List of Presidents of the Republic of China

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Flag of the Republic of China
Presidential Office of the ROC Beiyang Government in Beijing (1912–1928).
Presidential Office of the ROC Nationalist Government in Nanjing (1928–1949).
Presidential Office of the ROC Government in Taipei, Taiwan (1949–current).

This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present). The Republic of China's President is called 總統 (zǒngtǒng), and from 1912 to 1928, 大總統 (dàzǒngtǒng). The Republic of China before 1949 controlled mainland China as well as offshore islands. In the fall of 1949 the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and surrounding islands as a result of the takeover of Mainland China by the People's Republic of China. The seat of government was moved to Taipei which retained recognition by the United Nations (to 25 October 1971), the United States (to 1 January 1979) and other Western countries in the context of the Cold War. The Republic of China since 1949, now usually known as Taiwan, has only controlled Taiwan and nearby islands. Martial law was ended in Taiwan in the 1980s and direct elections were introduced in 1996.

Timeline of Presidents[edit]

Tsai Ing-wen Ma Ying-jeou Chen Shui-bian Lee Teng-hui Chiang Ching-kuo Yen Chia-kan Yan Xishan Li Zongren Lin Sen Chiang Kai-shek Tan Yankai Zhang Zuolin V.K. Wellington Koo Du Xigui Yan Huiqing Hu Weide Duan Qirui Huang Fu Cao Kun Gao Lingwei Zhou Ziqi Xu Shichang Feng Guozhang Li Yuanhong Yuan Shikai Sun Yat-sen

List of office holders[edit]

Provisional Government:   Tongmenghui   Beiyang clique, etc.
Beiyang Govenrment:   Beiyang clique, etc.   Progressive Party/Research Clique
Nationalist to Democratic Govenrment:   Kuomintang (KMT)   Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)

Presidents of the Provisional Government[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Assembly
(elected)
1 孫中山先生.jpg Sun Yat-sen
孫文
Sūn Wén
(1866–1925)
1 January 1912 10 March 1912 Tongmenghui Li Yuanhong
(Nonpartisan)
Provisional (1911)
2 YuanShika Colour.jpg Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Yuán Shìkǎi
(1859–1916)
10 March 1912 10 October 1913 Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
(Nonpartisan)
Provisional (1912)

Presidents of the Beiyang Government[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Assembly
(elected)
1 Yuan shikai.jpg Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Yuán Shìkǎi
(1859–1916)
10 October 1913 6 June 1916[1] Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
(Progressive)
1st (1913)
2 Li Yuan-hung Colour.jpg Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
Lí Yuánhóng
(1864–1928)
7 June 1916 17 July 1917[2] Progressive Party Feng Guozhang
(Zhili clique)
Feng Guozhang1.jpg Feng Guozhang
馮國璋
Féng Guózhāng
(1859–1919)

(acting)
17 July 1917 10 October 1918 Zhili clique Vacant
3 Xu Shichang.jpg Xu Shichang
徐世昌
Xú Shìchāng
(1855–1939)
10 October 1918 2 June 1922 Anhui clique Vacant 2nd (1918)
Zhou Zi qi.jpg Zhou Ziqi
周自齊
Zhōu Zìqí
(1871–1923)

(acting)
2 June 1922 11 June 1922 Communications Clique Vacant
(2) RetartoDeLiYuanhongLibroDePutnamWeale.jpg Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
Lí Yuánhóng
(1864–1928)
11 June 1922 13 June 1923 Research Clique Vacant
Kao Lin-wei Colour.jpg Gao Lingwei
高凌霨
Gāo Língwèi
(1868–1939)

(acting)
14 June 1923 10 October 1923 Nonpartisan Vacant
4 Cao Kun.jpg Cao Kun
曹錕
Cáo Kūn
(1862–1938)
10 October 1923 2 November 1924 Zhili clique Vacant 1st (1923)
Huang Fu Colour.jpg Huang Fu
黃郛
Huáng Fú
(1883–1936)

(acting)
2 November 1924 24 November 1924 Nonpartisan Vacant
5 DuanQirui.jpg Duan Qirui[3]
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì
(1865–1936)
24 November 1924 20 April 1926 Anhui clique Vacant
Vacant
Hu Weide.jpg Hu Weide
胡惟德
Hú Wéidé
(1863–1933)

(acting)
20 April 1926 13 May 1926 Nonpartisan Vacant
Yan Huiqing.jpg Yan Huiqing
(W.W. Yan)

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng
(1877–1950)

(acting)
13 May 1926 22 June 1926 Nonpartisan Vacant
Du Xigui.jpg Du Xigui
杜錫珪
Dù Xīguī
(1875–1933)

(acting)
22 June 1926 1 October 1926 Zhili clique Vacant
Gu Weijun.JPG V. S. Wellington Koo
顧維鈞
Gù Wéijūn
(1888–1985)

(acting)
1 October 1926 17 June 1927 Nonpartisan Vacant
6 Zhang Zuolin3.jpg Zhang Zuolin[4]
張作霖
Zhāng Zuòlín
(1875–1928)
18 June 1927 2 June 1928 Fengtian clique Vacant

Chairmen of the Nationalist Government[5][edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Party congress
(elected)
1 Tan Yankai.jpg Tan Yankai
譚延闓
Tán Yánkǎi
(1880–1930)
7 February 1928 10 October 1928 Kuomintang 2nd National Congress of Kuomintang
(4th plenum)
2 Chiang 1.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
10 October 1928 15 December 1931[6] Kuomintang 2nd National Congress of Kuomintang
(5th plenum)
ROC President Lin Sen.jpg Lin Sen
林森
Lín Sēn
(1868–1943)
15 December 1931 1 August 1943[7] Kuomintang
3 4th National Congress of Kuomintang
(1st plenum)
Chiang Kai-shek enhanced.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
1 August 1943 20 May 1948[8] Kuomintang
4 5th National Congress of Kuomintang
(11th plenum)

Presidents after the 1947 Constitution[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Term
(elected)
1 蔣中正總統玉照.png Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
20 May 1948 21 January 1949[9] Kuomintang Li Zongren
(Kuomintang)
1 (1948)
Lizhongren.jpg Li Zongren
李宗仁
Lǐ Zōngrén
(1890–1969)

(acting)
21 January 1949 1 March 1950[10] Kuomintang Vacant
Yan Xishan.jpg Yan Xishan
閻錫山
Yán xíshān
(1883–1960)

(acting)
20 November 1949 1 March 1950[11] Kuomintang Vacant
(1) 蔣中正總統玉照.png Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
1 March 1950 5 April 1975[12] Kuomintang Li Zongren[13]
(Kuomintang)
Vacant
Chen Cheng[14]
(Kuomintang)
2 (1954)
3 (1960)
Vacant
Yen Chia-kan
(Kuomintang)
4 (1966)
5 (1972)
2 President03-large.png Yen Chia-kan
(C.K. Yen)

嚴家淦
Yán Jiāgàn
(1905–1993)
6 April 1975 20 May 1978 Kuomintang Vacant
3 ChiangChingkuo photo.jpg Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
Jiǎng Jīngguó
(1910–1988)
20 May 1978 13 January 1988[12] Kuomintang Hsieh Tung-min
(Kuomintang)
6 (1978)
Lee Teng-hui
(Kuomintang)
7 (1984)
4 President05-large 1 (cropped).jpg Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī
(1921–)
13 January 1988 20 May 1996 Kuomintang Vacant
Lee Yuan-tsu
(Kuomintang)
8 (1990)

Presidents after the introduction of direct election[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Term
(elected)
4 President05-large 1 (cropped).jpg Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī
(1921–)
20 May 1996 20 May 2000 Kuomintang Lien Chan
(KMT)
9 (1996)
5 Presiden5a (cropped).jpg Chen Shui-bian
陳水扁
Chén Shuǐbiǎn
(1950–)
20 May 2000 20 May 2008 Democratic Progressive Annette Lu
(DPP)
10 (2000)
11 (2004)
6 中華民國第12、13任總統馬英九先生官方肖像照.jpg Ma Ying-jeou
馬英九
Mǎ Yīngjiǔ
(1950–)
20 May 2008 20 May 2016 Kuomintang Vincent Siew
(KMT)
12 (2008)
Wu Den-yih
(KMT)
13 (2012)
7 蔡英文官方元首肖像照.png Tsai Ing-wen
蔡英文
Cài Yīngwén
(1956–)
20 May 2016 Incumbent Democratic Progressive Chen Chien-jen
(Independent)
14 (2016)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Restored the monarchy from 12 December 1915 to 22 March 1916.
  2. ^ Zhang Xun restored Qing Empire from 1 July to 12 July in 1917.
  3. ^ Duan was the Provisional Chief Executive instead of President.
  4. ^ Zhang was the Generalissimo of the Beiyang Military Government instead of President.
  5. ^ The head of state of the Nationalist Government (國民政府) in this period (political tutelage,  訓政時期). There was no office of Vice Chairman.
  6. ^ Resigned
  7. ^ Assumed office as acting chairman from 15 December 1931 to 1 January 1932, died in office.
  8. ^ Assumed office as acting chairman from 1 June to 1o October 1943.
  9. ^ Declared incapacity to discharge duties and powers as President following a succession of defeats by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.
  10. ^ Acting President on Chiang Kai-shek's declaration of incapacity. Had an antagonistic relationship with Chiang. After the fall of Guangdong, Li flew to New York.
  11. ^ After Li fled to New York, Premier Yan became acting president according to Article 49 of Constitution. 1 March 1950, Chiang re-assumed the presidency, but Li Zongren denounced Chiang's re-assumption as unconstitutional.
  12. ^ a b Died in office.
  13. ^ Vice-President from 1948 to 1954, did not assume his office after stepping down as acting president and subsequently impeached and recalled in 1954.
  14. ^ Vice-President from 1960 to 1965, died on 5 March 1965.