List of Presidents of Italy

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This is the list of the Presidents of the Italian Republic with the title Presidente della Repubblica since 1948. The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Quirinale) in Rome is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic.

The twelve Presidents came from only six of the twenty Regions: three each from Campania (all born in Naples) and Piedmont, two each from Sardinia (both born in Sassari) and Tuscany, and one each from Liguria and Sicily.

Election[edit]

The President of the Republic is elected by Parliament in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. In addition, the 20 regions of Italy appoint 58 representatives as special electors. Three representatives come from each region, save for the small Aosta Valley which appoints one, so as to guarantee representation for all localities and minorities.

According to the Constitution, the election must be held in the form of secret ballot, with the 315 senators, the 630 deputies and the 58 regional representatives all voting. A two-thirds vote is required to elect on any of the first three rounds of balloting; after that, a majority suffices. The election is presided over by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, who calls for the public counting of the votes. The vote is held in the Palazzo Montecitorio, home of the Chamber of Deputies, which is expanded and re-configured for the event.

The president assumes office after having taken an oath before Parliament and delivering a presidential address. Presidents are elected to serve a seven-year term. Giorgio Napolitano is the only president to be elected to a second term.

Presidents of the Italian Republic (1946–present)[edit]

  PLI       DC       PSDI       PSI       DS       Independent
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
Election
Days
(Years and days)
Political Party
at time of election
Prime Minister
Enrico De Nicola.jpg Enrico De Nicola
(1877–1959)
28 June
1946
1 January
1948
1 year, 319 days Italian Liberal Party De Gasperi
1946
1 January
1948
12 May
1948
Luigi Einaudi.jpg Luigi Einaudi
(1874–1961)
12 May
1948
11 May
1955
6 years, 364 days Italian Liberal Party De Gasperi
Pella
Fanfani
Scelba
1948
Giovanni Gronchi.jpg Giovanni Gronchi
(1887–1978)
11 May
1955
11 May
1962
7 years, 0 days Christian Democracy Scelba
Segni
Zoli
Fanfani
Segni
Tambroni
1955
Antonio Segni Official.jpg Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
11 May
1962
6 December
1964
2 years, 209 days Christian Democracy Fanfani
Leone
Moro
1962
Giuseppe Saragat.jpg Giuseppe Saragat
(1898–1988)
29 December
1964
29 December
1971
7 years, 0 days Italian Democratic Socialist Party Moro
Leone
Rumor
Colombo
1964
Leone303.jpg Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
29 December
1971
15 June
1978
6 years, 168 days Christian Democracy Colombo
Andreotti
Rumor
Moro
Andreotti
1971
Pertini ritratto.jpg Sandro Pertini
(1896–1990)
9 July
1978
29 June
1985
6 years, 361 days Italian Socialist Party Andreotti
Cossiga
Forlani
Spadolini
Fanfani
Craxi
1978
Cossiga Francesco.jpg Francesco Cossiga
(1928–2010)
3 July
1985
28 April
1992
6 years, 300 days Christian Democracy Craxi
Fanfani
Goria
De Mita
Andreotti
1985
8SCALFARO01gr.jpg Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
(1918–2012)
28 May
1992
15 May
1999
6 years, 352 days Christian Democracy Amato
Ciampi
Berlusconi
Dini
Prodi
D'Alema
1992
Ciampi ritratto.jpg Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
(1920–2016)
18 May
1999
15 May
2006
6 years, 362 days Independent[1] D'Alema
Amato
Berlusconi
1999
Presidente Napolitano.jpg Giorgio Napolitano
(1925– )
15 May
2006
22 April
2013
8 years, 244 days Democrats of the Left Prodi
Berlusconi
Monti
Letta
Renzi
2006
22 April
2013
14 January
2015
Independent
2013
Presidente Mattarella.jpg Sergio Mattarella
(1941– )
3 February
2015
Incumbent 2 years, 228 days Independent[2] Renzi
Gentiloni
2015

Substitution of the Head of State[edit]

On various occasions, officials had to intercede in the absence of a Head of State (e.g. in the case of a president's resignation or ill health). Only Enrico De Nicola, who was elected as Provisional Head of State by the Constitutional Assembly on 28 June 1946, had an official title and took residence in the Quirinal Palace. The others took the powers, but not the title, of Head of State. After the adoption of the Italian Constitution in 1948, the President of the Senate is eligible to take the powers of Head of State in case of absence of the President of the Republic.

The following persons served as substitute Head of State:

  • Alcide De Gasperi (1881–1954) exercised the powers of Provisional Head of State as Prime Minister of Italy between the departure of King Umberto II on 12 June 1946, and the proclamation of Enrico de Nicola as Head of State by the Constitutional Assembly on 28 June 1946.
  • Enrico De Nicola (1877–1959) was the only man who had the title, and not only the powers, of Provisional Head of State. He assumed the office on 28 June 1946, and officially became the President of the Republic on 1 January 1948, as ordered by the new Constitution.
  • Cesare Merzagora (1898–1991), as President of the Senate, assumed temporary powers for President Segni after his cerebral ictus of 10 August 1964, and assumed full powers after his resignation of 6 December and until 29 December 1964.
  • Amintore Fanfani (1908–1999), as President of the Senate, assumed powers from President Leone after his resignation for a bribery scandal on 15 June 1978. He exercised the powers until 9 July 1978.
  • Francesco Cossiga (1928–2010), as President of the Senate, assumed powers from President Pertini on 29 June 1985, just four days before taking office as President.
  • Giovanni Spadolini (1925–1994), as President of the Senate, assumed powers from President Cossiga on 28 April 1992. He exercised the powers until 28 May 1992.
  • Nicola Mancino (born 1931), as President of the Senate, assumed powers from President Scalfaro on 15 May 1999. He exercised the powers until 18 May 1999.
  • Pietro Grasso (born 1945), as President of the Senate, assumed powers from President Napolitano on 14 January 2015. He exercised the powers until 3 February 2015.

Timeline[edit]

Sergio Mattarella Giorgio Napolitano Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Oscar Luigi Scalfaro Francesco Cossiga Sandro Pertini Giovanni Leone Giuseppe Saragat Antonio Segni Giovanni Gronchi Luigi Einaudi Enrico De Nicola

Living former Presidents[edit]

There is one living former Italian President:

Living former Presidents
Giorgio Napolitano
(age 92)
served 2006–2015
 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ He had been a member of the Action Party, but the party ended its existence in 1947.
  2. ^ He had been a member of the Christian Democracy, of the Italian People's Party, of the Daisy and of the Democratic Party, but he quit political commitment when becoming a judge in 2009.

External links[edit]