1890–94)
Conservative Party
34 Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
Carabobo 17 June 1892

31 August 1892
Liberal Party
35 Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido
(1854–1949)
Barinas 31 August 1892

7 October 1892
Liberal Party
36 Joaquín Crespo portrait.jpg Joaquín Crespo
(1841–1898)
Aragua 7 October 1892

February 28 1898
Military
15
(1894–98)
37 Ignacio Andrade 2.jpg Ignacio Andrade
(1839–1925)
Mérida 28 February 1898

20 October 1899
16
(1898–08)
Liberal Party
38 Cipriano Castro 1908.jpg Cipriano Castro
(1858–1924)
Táchira 20 October 1899

19 December 1908
Military
39 Juan Vicente Gómez, 1911.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
Táchira 19 December 1908

5 August 1913
17
(1908–14)
Military
40 Portrait of Gil Fortoul - 1932.jpg José Gil Fortoul
(1861–1943)
Lara 5 August 1913

19 April 1914
Independent
41 Presidente Victorino Marquez Bustillos.jpg Victorino Márquez Bustillos
(1858–1922)
Portuguesa 19 April 1914

24 June 1922
18
(1914–22)
Independent
42 Gómez, 1928.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
Táchira 24 June 1922

30 May 1929
19
(1922–29)
Military
43 Juan Bautista Pérez.jpg Juan Bautista Pérez
(1869–1952)
Caracas 30 May 1929

13 June 1931
20
(1929–31)
Independent
44 Juan vicente GOMEZ.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
Táchira 13 June 1931

17 December 1935
21
(1931–36)
Military
45 Eleazar López Contreras.jpg Eleazar López Contreras
(1883–1973)
Táchira 18 December 1935

5 May 1941
Independent
22
(1936–41)
46 IMAngarita.JPG Isaías Medina Angarita
(1897–1953)
Táchira 5 May 1941

18 October 1945
23
(1941–48)
Democratic Party
47 Rómulo Betancourt, 1946.JPG Rómulo Betancourt
(1908–1981)
Miranda 18 October 1945

17 February 1948
Democratic Action
48 Rómulo Gallegos 1940s.jpg Rómulo Gallegos
(1884–1969)
Caracas 17 February 1948

24 November 1948
24
(1948–52)
Democratic Action
49 Carlos Delgado Chalbaud1.jpg Carlos Delgado Chalbaud
(1909–1950)
Caracas 24 November 1948

30 November 1950
Military
50 President Germán Suárez Flamerich.jpg Germán Suárez Flamerich
(1907–1990)
Caracas 30 November 1950

2 December 1952
Independent

Republic of Venezuela (1953–1999)[edit]

Venezuela took the name of Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República de Venezuela) with the adoption of the 1953 constitution, written by the Constituent Assembly elected in November 1952. The Presidents of Venezuela under this constitution (as well as the 1961 Constitution, which kept the name) were officially styled as President of the Republic of Venezuela.

This period of the history of Venezuela began with the presidency of Marcos Pérez Jiménez, widely perceived to be a dictator.[5][6] After a short period of political instability following Pérez Jiménez's exile in 1958, democracy was restored in the country with the election of Democratic Action leader Rómulo Betancourt as President in 1959. This marked the beginning of the so-called Fourth Republic of Venezuela, which was characterized by the prevalence of the Punto Fijo Pact and the bipartidism of the two main political parties in the country at the time, Democratic Action and Copei.

The second presidency of Carlos Andrés Pérez (1989–93) saw a deep economic crisis, major riots in which hundreds were killed by security forces (the Caracazo, 1989), two coup attempts in 1992, and the 1993 impeachment of Pérez. That same year, Rafael Caldera became the first President of Venezuela not to belong to either Democratic Action or Copei in over forty years, having been elected under the banner of National Convergence. The Fourth Republic officially ended in 2001 when a new constitution entered in force.

Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg President of the Republic of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg

  Democratic Party   Democratic Action   Copei   National Convergence   Fifth Republic Movement


[3]
Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
State Term of office Term
[4]
Party
51 Marcos Pérez Jiménez 1952.JPG    Marcos Pérez Jiménez
(1914–2001)
Táchira 2 December 1952

23 January 1958
25
(1952)
Military
52 WolfangLarrazábal.jpg Wolfgang Larrazábal
(1911–2003)
Sucre 23 January 1958

14 November 1958[7]
Independent
53 RB 1975.jpg Rómulo Betancourt
(1908–1981)
Miranda 13 February 1959

13 March 1964
26
(1958)
Democratic Action
54 Raúl Leoni 1965.jpg Raúl Leoni
(1905–1972)
Bolívar 13 March 1964

11 March 1969
27
(1963)
Democratic Action
55 Caldera, Rafael.jpg Rafael Caldera
(1916–2009)
Yaracuy 11 March 1969

12 March 1974
28
(1968)
Copei
56 Carlos Andrés Pérez - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 1989.jpg Carlos Andrés Pérez
(1922–2010)
Táchira 12 March 1974

12 March 1979
29
(1973)
Democratic Action
57 Luis Herrera Campins.jpg Luis Herrera Campins
(1925–2007)
Portuguesa 12 March 1979

2 February 1984
30
(1978)
Copei
58 Lusinchi 89.JPG Jaime Lusinchi
(1924–2014)
Anzoátegui 2 February 1984

2 February 1989
31
(1983)
Democratic Action
59 Carlos Andrés Pérez - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 1989.jpg Carlos Andrés Pérez
(1922–2010)
Táchira 2 February 1989

21 May 1993[8]
32
(1988)
Democratic Action
60 Ramón J. Velásquez, 2009.jpg Ramón José Velásquez
(1916–2014)
Táchira 5 June 1993

2 February 1994
Democratic Action
61 Caldera, Rafael.jpg Rafael Caldera
(1916–2009)
Yaracuy 2 February 1994

2 February 1999
33
(1993)
National Convergence

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (1999–present)[edit]

Venezuela became the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela) with the adoption of the 1999 constitution, which renamed the country in honor of Simón Bolívar. The new constitution was promulgated by President Hugo Chávez, who served de jure from 1999 until his death in 2013. The new constitution augmented the presidential term from five years to six years.

Chávez's presidency was interrupted shortly in 2002 following a failed coup d'état attempt that put Pedro Carmona in office for a day. After government-loyal forces ousted Carmona from Miraflores, Vice President Diosdado Cabello assumed executive control for a couple of hours until Chávez could be restored. In 2009, a constitutional referendum approved the elimination of term limits, which allowed Chávez to be re-elected again in 2012. However, the President died in March 2013, only three months into his fourth term, and was succeeded by his Vice President Nicolás Maduro, who was elected the following month to finish Chavez' term.

Flag of Venezuela.svg President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela.svg

  Fifth Republic Movement/United Socialist Party   Independent


[3]
Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
State Term of office Term
[4]
Party
64 Hugo Chávez (02-04-2010).jpg    Hugo Chávez
(1954–2013)
Barinas 2 February 1999

5 March 2013
34[9]
(1998)
Fifth Republic Movement
35
(2006)
United Socialist Party
36[10]
(2012)
65 Nicolás Maduro crop 2015.jpeg Nicolás Maduro
(1962–)
Caracas 5 March 2013

Incumbent
United Socialist Party

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Spanish) "Presidentes de Venezuela". Consulado General de Bucaramanga. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. 
  2. ^ Briceño Perozo, Mario. "Mendoza, Cristóbal de" in Diccionario de Historia de Venezuela, Vol. 3. Caracas: Fundación Polar, 1999. ISBN 978-980-6397-37-8.
  3. ^ a b c d For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, Carlos Soublette was both the 8th and 10th President because the two periods where he was president were not consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes acting president under the Constitution is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  4. ^ a b c d For the purposes of numbering, a term is a period between two presidential elections. Some terms might be longer than originally expected due to coup d'états or the installation of military dictatorships, thus extending the time between two elections. Venezuela's unique history has allowed several presidents to serve during a single term, as well as some presidents, such as Jose Maria Vargas, serving twice during a single term.
  5. ^ Rohter, Larry (22 September 2001). "Marcos Pérez Jiménez, 87, Venezuela Ruler". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Ledezma, Eurídice (21 September 2001). "Obituary: General Marcos Pérez Jiménez". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  7. ^ Larrazábal resigned early to challenge Rómulo Betancourt at the 1958 election, leaving Edgar Sanabria as acting president until the end of his term, on 13 February 1959.
  8. ^ Octavio Lepage, then President of Congress, served as acting president from 21 May 1993 and until 5 June 1993, when Ramón José Velásquez was formally selected to succeed Perez as president.
  9. ^ Hugo Chávez's first term as president began in February 1999 and is generally considered to last until August 2000, with his second term taking place after he was confirmed during the presidential elections of 2000 as part of the country's constitutional assembly. Therefore, many historians consider the period between August 2000 and January 2007 as Chávez's second term. However, this list considers the period between February 1999 and January 2007 as a single period.
  10. ^ Despite being elected and sworn to office in April 2013 after the special presidential elections, Nicolás Maduro's term in office is counted from February 2013, which is when the 36th term was originally set to begin.

External links[edit]