List of Presidents of the Philippines

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For colonial chief executives of the Philippines prior to the ratification of the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines, see Governor-General of the Philippines.
The Malacañang Palace in Manila is the official residence of the President of the Philippines.[note 1] Built in 1750, it has become a prominent symbol of the office.

Under the Constitution of the Philippines, the President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and also serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces.[4] The President is directly elected by qualified voters of the population to a six-year term and must be "a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". Any person who has served as president for more than four years is barred from running for the position again. Upon an incumbent president's death, permanent disability, resignation, or removal from office, the Vice President assumes the post.[5]

Sixteen people have been sworn into office as president. Following the ratification of the Malolos Constitution in 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo became the inaugural president of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.[6][note 2] He held that office until 1901 when he was captured by United States forces during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902).[4] The American colonization of the Philippines abolished the First Republic,[7] which led an American governor-general to exercise executive power.[8]

In 1935 the US, pursuant to its promise of full Philippine sovereignty,[9] established the Commonwealth of the Philippines following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution, which also restored the presidency. The first national presidential election was held,[note 3] and Manuel L. Quezon (1935–44) was elected to a six-year term, with no provision for re-election,[12] as the second Philippine president and the first Commonwealth president.[note 2] In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow re-election but shortened the term to four years.[4] A change in government occurred three years later when the Second Philippine Republic was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which Japan imposed after it occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World War II.[13] José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government;[14] his de facto presidency,[15] not legally recognized until the 1960s,[16] overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945; the Commonwealth was restored in the Philippines in the same year with Sergio Osmeña (1944–46) as president.[4]

Manuel Roxas (1946–48) followed Osmeña when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July 4 of that year. The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965–86),[4] who performed a self-coup by imposing martial law in 1972.[17] The dictatorship saw the birth of Marcos' New Society and the Fourth Republic. His tenure lasted until 1986 when he was deposed in the People Power Revolution. The current constitution came into effect in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic.[4]

Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon[18] and Manuel Roxas[19]) and one in a plane crash (Ramon Magsaysay (1953–57)[20]). The longest-serving president is Ferdinand Marcos with 20 years and 57 days in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. The shortest is Sergio Osmeña who spent 1 year and 300 days in office; he is the first Philippine vice president as well as the first to succeed to the presidency (upon the death of Quezon). The first female president of the Philippines (and of any Asian country[21]) is Corazon Aquino (1986–92). Rodrigo Duterte is the incumbent president since 2016.

Key[edit]

The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual.

Key
Party English name Abbreviation
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas Association for Service to the New Philippines KALIBAPI
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan New Society Movement KBL
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses LAMMP
Lakas ng Tao–Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino–Christian Muslim Democrats People Power–Partner of the Free Filipino–Christian Muslim Democrats Lakas–Kampi–CMD
Lakas ng Tao–National Union of Christian Democrats People Power–National Union of Christian Democrats Lakas–NUCD
Liberal Party Liberal
Nacionalista Party Nationalist Party Nacionalista
Nationalist People's Coalition NPC
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power PDP–Laban
United Nationalist Democratic Organization UNIDO
Non-partisan N/A

Presidents[edit]

1899–1901: First Republic (Malolos Republic)[edit]

President of the First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)[22]
No.
overall
[note 2]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Term
[note 4]
Vice President Refs.
1 1 Emilio Aguinaldo    Emilio Aguinaldo
(1869–1964)
January 23, 1899
[note 5]
March 23, 1901
[note 6]
[note 7]
Non-partisan 1
(1899)
None
[note 8]
[10]
[11]

1935–46: Commonwealth[edit]

Presidents of the Philippine Commonwealth[22]
No.
overall
[note 2]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Term
[note 4]
Vice President Refs.
2 1 Manuel L. Quezon    Manuel L. Quezon
(1878–1944)
November 15, 1935
[note 9]
August 1, 1944
[note 10]
[note 11]
Nacionalista 2
(1935)
   Sergio Osmeña [36]
[37]
[38]
[12]
3
(1941)
4
[note 12]
2 Sergio Osmeña    Sergio Osmeña
(1878–1961)
August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946
[note 13]
[note 14]
Nacionalista Vacant
[note 15]
[39]
[40]
[12]
5 3 Manuel Roxas    Manuel Roxas
(1892–1948)
May 28, 1946 April 15, 1948
[note 16]
Liberal
[note 17]
5
[note 12]
(1946)
   Elpidio Quirino
May 28, 1946 
April 17, 1948
[43]
[44]
[41]

1943–45: Second Republic[edit]

President of the Second Philippine Republic[22]
No.
overall
[note 2]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Term
[note 4]
Vice President Refs.
3 1 José P. Laurel    José P. Laurel
(1891–1959)
October 14, 1943
[note 18]
August 17, 1945
[note 19]
[note 7]
KALIBAPI
[note 20]
4
(1943)
None
[note 21]
[49]
[52]

1946–73: Third Republic[edit]

Presidents of the Third Philippine Republic[22][note 22]
No.
overall
[note 2]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Term
[note 4]
Vice President Refs.
5 1 Manuel Roxas    Manuel Roxas
(1892–1948)
May 28, 1946 April 15, 1948
[note 16]
Liberal
[note 17]
5
(1946)
   Elpidio Quirino
May 28, 1946 
April 17, 1948
[43]
[44]
[41]
Vacant
April 15–17, 1948
[54]
6 2 Elpidio Quirino    Elpidio Quirino
(1890–1956)
April 17, 1948 December 30, 1953
[note 13]
Liberal
[note 23]
Vacant
[note 15]
April 17, 1948 
December 30, 1949
[56]
[57]
[41]
[55]
6
(1949)
   Fernando Lopez
December 30, 1949 
December 30, 1953
7 3 Ramon Magsaysay    Ramon Magsaysay
(1907–1957)
December 30, 1953 March 17, 1957
[note 24]
Nacionalista 7
(1953)
   Carlos P. Garcia [59]
[60]
[61]
8 4 Carlos P. Garcia    Carlos P. Garcia
(1896–1971)
March 18, 1957 December 30, 1961
[note 13]
Nacionalista Vacant
[note 15]
March 18 
December 30, 1957
[62]
[63]
[61]
[64]
8
(1957)
   Diosdado Macapagal
December 30, 1957 
December 30, 1961
9 5 Diosdado Macapagal    Diosdado Macapagal
(1910–1997)
December 30, 1961 December 30, 1965
[note 13]
Liberal 9
(1961)
   Emmanuel Pelaez [65]
[66]
[67]
10 6 Ferdinand Marcos    Ferdinand Marcos
(1917–1989)
December 30, 1965 February 25, 1986
[note 13]
[note 25]
Nacionalista 10
(1965)
   Fernando Lopez
December 30, 1965 
September 23, 1972

[note 26]
[73]
[74]
[75]
[76]
[32]
11
[note 27]
[note 28]
(1969)
None
[note 29]
September 23, 1972 
February 25, 1986
   KBL 12
[note 30]
(1981)

1981–87: Fourth Republic[edit]

Presidents of the Fourth Philippine Republic[22][note 31]
No.
overall
[note 2]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Term
[note 4]
Vice President Refs.
10 1 Ferdinand Marcos    Ferdinand Marcos
(1917–1989)
December 30, 1965 February 25, 1986
[note 13]
[note 25]
Nacionalista 10
(1965)
   Fernando Lopez
December 30, 1965 
September 23, 1972

[note 26]
[73]
[74]
[75]
[76]
[32]
11
[note 27]
[note 28]
(1969)
None
[note 29]
September 23, 1972 
February 25, 1986
   KBL 12
[note 30]
(1981)
11 2 Corazon Aquino    Corazon Aquino
(1933–2009)
February 25, 1986
[note 32]
June 30, 1992 UNIDO 13
(1986)
   Salvador Laurel [79]
[80]
[72]

1987–present: Fifth Republic[edit]

Presidents of the Fifth Philippine Republic[22][note 33]
No.
overall
[note 2]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Term
[note 4]
Vice President Refs.
11 1 Corazon Aquino    Corazon Aquino
(1933–2009)
February 25, 1986
[note 32]
June 30, 1992 UNIDO 13
(1986)
   Salvador Laurel [79]
[80]
[72]
12 2 Fidel Ramos    Fidel Ramos
(1928–)
June 30, 1992 June 30, 1998 Lakas–NUCD 14
(1992)
   Joseph Estrada [82]
[83]
[84]
13 3 Joseph Estrada    Joseph Estrada
(1937–)
June 30, 1998 January 20, 2001
[note 34]
[note 7]
LAMMP 15
(1998)
   Gloria Macapagal Arroyo [86]
[87]
[88]
14 4 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo    Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
(1947–)
January 20, 2001 June 30, 2010 Lakas–NUCD Vacant
[note 15]
January 20 
February 7, 2001
[89]
[90]
[88]
[91]
   Teofisto Guingona Jr.
February 7, 2001 
June 30, 2004
Lakas–Kampi–CMD 16
(2004)
   Noli de Castro
[note 35]
June 30, 2004 
June 30, 2010
15 5 Benigno Aquino III    Benigno Aquino III
(1960–)
June 30, 2010 June 30, 2016 Liberal 17
(2010)
   Jejomar Binay [92]
[93]
[94]
16 6 Rodrigo Duterte    Rodrigo Duterte
(1945–)
June 30, 2016 Incumbent PDP–Laban 18
(2016)
   Leni Robredo
[95]

Timeline[edit]

Rodrigo Duterte Benigno Aquino III Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Joseph Estrada Fidel Ramos Corazon Aquino Ferdinand Marcos Diosdado Macapagal Carlos P. Garcia Ramon Magsaysay Elpidio Quirino Manuel Roxas Sergio Osmeña José P. Laurel Manuel L. Quezon Emilio Aguinaldo

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The President has three official residences, but the Malacañang Palace is the President's principal workplace.[1] The other two are the Mansion House in Baguio, the official summer residence,[2] and the Malacañang sa Sugbo (Malacañang of Cebu), the official residence in Cebu.[3]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h In chronological order, the presidents started with Manuel L. Quezon,[23] who was then succeeded by Sergio Osmeña as the second president,[24] until the recognition of Emilio Aguinaldo[25] and José P. Laurel's[16] presidencies in the 1960s.[subnote 1][subnote 2] With Aguinaldo as the first president and Laurel as the third, Quezon and Osmeña are thus listed as the second and the fourth, respectively.[4][22]
  3. ^ Emilio Aguinaldo, the official first president, was elected by the Malolos Congress and not by popular vote.[10][11]
  4. ^ a b c d e f For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, Manuel L. Quezon was elected in two consecutive terms and is counted as the second president (not the second and third).[subnote 3] Upon the death of fifth president, Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino became the sixth president even though he simply served out the remainder of Roxas' term and was not elected to the presidency in his own right.
  5. ^ Term began with the formal establishment of the Malolos Republic.[26][27][subnote 1][subnote 4]
  6. ^ Term ended when Aguinaldo was captured by US forces in Palanan, Isabela, during the Philippine–American War.[4][subnote 5]
  7. ^ a b c Later sought election or re-election to a non-consecutive term.[subnote 6]
  8. ^ The Malolos Constitution did not provide for a vice president.[35]
  9. ^ Term began with the formal establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth.[9][subnote 3]
  10. ^ Died, in office, of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York.[18]
  11. ^ Term was originally until November 15, 1943, due to constitutional limitations as provided by the 1940 amendment of the 1935 Constitution, which shortened the terms of the president and the vice president from six to four years but allowed re-election.[subnote 6] Quezon was not intended to serve the full four years of the second term he won in the 1941 election because a ten-year presidency would have been considered excessive. In 1943, however, due to World War II, he and Vice President Sergio Osmeña, who was also re-elected, had to take an emergency oath of office, extending their tenure.[4][12]
  12. ^ a b See § 1943–45: Second Republic.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Unseated (lost re-election).[subnote 6]
  14. ^ Sought an election for a full term, but was unsuccessful.
  15. ^ a b c d Prior to the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, there was no mechanism by which a vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled.[5][34] Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Constitution when she appointed Teofisto Guingona Jr.
  16. ^ a b Died, in office, of a heart attack in Clark Air Base, Pampanga.[19]
  17. ^ a b The Liberal Party was not yet a party in itself at the time, but only a wing of the Nacionalista Party.[41] It split and became a separate party by 1947.[42]
  18. ^ Term began with the establishment of Japan's puppet Second Republic after it occupied the Philippines during World War II.[13][45] The Commonwealth continued its existence as a government in exile in Australia and the United States.[9][46] The Philippines had two concurrent presidents by this time:[4] a de jure (the Commonwealth president) and a de facto (Laurel).[15] Because of his status, he was not considered a legitimate president until the 1960s.[16]
  19. ^ Term ended when he dissolved the Second Republic in the wake of Japan's surrender to the Allies two days prior.[16][45][subnote 2] The Commonwealth was re-established in the Philippines,[13] with Sergio Osmeña as the fourth president.[4][subnote 7]
  20. ^ Previously affiliated with the Nacionalista Party,[49] but was elected by the National Assembly under the Japanese-organized KALIBAPI, a "non-political service organization" as it described itself.[50] All pre-war parties were replaced by the KALIBAPI.[13][16]
  21. ^ The 1943 Constitution did not provide for a vice president.[35][51]
  22. ^ The Third Republic began when the Philippine Commonwealth ended on July 4, 1946.[4][53]
  23. ^ The Liberal Party was split into two opposing wings for the 1949 election: the Avelino wing, led by presidential aspirant José Avelino, and the Quirino wing.[55]
  24. ^ Died, in office, in a plane crash in Mount Manunggal, Cebu.[20][58]
  25. ^ a b Deposed in the People Power Revolution.[subnote 8]
  26. ^ a b Term ended upon Marcos' declaration of martial law.[35][subnote 9][subnote 10]
  27. ^ a b Imposed martial law, as a self-coup, on September 23, 1972, through Proclamation No. 1081, shortly before the end of his second and final term in 1973.[subnote 9] General Order No. 1, which detailed the transfer of all powers to the president, was also issued, enabling Marcos to rule by decree.[17]
  28. ^ a b Served concurrently as prime minister from June 12, 1978, to June 30, 1981.[73][subnote 10]
  29. ^ a b The 1973 Constitution was amended through a plebiscite held on January 27, 1984 to re-establish the vice presidency.[35][78][subnote 10]
  30. ^ a b The 1973 Constitution, as amended in 1981, did not place restrictions on re-election.[subnote 6]
  31. ^ Martial law was lifted by Ferdinand Marcos on January 17, 1981, through Proclamation No. 2045,[17] marking the beginning of the Fourth Republic.[53]
  32. ^ a b Assumed presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986 snap election.[subnote 8]
  33. ^ Corazon Aquino promulgated a provisional constitution called the 1986 Freedom Constitution on March 25, 1986.[81] It remained in effect until it was supplanted by the current constitution on February 2, 1987,[81] which ushered the Fifth Republic.[4]
  34. ^ Deposed after the Supreme Court declared Estrada as resigned, and, as a result, the office of the president vacant, after the Second EDSA Revolution.[85]
  35. ^ Allied with the Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan (Coalition of Truth and Experience for Tomorrow).[91]

Subnotes

  1. ^ a b The Malolos Republic, an independent revolutionary state that is actually the first constitutional republic in Asia,[7][26] remained unrecognized by any country[28][29] until the Philippines acknowledged the government as its predecessor,[30] which it also calls the First Philippine Republic.[7][25][31] Aguinaldo was consequently counted as the country's first president.[6][25]
  2. ^ a b The Second Republic was later declared by the Supreme Court of the Philippines as a de facto, illegitimate government on September 17, 1945.[16] Its laws were considered null and void;[4][16] despite this, Laurel was included in the official roster of Philippine presidents in the 1960s.[16]
  3. ^ a b Emilio Aguinaldo would be counted as the second president if he had won the 1935 election because the presidency was abolished and remained defunct until November 15, 1935. During that period, the executive power was exercised by the Governor-General of the US military government and the Insular Government, the precursor of the Philippine Commonwealth.[8]
  4. ^ Aguinaldo had previously held the presidency of other short-lived national governments that preceded the Malolos Republic:[7][26] the Tejeros government (March 22 – November 2, 1897), the Republic of Biak-na-Bato (November 1 – December 20, 1897), a dictatorial government (May 24 – June 23, 1898), and a revolutionary government (June 23, 1898 – January 22, 1899).[10]
  5. ^ Aguinaldo took the oath of allegiance to the US nine days later, effectively ending the republic.[7][28]
  6. ^ a b c d Before the ratification of the 1981 amendment of the 1973 Constitution, which removed the limit on re-election to the office for another six-year term,[32][33] presidents were elected to a four-year term with the possibility of re-election, as the amended 1935 Constitution specified: "No person shall serve as [p]resident for more than eight consecutive years."[34] When the 1987 Constitution was imposed and, in effect, superseded the previous constitutions, the president is no longer eligible for any re-election. It does, however, allow a person who had assumed the presidency to seek for a full six-year term if he or she has not yet "served as such for more than four years".[5]
  7. ^ The Commonwealth had already been temporarily restored in Tacloban on October 23, 1944, during the Battle of Leyte,[47] before it was proclaimed "reestablished as provided by law" on February 27, 1945.[48]
  8. ^ a b Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino both took their oath of office on February 25, 1986. In effect, the Philippines again had two simultaneous presidents, albeit for nine hours only.[68] Marcos was proclaimed on February 15 the winner of the widely denounced February 7 snap election,[68][69] which he called after opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., his chief rival and Corazon's wife, was assassinated in 1983.[70] However, in a separate NAMFREL tally dated February 16, Aquino was found the actual duly-elected president.[71][72] The events led to the People Power Revolution on February 22–25, which forced Marcos to leave to exile in Hawaii and installed Aquino to the office.[68][70][72]
  9. ^ a b Accounts differ on when martial law was officially established. While sources such as Raymond Bonner have written that Proclamation No. 1081 was signed on September 23, 1972, Primitivo Mijares, a former journalist for Marcos, and the Bangkok Post stated that it was on September 17, only postdated to September 21 because of Marcos' numerological beliefs that were related to the number seven. Marcos claimed to have signed it on September 21, and as of 9 p.m. Philippine Standard Time (UTC+08:00) on September 22, the country was under martial law. He formally announced it in a live television and radio broadcast on September 23. The official date when martial law was set was on September 21 (because it was a date that was divisible by seven), but September 23 is generally considered the correct date because it was when the nation was informed and thus the proclamation was put into full effect.[17]
  10. ^ a b c On January 17, 1973, while martial law was still in effect, the 1973 Constitution was ratified, which suspended the 1935 Constitution and ended the Third Republic.[35][53] What Marcos called a New Society (Bagong Lipunan) began,[53] introducing a parliamentary form of government;[77] the vice presidency was abolished and the presidential succession provision was devolved to the prime minister.[35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ortiguero, Romsanne (October 22, 2014). "TRAVEL Inside Malacañang Complex, 3 places to visit for a charming date with history". News5. TV5. Retrieved June 22, 2016. 
  2. ^ "Mansion House". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 20, 2016. 
  3. ^ Sisante, Jam (August 6, 2010). "Malacañang sa Sugbo still the president's official residence in Cebu". GMA News and Public Affairs. GMA Network. Retrieved June 20, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "The Executive Branch". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Tucker 2009, p. 8
  7. ^ a b c d e Staff writer(s); no by-line. (September 7, 2012). "The First Philippine Republic". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved June 17, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Agoncillo & Guerrero 1970, p. 281
  9. ^ a b c "The Commonwealth of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 8, 2016. 
  10. ^ a b c "Emilio Aguinaldo". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b PCDSPO 2015, p. 203
  12. ^ a b c d PCDSPO 2015, pp. 62–64
  13. ^ a b c d Jose, Ricardo T. (1997). Afterword. His Excellency Jose P. Laurel, President of the Second Philippine Republic: Speeches, Messages and Statements, October 14, 1943 to December 19, 1944. By Laurel, José P. Manila: Lyceum of the Philippines in cooperation with the José P. Laurel Memorial Foundation. ISBN 971-91847-2-8. Retrieved June 18, 2016 – via Presidential Museum and Library. 
  14. ^ Staff writer(s); no by-line. (September 3, 1945). "The Philippines: End of a Puppet". Time. Retrieved July 5, 2016. (subscription required (help)). 
  15. ^ a b "Today is the birth anniversary of President Jose P. Laurel". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Staff writer(s); no by-line. (October 14, 2015). "Second Philippine Republic". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 6, 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Declaration of Martial Law". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016. 
  18. ^ a b Tejero, Constantino C. (November 8, 2015). "The real Manuel Luis Quezon, beyond the posture and bravura". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 16, 2016. 
  19. ^ a b Staff writer(s); no by-line. (April 16, 1948). "Heart Attack Fatal to Philippine Pres. Roxas". Schenectady Gazette. Manila. Retrieved June 16, 2016. 
  20. ^ a b "Death Anniversary of President Ramon Magsaysay". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. March 17, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2016. 
  21. ^ Staff writer(s); no by-line. (August 1, 2009). "Philippine ex-leader Aquino dies". BBC News. Retrieved June 22, 2016. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g "Philippine Presidents". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  23. ^ Quezon, Manuel L. (December 30, 1941). "Second Inaugural Address of President Quezon". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  24. ^ Staff writer(s); no by-line. (October 19, 1961). "Sergio Osmena, Second President of the Philippines". Toledo Blade. Manila: Block Communications. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  25. ^ a b c Pascual, Federico D., Jr. (September 26, 2010). "Macapagal legacy casts shadow on today's issues". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  26. ^ a b c "Araw ng Republikang Filipino, 1899" [Philippine Republic Day, 1899]. Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 22, 2016. 
  27. ^ Guevara 1972, p. 28
  28. ^ a b Tucker 2009, p. 496
  29. ^ Abueva, José V. (February 12, 2013). "Our only republic". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 22, 2016. 
  30. ^ Macapagal, Diosdado (June 12, 1962). "Address of President Macapagal on Independence Day". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 23, 2016. 
  31. ^ "Proclamation No. 533, s. 2013". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. January 9, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2016. 
  32. ^ a b c PCDSPO 2015, pp. 125–126
  33. ^ "1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 21, 2016. 
  34. ^ a b The 1935 Constitution:
  35. ^ a b c d e f "Office of the Vice President". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 21, 2016. 
  36. ^ "Manuel L. Quezon". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  37. ^ PCDSPO 2015, p. 204
  38. ^ PCDSPO 2015, pp. 54–56
  39. ^ "Sergio Osmeña". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  40. ^ PCDSPO 2015, p. 206
  41. ^ a b c d PCDSPO 2015, pp. 74–76
  42. ^ PCDSPO 2015, p. 78
  43. ^ a b "Manuel Roxas". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  44. ^ a b PCDSPO 2015, p. 207
  45. ^ a b PCDSPO 2015, p. 72
  46. ^ Agoncillo & Guerrero 1970, p. 415
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