List of presidents of the Philippines

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Malacañang Palace in Manila is the official residence of the president.[note 1] Built in 1750, it has become a prominent symbol of and metonym for the office.

Under the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, the president of the Philippines (Filipino: pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces.[4][5] The president is directly elected by qualified voters to a six-year term and must be "a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". Any person who has served as president for more than six years is barred from eligibility. Upon resignation, or removal from office, the vice president assumes the post.[6]

History[edit]

Emilio Aguinaldo became the inaugural president of the Philippines under the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.[7][note 2] He held that office until 1901 when he was captured by United States forces during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902).[4] The American colonization of the Philippines abolished the First Republic,[12] which led to an American governor-general exercising executive power.[19]

In 1935, the United States, pursuant to its promise of full Philippine sovereignty,[20] established the Commonwealth of the Philippines following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution, which also restored the presidency. The first national presidential election was held,[note 3] and Manuel L. Quezon (1935–44) was elected to a six-year term, with no provision for re-election,[5] as the second Philippine president and the first Commonwealth president.[note 2] In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow re-election but shortened the term to four years.[4] A change in government occurred three years later when the Second Philippine Republic was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which Japan imposed after it occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World War II.[23] José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government;[24] his de facto presidency,[25] not legally recognized until the 1960s,[11] overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945; the Commonwealth was restored in the Philippines in the same year with Sergio Osmeña (1944–46) as president.[4]

Manuel Roxas (1946–1948) followed Osmeña when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July 4 of that year. The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965–86),[4] who performed a self-coup by imposing martial law in 1972.[26] The dictatorship of Marcos saw the birth of the New Society (Filipino: Bagong Lipunan) and the Fourth Republic. His tenure lasted until 1986 when he was deposed in the People Power Revolution. The current constitution came into effect in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic.[4]

Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon[27] and Manuel Roxas[28]) and one in a plane crash (Ramon Magsaysay, 1953–57[29]). The longest-serving president is Ferdinand Marcos with 20 years and 57 days in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. The shortest is Sergio Osmeña, who spent 1 year and 300 days in office.

Two women have held the office: Corazon Aquino (1986–92), who ascended to the presidency upon the successful People Power Revolution of 1986, and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001–10), who, as vice president, ascended to the presidency upon Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in 2004.

Presidents[edit]

# Portrait Name
(Lifespan)
Party Term Election Vice president Era
1
Emilio Aguinaldo ca. 1919 (Restored).jpg
Emilio Aguinaldo
(1869–1964)
None January 23, 1899 – March 23, 1901[a]

(2 years, 59 days)

1899 None[b] First Republic
None[c] August 14, 1898 – July 4, 1902

(3 years, 324 days)

[d] None U.S. Military Government
July 4, 1901 – November 15, 1935

(34 years, 134 days)

U.S. Insular Government
2
ML Quezon.jpg
Manuel L. Quezon
(1878–1944)
Nacionalista Party
Nationalist Party
November 15, 1935 – August 1, 1944[e]

(8 years, 260 days)

1935 Sergio Osmeña Commonwealth
1941
3
Jose P. Laurel (cropped).jpg
Jose P. Laurel
(1891–1959)
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas
Association for Service to the New Philippines
October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945[f]

(1 year, 307 days)

1943 None[b] Second Republic
4
Sergio Osmena photo.jpg
Sergio Osmeña
(1878–1961)
Nacionalista Party
Nationalist Party
August 1, 1944 – May 28, 1946

(1 year, 300 days)

1941 Vacant[g] Commonwealth
5
Manuel Roxas 2.jpg
Manuel Roxas
(1892–1948)
Liberal Party May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948[e]

(1 year, 323 days)

1946 Elpidio Quirino
Third Republic
6
Elpidio R Quirino.jpg
Elpidio Quirino
(1890–1956)
Liberal Party April 17, 1948 – December 30, 1953
(5 years, 257 days)
Vacant[g]
1949 Fernando Lopez
7
Ramon-Magsaysay-01.jpg
Ramon Magsaysay
(1907–1957)
Nacionalista Party
Nationalist Party
December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957[e]

(3 years, 77 days)

1953 Carlos P. Garcia
8
Carlos P Garcia photo.jpg
Carlos P. Garcia
(1896–1971)
Nacionalista Party
Nationalist Party
March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961
(4 years, 287 days)
Vacant[g]
1957 Diosdado Macapagal
9
Diosdado Macapagal photo.jpg
Diosdado Macapagal
(1910–1997)
Liberal Party December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965

(4 years, 0 days)

1961 Emmanuel Pelaez
10
Ferdinand E Marcos (cropped).jpg
Ferdinand Marcos
(1917–1989)
Nacionalista Party
Nationalist Party
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986[h]
(20 years, 57 days)
1965 Fernando Lopez
1969
None[b] Marcos dictatorship
1973[i]
1977[i]
New Society
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
New Society Movement
1981 Vacant[j] Fourth Republic
11
Corazon Aquino 1986.jpg
Corazon Aquino
(1933–2009)
United Nationalist Democratic Organization February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992
(6 years, 126 days)
1986 Salvador Laurel Provisional Government
Independent Fifth Republic
12
Ramos Pentagon.jpg
Fidel V. Ramos
(1928–2022)
Lakas–National Union of Christian Democrats
People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats
June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998

(6 years, 0 days)

1992 Joseph Estrada
13
President Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada, Argentine President Menem (cropped).jpg
Joseph Estrada
(born 1937)
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino
Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses
June 30, 1998 – January 20, 2001[k]

(2 years, 204 days)

1998 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
14
Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo during the presentation ceremonies of the 31st Chief Girl Scout Medal Scheme at the Heroes Hall, Malacanang Palace (081128-NCR-01MA).jpg
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
(born 1947)
Lakas–Christian Muslim Democrats
People Power-Christian Muslim Democrats
January 20, 2001 – June 30, 2010

(9 years, 161 days)

Vacant
Teofisto Guingona Jr.
2004 Noli de Castro
15
Benigno "Noynoy" S. Aquino III.jpg
Benigno Aquino III
(1960–2021)
Liberal Party June 30, 2010 – June 30, 2016

(6 years, 0 days)

2010 Jejomar Binay
16
President Rodrigo Duterte portrait (cropped).jpg
Rodrigo Duterte
(born 1945)
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan
Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power
June 30, 2016 – June 30, 2022

(6 years, 0 days)

2016 Leni Robredo
17 Ferdinand Marcos Jr. Inauguration RTVM (Enhanced).png Bongbong Marcos
(born 1957)
Partido Federal ng Pilipinas
Federal Party of the Philippines
June 30, 2022 – incumbent

(38 days)

2022 Sara Duterte

Timeline[edit]

Bongbong MarcosRodrigo DuterteBenigno Aquino IIIGloria Macapagal ArroyoJoseph EstradaFidel RamosCorazon AquinoFerdinand MarcosDiosdado MacapagalCarlos P. GarciaRamon MagsaysayElpidio QuirinoManuel RoxasSergio OsmeñaJosé P. LaurelManuel L. QuezonEmilio Aguinaldo

Unofficial presidents[edit]

Andrés Bonifacio is considered by some historians to be the first president of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896 (the Cry of Balintawak), Bonifacio transformed it into a revolutionary government with him as president. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Tagalog: Republika ng Katagalugan; Spanish: Republica Tagala). (Although the word Tagalog refers to a specific ethnicity, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous people in the Philippines in place of Filipino which had colonial origins.)[30][31][32][33][34]

Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sakay and Miguel Malvar y Carpio should also be included.[35] Miguel Malvar y Carpio continued Emilio Aguinaldo's leadership of the First Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902. Macario Sakay revived the Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuation of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents". Along with Bonifacio, Malvar and Sakay are not recognized as presidents by the Philippine government.[36][37]

Emilio Aguinaldo is officially recognized as the first president of the Philippines, but this is based on his term of office during the Malolos Republic, later known as the First Philippine Republic. Prior to this Aguinaldo had held the presidency of several revolutionary governments which are not counted in the succession of Philippine republics.

Manuel L. Quezon delegated his presidential duties to José Abad Santos, the then Chief Justice, when the former fled the Philippines amidst Japanese occupation of the islands to establish a government-in-exile. He is believed to have in effect become the acting president of the Philippine Commonwealth though no legal document has been retrieved detailing the official transfer of the title of President to Abad Santos.[38]

List[edit]

Portrait Name
Lifespan
Party Term Vice President Government
Took office Left office
Andrés Bonifacio photo (cropped).jpg
Andres Bonifacio
(1863–1897)
[34][39][40][41]
None August 24, 1896[l] March 22, 1897[m]
or
May 10, 1897[n]
None Sovereign Tagalog Nation
Emilio Aguinaldo ca. 1919 (Restored).jpg
Emilio Aguinaldo
(1869–1964)
None March 22, 1897[o] November 1, 1897[p] Mariano Trias Tejeros revolutionary government
November 2, 1897[q] December 14, 1897[r] Republic of Biak-na-Bato
May 24, 1898 June 23, 1898 [s] Dictatorial Government
June 23, 1898[t][42] January 23, 1899[u] Revolutionary Government
Francisco Maabulos.jpg Francisco Makabulos
(1871 – 1922)
None April 17, 1898 May 19, 1898[v] None Central Executive Committee
Miguel malvar PG.jpg Miguel Malvar
(1865–1911)
[43]
None April 1, 1901[w] April 16, 1902[x] None[b] First Republic
Macario Sacay.jpg
Macario Sakay
(1870–1907)
[44][45][46]
Katipunan
(holdout/revival)
May 6, 1902[y] July 14, 1906[z] Francisco Carreón Tagalog Republic
Chief_Justice_Jose_Abad_Santos.jpg
José Abad Santos
(1886 –1942)
[38]
Independent March 17, 1942 May 2, 1942 None Commonwealth
Jouge B. Vargas and his daughter (cropped).jpg
Jorge Bartolome Vargas
(1890–1980)
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas
Association for Service to the New Philippines
January 23, 1942 October 14, 1943 None Philippine Executive Commission
Arturo Tolentino.jpg
Arturo Tolentino
(1910 –2004)
[47][48]
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
New Society Movement
July 6, 1986[aa] July 8, 1986 None Fourth Republic

Timeline[edit]

Jorge B. VargasJosé Abad SantosTagalog Republic#Sakay's RepublicMiguel MalvarFirst Philippine RepublicHistory of the Philippines (1898–1946)#Philippine declaration of independence and establishment of Philippine governmentsHistory of the Philippines (1898–1946)#Philippine declaration of independence and establishment of Philippine governmentsCentral Executive Committee (Philippines)Republic of Biak-na-BatoTejeros ConventionAndres Bonifacio

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The president has three official residences, with the Malacañang Palace Complex as the principal abode and workplace.[1] The others are Mansion House in Baguio, the official summer residence,[2] and Malacañang sa Sugbo (Malacañang of Cebu), the official residence in Cebu.[3]
  2. ^ a b In chronological order, the presidents started with Manuel L. Quezon,[8] who was then succeeded by Sergio Osmeña as the second president,[9] until the recognition of Emilio Aguinaldo[10] and José P. Laurel's[11] presidencies in the 1960s.[subnote 1][subnote 2] With Aguinaldo as the first president and Laurel as the third, Quezon and Osmeña are thus listed as the second and the fourth, respectively.[4][18]
  3. ^ Emilio Aguinaldo, the official first president, was elected by the Malolos Congress and not by popular vote.[21][22]

Subnotes

  1. ^ The Malolos Republic, an independent revolutionary state that is actually the first constitutional republic in Asia,[12][13] remained unrecognized by any country[14][15] until the Philippines acknowledged the government as its predecessor,[16] which it also calls the First Philippine Republic.[12][10][17] Aguinaldo was consequently counted as the country's first president.[7][10]
  2. ^ The Second Republic was later declared by the Supreme Court of the Philippines as a de facto, illegitimate government on September 17, 1945.[11] Its laws were considered null and void;[4][11] despite this, Laurel was included in the official roster of Philippine presidents in the 1960s.[11]

Other notes

  1. ^ Term started at the inauguration of the First Republic, and ended with Aguinaldo's capture in Palanan.
  2. ^ a b c d The constitution at this time did not create an office of the vice president.
  3. ^ Executive authority was held by American Governors-General; from July 1, 1901, to July 1, 1902, the civil and military governor served concurrently.
  4. ^ Appointed by the president of the United States, with advice and consent of the United States Senate.
  5. ^ a b c Died in office.
  6. ^ Term started with the inauguration of the Second Republic, and ended with Laurel's declaration of its dissolution.
  7. ^ a b c The constitution at this time did not mandate a selection of a new vice president after the erstwhile vice president becomes president.
  8. ^ Ousted after the People Power Revolution, and fled the country afterwards.
  9. ^ a b This was a referendum asking the electorate if the incumbent president should remain in office.
  10. ^ A plebiscite in 1984 approved the recreation of the office of the vice president, but an election was not called until 1986.
  11. ^ Ousted after the Second EDSA Revolution; later declared as resigned by the Supreme Court.
  12. ^ Term began when Bonifacio declared the establishment of the Tagalog Republic.
  13. ^ Term ended after the Tejeros Convention.
  14. ^ Executed for treason by Aguinaldo's government; Bonifacio did not recognize its validity and still acted as president.
  15. ^ Term was established at the Tejeros Convention; Aguinaldo took his oath of office the day after (March 23), but did not fully assume the office until late April 1897.
  16. ^ Term ended with the establishment of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
  17. ^ Term began after the establishment of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
  18. ^ Term ended when Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.
  19. ^ Term ended when Aguinaldo shifted from dictatorial to revolutionary government.
  20. ^ Term began with the [http://www.pangulo.ph/prexy_efa.php declaration of a revolutionary government replacing the dictatorship.
  21. ^ Term ended with the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic.
  22. ^ Term ended upon the return of Aguinaldo, who established a dictatorship.
  23. ^ Term began when Malvar presumptively assumed the presidency after the capture of Aguinaldo.
  24. ^ Term ended when Malvar surrendered in Batangas.
  25. ^ Term began when Sakay declared the establishment of the Tagalog Republic (in the tradition of Bonifacio instead of Aguinaldo).
  26. ^ Term ended when Sakay surrendered as part of an amnesty; he was executed a year later.
  27. ^ The running-mate of former President Ferdinand Marcos in the February 1986 presidential election. Proclaimed himself as acting president in a coup attempt.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ortiguero, Romsanne (October 22, 2014). "TRAVEL Inside Malacañang Complex, 3 places to visit for a charming date with history". News5. TV5. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  2. ^ "Mansion House". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  3. ^ Sisante, Jam (August 6, 2010). "Malacañang sa Sugbo still the president's official residence in Cebu". GMA News and Public Affairs. GMA Network. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Executive Branch". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  5. ^ a b PCDSPO 2015, pp. 62–64
  6. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Tucker 2009, p. 8
  8. ^ Quezon, Manuel Luis M. (December 30, 1941). "Second Inaugural Address of President Quezon". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  9. ^ Staff writer(s) (October 19, 1961). "Sergio Osmena, Second President of the Philippines". Toledo Blade. Manila: Block Communications. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Pascual, Federico D., Jr. (September 26, 2010). "Macapagal legacy casts shadow on today's issues". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e Staff writer(s) (October 14, 2015). "Second Philippine Republic". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c Staff writer(s) (September 7, 2012). "The First Philippine Republic". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  13. ^ "Araw ng Republikang Filipino, 1899" [Philippine Republic Day, 1899]. Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  14. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 496
  15. ^ Abueva, José V. (February 12, 2013). "Our only republic". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  16. ^ Macapagal, Diosdado (June 12, 1962). "Address of President Macapagal on Independence Day". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  17. ^ "Proclamation No. 533, s. 2013". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. January 9, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  18. ^ "Philippine Presidents". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  19. ^ Agoncillo & Guerrero 1970, p. 281
  20. ^ "The Commonwealth of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
  21. ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  22. ^ PCDSPO 2015, p. 203
  23. ^ Jose, Ricardo T. (1997). Afterword. His Excellency Jose P. Laurel, President of the Second Philippine Republic: Speeches, Messages and Statements, October 14, 1943 to December 19, 1944. By Laurel, José P. Manila: Lyceum of the Philippines in cooperation with the José P. Laurel Memorial Foundation. ISBN 971-91847-2-8. Retrieved June 18, 2016 – via Presidential Museum and Library.
  24. ^ Staff writer(s) (September 3, 1945). "The Philippines: End of a Puppet". Time. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  25. ^ "Today is the birth anniversary of President Jose P. Laurel". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  26. ^ "Declaration of Martial Law". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  27. ^ Tejero, Constantino C. (November 8, 2015). "The real Manuel Luis Quezon, beyond the posture and bravura". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  28. ^ Staff writer(s) (April 16, 1948). "Heart Attack Fatal to Philippine Pres. Roxas". Schenectady Gazette. Manila. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  29. ^ "Death Anniversary of President Ramon Magsaysay". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. March 17, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  30. ^ Borromeo-Buehler & Borromeo 1998, pp. M1 25 (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p.61, citing Guerrero, Encarnacion & Villegas); ^ Borromeo-Buehler & Borromeo 1998, pp. 26, "Formation of a revolutionary government"; ^ Borromeo-Buehler & Borromeo 1998, pp. M1 135 (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Bricco Brigado Pantos).
  31. ^ Halili & Halili 2004, pp. 138–139.
  32. ^ Severino, Howie (November 27, 2007), Bonifacio for (first) president, GMA News.
  33. ^ * Guerrero, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998), Reform and Revolution, Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People, vol. 5, Asia Publishing Company Limited, ISBN 962-258-228-1.
  34. ^ a b * Guerrero, Milagros; Encarnación, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramón (1996), "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution", Sulyap Kultura, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 1 (2): 3–12, archived from the original on November 15, 2010.
  35. ^ Ambeth Ocampo (May 11, 2010). "Bonifacio, First President of the Philippines?". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  36. ^ manilatimes.net, Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar Archived 2008-01-04 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995), Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?, Philippine History Group of Los Ángeles, archived from the original on June 9, 2007, retrieved April 8, 2007
  38. ^ a b Orejas, Tonette. "Abad Santos, acting Commonwealth president, gets proper honors in place where he died". newsinfo.inquirer.net.
  39. ^ Guererro, Francis Rodney; Songalia (1998). Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People. Vol. 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 962-258-228-1.
  40. ^ Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad; Borromeo, Soledad Masangkay (1998). The Cry of Balintawak: a contrived controversy. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-278-4.
  41. ^ Severino, Howie (November 27, 2007). "Bonifacio for (first) president". gmanews.tv. GMA Network. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  42. ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy". pangulo.ph. Archived from the original on December 5, 2004.
  43. ^ Cruz, Maricel V. (February 2, 2008). "Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar". www.manilatimes.net. Manila Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  44. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) [1960]. History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing Inc. ISBN 971-10-2415-2.
  45. ^ Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995). "Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2007.
  46. ^ Tan, Michael (September 21, 2007). "September's heroes". www.inquirer.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  47. ^ Yabes, Criselda (July 7, 1986). "Marcos' Man Tolentino Declares Himself President". Associated Press. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  48. ^ "GMA, former Senate colleagues pay tribute to Arturo Tolentino, 94". The Philippine Star. August 4, 2004. Retrieved October 15, 2021.

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]