Page semi-protected

List of Presidents of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Presidents of the United States", "American Presidents", and "U.S. Presidents" redirect here. For the C-SPAN series, see American Presidents: Life Portraits. For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation).

The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives, should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person).

Since the office was established in 1789, 43 people have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office, and is counted as the nation's 22nd and 24th president. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office, dying 31 days after taking office in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1] The current president is Barack Obama, and the president-elect is Donald Trump,[2] whose term of office will commence on January 20, 2017.

Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[3] Zachary Taylor,[4] Warren G. Harding,[5] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[6] James A. Garfield,[6][7] William McKinley,[8] and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[9] John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency intra-term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this Provision when he appointed Gerald Ford to the office. Later, Ford became the second to do so when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him. Previously, an intra-term vacancy was left unfilled.

List of presidents

  Nonpartisan       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Democratic       Whig       Republican       National Union
Presidency[a] President Prior position[b] Party Election Vice President
1 [c]
April 30, 1789

March 4, 1797
Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg George Washington
1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[10][11][12]
Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army

(1775–1783)
  Nonpartisan
[13]
1
(1788–89)
John Adams
[d][e]
2
(1792)
2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[14][15][16]
1st
Vice President of the United States
Federalist 3
(1796)
Thomas Jefferson
[f]
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[17][18][19]
2nd
Vice President of the United States
Democratic-
Republican
4
(1800)
Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
5
(1804)
George Clinton
March 4, 1805March 4, 1809
4 March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
James Madison.jpg James Madison
1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[20][21][22]
5th
United States Secretary of State

(1801–1809)
Democratic-
Republican
6
(1808)
George Clinton
March 4, 1809April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Clinton's term)
7
(1812)
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Gerry's term)
5 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif James Monroe
1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[23][24][25]
7th
United States Secretary of State

(1811–1817)
Democratic-
Republican
8
(1816)
Daniel D. Tompkins
9
(1820)
6 March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
JQA Photo.tif John Quincy Adams
1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[26][27][28]
8th
United States Secretary of State

(1817–1825)
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1824)
John C. Calhoun
7 March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg Andrew Jackson
1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[29][30][31]
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1823–1825)
Democratic 11
(1828)
John C. Calhoun
[g]
March 4, 1829December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun's term)
12
(1832)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Martin Van Buren by Mathew Brady c1855-58.jpg Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[32][33][34]
8th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic 13
(1836)
Richard Mentor Johnson
9 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Died in office)
William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg William Henry Harrison
1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[35][36][37]
United States Minister to Colombia
(1828–1829)
Whig 14
(1840)
John Tyler
(Succeeded to presidency)
10 April 4, 1841

March 4, 1845
Tyler Daguerreotype (restoration).jpg John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[38][39][40]
10th
Vice President of the United States
Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Office vacant
Unaffiliated
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
[h]
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
JKP.tif James K. Polk
1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[41][42][43]
9th
Governor of Tennessee

(1839–1841)
Democratic 15
(1844)
George M. Dallas
12 (First elected office)
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Died in office)
Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.png Zachary Taylor
1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[44][45][46]
Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
(1846–1849)
Whig 16
(1848)
Millard Fillmore
(Succeeded to presidency)
13 July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853
Millard Fillmore-Edit1.jpg Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[47][48][49]
12th
Vice President of the United States
Whig Office vacant
14 March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Mathew Brady - Franklin Pierce - alternate crop.jpg Franklin Pierce
1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[50][51][52]
Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
(1847–1848)
Democratic 17
(1852)
William R. King
March 4April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of King's term)
15 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
James Buchanan.jpg James Buchanan
1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[53][54][55]
United States Minister to the
Court of St James's
(1853–1856)
Democratic 18
(1856)
John C. Breckinridge
16 March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
(Assassinated)
Abraham Lincoln November 1863.jpg Abraham Lincoln
1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[56][57][58]
U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th District
(1847–1849)
Republican
(National Union)
[i]
19
(1860)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
20
(1864)
Andrew Johnson
March 4April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
17 April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[59][60][61]
16th
Vice President of the United States
National Union
[i]
(Democratic)
[j]
Office vacant
18 (First elected office)
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Ulysses S. Grant 1870-1880.jpg Ulysses S. Grant
1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[62][63][64]
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1864–1869)
Republican 21
(1868)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
22
(1872)
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Wilson's term)
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes
1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[65][66][67]
29th & 32nd
Governor of Ohio

(1868–1872 & 1876–1877)
Republican 23
(1876)
William A. Wheeler
20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Assassinated)
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg James A. Garfield
1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[68][69][70]
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th District
(1863–1881)
Republican 24
(1880)
Chester A. Arthur
(Succeeded to presidency)
21 September 19, 1881

March 4, 1885
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[71][72][73]
20th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
22 March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139.jpg Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[74][75]
28th
Governor of New York

(1883–1885)
Democratic 25
(1884)
Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hendricks' term)
23 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg Benjamin Harrison
1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[76][77][78]
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1881–1887)
Republican 26
(1888)
Levi P. Morton
24 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139.jpg Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[74][75]
22nd
President of the United States

(1885–1889)
Democratic 27
(1892)
Adlai Stevenson
25 March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
(Assassinated)
William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg William McKinley
1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[79][80][81]
39th
Governor of Ohio

(1892–1896)
Republican 28
(1896)
Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart's term)
29
(1900)
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
26 September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.tif Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[82][83][84]
25th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
30
(1904)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27 March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
William Howard Taft, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front.tif William Howard Taft
1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[85][86][87]
42nd
United States Secretary of War

(1904–1908)
Republican 31
(1908)
James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Sherman's term)
28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
President Wilson 1919.tif Woodrow Wilson
1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[88][89][90]
34th
Governor of New Jersey

(1911–1913)
Democratic 32
(1912)
Thomas R. Marshall
33
(1916)
29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Died in office)
Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg Warren G. Harding
1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[91][92][93]
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–1921)
Republican 34
(1920)
Calvin Coolidge
(Succeeded to presidency)
30 August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[94][95][96]
29th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
35
(1924)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31 (First elected office)
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
President Hoover portrait.tif Herbert Hoover
1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[97][98][99]
3rd
United States Secretary of Commerce

(1921–1928)
Republican 36
(1928)
Charles Curtis
32 March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
(Died in office)
FDR 1944 Color Portrait.tif Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[100][101][102]
44th
Governor of New York

(1929–1932)
Democratic 37
(1932)
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
[k]
38
(1936)
39
(1940)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
40
(1944)
Harry S. Truman
January 20April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
33 April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
Harry S. Truman - NARA - 530677.tif Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[103][104][105]
34th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic Office vacant
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
41
(1948)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34 (First elected office)
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
President Eisenhower Portrait 1959.tif Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[106][107][108]
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
Republican 42
(1952)
Richard Nixon
43
(1956)
35 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Assassinated)
John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy
1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[109][110][111]
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
Democratic 44
(1960)
Lyndon B. Johnson
(Succeeded to presidency)
36 November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
Lyndon B. Johnson Oval Office Portrait.tif Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[112][113]
37th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic Office vacant
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
45
(1964)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37 January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
(Resigned from office)
Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.tif Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[114][115][116]
36th
Vice President of the United States

(1953–1961)
Republican 46
(1968)
Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
47
(1972)
Office vacant
October 10December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
38 August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
Gerald Ford - NARA - 530680.tif Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[117][118][119]
40th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
August 9December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(92 years old)
[120][121][122]
76th
Governor of Georgia

(1971–1975)
Democratic 48
(1976)
Walter Mondale
40 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan
1911–2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[123][124][125]
33rd
Governor of California

(1967–1975)
Republican 49
(1980)
George H. W. Bush
50
(1984)
41 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(92 years old)
[126][127][128]
43rd
Vice President of the United States
Republican 51
(1988)
Dan Quayle
42 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(70 years old)
[129][130][131]
40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas

(1979–1981 & 1983–1992)
Democratic 52
(1992)
Al Gore
53
(1996)
43 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
Born 1946
(70 years old)
[132][133]
46th
Governor of Texas

(1995–2000)
Republican 54
(2000)
Dick Cheney
55
(2004)
44 January 20, 2009

Incumbent
President Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama
Born 1961
(55 years old)
[134][135]
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(2005–2008)
Democratic 56
(2008)
Joe Biden
57
(2012)
   [top]

President-elect

Presidency[a] President-elect[l] Prior position[b] Party Election Vice President-elect
45 (First elected office)
Beginning
January 20, 2017

(45 days from now)
Donald Trump August 19, 2015 (cropped).jpg Donald Trump
Born 1946
(70 years old)
[2][136]
Chairman of
The Trump Organization
(1971–present)
Republican 58
(2016)
Mike Pence

Living former presidents

Presently, there are four living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (served 1974 to 1977) on December 26, 2006 (aged 93 years, 165 days). The most recently serving president to die was Ronald Reagan (served 1981 to 1989) on June 5, 2004 (aged 93 years, 120 days). Jimmy Carter currently holds the record for having the longest post-presidency of any president.

Living as of December 2016
President[a] Date of birth
Jimmy Carter 39 1977–1981 (1924-10-01) October 1, 1924 (age 92)
George H. W. Bush 41 1989–1993 (1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 92)
Bill Clinton 42 1993–2001 (1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 70)
George W. Bush 43 2001–2009 (1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 70)
President Barack Obama pauses with former Presidents George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter during the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Center at the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum on the campus of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, April 25, 2013. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)
President Obama stands alongside the four living former Presidents of the United States (pictured from left, in descending order of service) at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Center at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, April 2013

Subsequent public service

Four presidents held other high U.S. federal offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Subsequent service
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 U.S. Representative from Massachusetts (1831–1848)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1875)
Grover Cleveland 22 1885–1889 24th President of the United States (1893–1897)
William Howard Taft 27 1909–1913 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930)

Additionally, several presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U.S. state or federal elective offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Office sought unsuccessfully
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 Governor of Massachusetts (1833)
Martin Van Buren 8 1837–1841 President of the United States (1844)
President of the United States (1848)
Millard Fillmore 13 1850–1853 President of the United States (1856)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1870)
U.S. Representative from Tennessee (1872)
Ulysses S. Grant 18 1869–1877 President of the United States (1880)
Theodore Roosevelt 26 1901–1909 President of the United States (1912)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e The presidents are counted according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ a b Listed here (unless otherwise noted) is the position (either with a U.S. state or the federal government, or with a private corporation) held by the individual immediately prior to becoming President of the United States.
  3. ^ Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  4. ^ Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction which became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  5. ^ Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  6. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  7. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition emerging around Jackson.
  8. ^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  9. ^ a b When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  10. ^ Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for vice president on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  11. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified on January 23, 1933) moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.
  12. ^ While Donald Trump apparently won the most electoral votes in the November 8 election, the presidential electors who comprise the Electoral College will not meet to cast their votes until December 19. The vote of the Electoral College will be certified and made public on January 6, 2017 during a joint session of the United States Congress. It is expected that president-elect Trump will win a majority of these votes.

References

  1. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  2. ^ a b Flegenheimer, Matt; Barbaro, Michael (November 9, 2016). "Donald Trump Is Elected President in Stunning Repudiation of the Establishment". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2016. 
  3. ^ Cleaves, Freeman (1939). Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 152. 
  4. ^ Ingersoll, Jared. "Death of the President". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  5. ^ Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove – Warren G. Harding in His Times. Easton Press. p. 591. ISBN 0070543380. 
  6. ^ a b Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard", Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  7. ^ Donald (1996), p. 597.
  8. ^ "Big Ben Parker and President McKinley's Assassination". Math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  10. ^ "Biography of George Washington". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  11. ^ "George Washington – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  12. ^ "Life Portrait of George Washington". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  13. ^ "George Washington's views on political parties in America | Washington Times Communities". Communities.washingtontimes.com. March 9, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Biography of John Adams". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  15. ^ "John Adams – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  16. ^ "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Thomas Jefferson – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  19. ^ "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  20. ^ "Biography of James Madison". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  21. ^ "James Madison – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  22. ^ "Life Portrait of James Madison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  23. ^ "Biography of James Madison". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  24. ^ "James Monroe – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  25. ^ "Life Portrait of James Monroe". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  26. ^ "Biography of John Quincy Adams". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  27. ^ "John Quincy Adams – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  28. ^ "Life Portrait of John Quincy Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  29. ^ "Biography of Andrew Jackson". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Andrew Jackson – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  31. ^ "Life Portrait of Andrew Jackson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  32. ^ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Martin Van Buren – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  34. ^ "Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  35. ^ "Biography of William Henry Harrison". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  36. ^ "William Henry Harrison – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  37. ^ "Life Portrait of William Henry Harrison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  38. ^ "Biography of John Tyler". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  39. ^ "John Tyler – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  40. ^ "Life Portrait of John Tyler". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  41. ^ "Biography of James Polk". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  42. ^ "James K. Polk – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  43. ^ "Life Portrait of James K. Polk". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  44. ^ "Biography of Zachary Taylor". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Zachary Taylor – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  46. ^ "Life Portrait of Zachary Taylor". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  47. ^ "Biography of Millard Fillmore". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  48. ^ "Millard Fillmore – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  49. ^ "Life Portrait of Millard Fillmore". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  50. ^ "Biography of Franklin Pierce". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Franklin Pierce – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  52. ^ "Life Portrait of Franklin Pierce". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  53. ^ "Biography of James Buchanan". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  54. ^ "James Buchanan – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  55. ^ "Life Portrait of James Buchanan". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  56. ^ "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  57. ^ "Abraham Lincoln – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  58. ^ "Life Portrait of Abraham Lincoln". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  59. ^ "Biography of Andrew Johnson". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  60. ^ "Andrew Johnson – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  61. ^ "Life Portrait of Andrew Johnson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  62. ^ "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  63. ^ "Ulysses S. Grant – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  64. ^ "Life Portrait of Ulysses S. Grant". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  65. ^ "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  66. ^ "Rutherford B. Hayes – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  67. ^ "Life Portrait of Rutherford B. Hayes". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  68. ^ "Biography of James Garfield". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  69. ^ "James A. Garfield – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  70. ^ "Life Portrait of James Garfield". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  71. ^ "Biography of Chester Arthur". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  72. ^ "Chester A. Arthur – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  73. ^ "Life Portrait of Chester A. Arthur". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  74. ^ a b "Grover Cleveland – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  75. ^ a b "Life Portrait of Grover Cleveland". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  76. ^ "Biography of Benjamin Harrison". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  77. ^ "Benjamin Harrison – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  78. ^ "Life Portrait of Benjamin Harrison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  79. ^ "Biography of William McKinley". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  80. ^ "William McKinley – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  81. ^ "Life Portrait of William McKinley". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  82. ^ "Biography of Theodore Roosevelt". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  83. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  84. ^ "Life Portrait of Theodore Roosevelt". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  85. ^ "Biography of William Howard Taft". WhiteHouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  86. ^ "William Howard Taft – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  87. ^ "Life Portrait of William Howard Taft". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  88. ^ "Biography of Woodrow Wilson". WhiteHouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  89. ^ "Woodrow Wilson – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  90. ^ "Life Portrait of Woodrow Wilson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  91. ^ "Biography of Warren G. Harding". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  92. ^ "Warren G. Harding – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  93. ^ "Life Portrait of Warren G. Harding". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  94. ^ "Biography of Calvin Coolidge". WhiteHouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  95. ^ "Calvin Coolidge – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  96. ^ "Life Portrait of Calvin Coolidge". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  97. ^ "Biography of Herbert Hoover". WhiteHouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  98. ^ "Herbert Hoover – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  99. ^ "Life Portrait of Herbert Hoover". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  100. ^ "Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt". WhiteHouse.gov. March 20, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  101. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  102. ^ "Life Portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  103. ^ "Biography of Harry S Truman". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  104. ^ "Harry Truman – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  105. ^ "Life Portrait of Harry S. Truman". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  106. ^ "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  107. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  108. ^ "Life Portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  109. ^ "Biography of John F. Kennedy". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  110. ^ "John F. Kennedy – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  111. ^ "Life Portrait of John F. Kennedy". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  112. ^ "Lyndon B. Johnson – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  113. ^ "Life Portrait of Lyndon B. Johnson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  114. ^ "Richard M. Nixon". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  115. ^ "Richard M. Nixon – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  116. ^ "Life Portrait of Richard M. Nixon". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  117. ^ "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  118. ^ "Gerald Ford – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  119. ^ "Life Portrait of Gerald R. Ford". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  120. ^ "Biography of Jimmy Carter". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  121. ^ "Jimmy Carter – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  122. ^ "Life Portrait of Jimmy Carter". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  123. ^ "Biography of Ronald Reagan". WhiteHouse.gov. June 25, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  124. ^ "Ronald Reagan – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  125. ^ "Life Portrait of Ronald Reagan". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  126. ^ "Biography of George Herbert Walker Bush". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  127. ^ "George Bush – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  128. ^ "Life Portrait of George H.W. Bush". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  129. ^ "Biography of William J. Clinton". WhiteHouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  130. ^ "Bill Clinton – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  131. ^ "Life Portrait of Bill Clinton". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  132. ^ "Biography of President George W. Bush". WhiteHouse.gov. February 25, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  133. ^ "George W. Bush – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  134. ^ "President Barack Obama". WhiteHouse.gov. January 20, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  135. ^ "Barack Obama – U.S. Presidents". History. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  136. ^ Jamaica Hospital (June 14, 1946). "Certificate of Birth: Donald John Trump" (PDF). Fox News Channel. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 9, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2016. 

External links