List of prime ministers of Australia

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Thirty people have served as Prime Minister of Australia since the office was created in 1901.[1]

The parties shown are those to which the prime ministers belonged at the time they held office, and the electoral divisions shown are those they represented while in office. Several prime ministers belonged to parties other than those given and represented other electorates before and after their time in office.

Since the office was established in 1901, 29 men and one woman have served as prime minister. Robert Menzies and Kevin Rudd served two non-consecutive terms in office while Alfred Deakin and Andrew Fisher served three non-consecutive terms; the 30th and current prime minister is Scott Morrison (since 24 August 2018). There are currently six living former prime ministers. The most recent former prime minister to die was Bob Hawke, on 16 May 2019.

The prime ministership of Frank Forde, who was replaced 7 days after taking office in 1945, was the shortest in Australian history. Robert Menzies served the longest, over eighteen years.

Of those who have served as the nation's prime minister, three died in office (Joseph Lyons, John Curtin and Harold Holt), one was dismissed (Gough Whitlam) and six resigned following leadership spills (John Gorton, Bob Hawke, Julia Gillard, Kevin Rudd, Tony Abbott and Malcolm Turnbull).

List of officeholders[edit]

Political parties

  Australian Labor Party   Liberal Party of Australia   Australian Country Party   Nationalist Party
  United Australia Party   Commonwealth Liberal Party   National Labor Party   Free Trade Party   Protectionist Party

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Electorate served Ministry Ref
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Edmund Barton crop.PNG Edmund Barton
(1849–1920)
1901 1 January
1901
24 September
1903
2 years, 266 days Protectionist Hunter, NSW,
1901–1903 (resigned)
Barton [2]
2 Alfred Deakin crop.jpg Alfred Deakin
(1856–1919)
1903 24 September
1903
27 April
1904
216 days Protectionist Ballaarat, Vic,[a]
1901–1913 (retired)
1st Deakin [3]
3 ChrisWatsonBW crop.jpg Chris Watson
(1867–1941)
27 April
1904
18 August
1904
113 days Labor Bland, NSW,
19011906
South Sydney, NSW,
1906–1910 (retired)
Watson [4]
4 George Reid crop.jpg George Reid
(1845–1918)
18 August
1904
5 July
1905
321 days Free Trade East Sydney, NSW,
1901–1909 (resigned)
Reid [5]
(2) AlfredDeakin.jpeg Alfred Deakin
(1856–1919)
1906 5 July
1905
13 November
1908
3 years, 131 days Protectionist Ballaarat, Vic,[a]
1901–1913 (retired)
2nd Deakin
5 Andrew Fisher 1908.jpg Andrew Fisher
(1862–1928)
13 November
1908
2 June
1909
201 days Labor Wide Bay, Qld,
1901–1915 (resigned)
1st Fisher [6]
(2) Alfred Deakin 1910 (crop).tif Alfred Deakin
(1856–1919)
2 June
1909
29 April
1910
331 days Commonwealth Liberal Ballaarat, Vic,[a]
1901–1913 (retired)
3rd Deakin
(5) Andrew Fisher 1912 (b&w).jpg Andrew Fisher
(1862–1928)
1910 29 April
1910
24 June
1913
3 years,

56 days

Labor Wide Bay, Qld,
1901–1915 (resigned)
2nd Fisher
6 Joseph Cook - Crown Studios 03.jpg Joseph Cook
(1860–1947)
1913 24 June
1913
17 September
1914
1 year,

85 days

Commonwealth Liberal Parramatta, NSW,
1901–1921 (resigned)
Cook [7]
(5) AndrewFisher.jpg Andrew Fisher
(1862–1928)
1914 17 September
1914
27 October
1915
1 year,

40 days

Labor Wide Bay, Qld,
1901–1915 (resigned)
3rd Fisher
Billy Hughes 1919.jpg Billy Hughes
(1862–1952)
27 October
1915
14 November
1916
7 years, 105 days Labor West Sydney, NSW,
19011917
Bendigo, Vic,
19171922
North Sydney, NSW,
19221949
Bradfield, NSW,
1949–1952 (died)
1st Hughes [8]
7 14 November
1916
17 February
1917
National Labor 2nd Hughes
17 February
1917
9 February
1923
Nationalist 3rd Hughes
1917 4th Hughes
1919 5th Hughes
8 Stanley Bruce 1926.jpg Stanley Bruce
(1883–1967)
1922 9 February
1923
22 October
1929
6 years, 255 days Nationalist
(Coalition)
Flinders, Vic,
1918–1929 (defeated) ;
1931–1933 (resigned)
1st Bruce [9]
1925 2nd Bruce
1928 3rd Bruce
9 Portrait of the Right Hon. J. H. Scullin.png James Scullin
(1876–1953)
1929 22 October
1929
6 January
1932
2 years,

76 days

Labor Corangamite, Vic,
19101913 (defeated)
Yarra, Vic,
19221949 (retired)
Scullin [10]
10 Joseph Lyons.jpg Joseph Lyons
(1879–1939)
1931 6 January
1932
7 April
1939 †
7 years,

91 days

United Australia
(Coalition post-1934)
Wilmot, Tas,
1929–1939 (died)
1st Lyons [11]
1934 2nd Lyons
3rd Lyons
1937 4th Lyons
11 Earle Page.jpg Earle Page
(1880–1961)
7 April
1939
26 April
1939
19 days Country
(Coalition)
Cowper, NSW
19191961 (defeated)
Page [12]
12 Robert Menzies in 1939.jpg Robert Menzies
(1894–1978)
26 April
1939
29 August
1941
2 years, 125 days United Australia
(Coalition post-1940)
Kooyong, Vic,
1934–1966 (resigned)
1st Menzies [13]
2nd Menzies
1940 3rd Menzies
13 FaddenPEO.jpg Arthur Fadden
(1894–1973)
29 August
1941
7 October
1941
39 days Country
(Coalition)
Darling Downs, Qld
1936–1949
McPherson, Qld
1949–1958 (retired)
Fadden [14]
14 JohnCurtin.jpg John Curtin
(1885–1945)
7 October
1941
5 July
1945 †
3 years, 271 days Labor Fremantle, WA,
19281931 (defeated) ;
1934–1945 (died)
1st Curtin
1943 2nd Curtin
15 Frank Forde 1945.jpg Frank Forde
(1890–1983)
6 July
1945
13 July
1945
7 days Labor Capricornia, Qld,
19221946 (defeated)
Forde
16 Benchifley.jpg Ben Chifley
(1885–1951)
13 July
1945
19 December
1949
4 years, 159 days Labor Macquarie, NSW,
19281931 (defeated) ;
1940–1951 (died)
1st Chifley
1946 2nd Chifley
(12) Portrait Menzies 1950s.jpg Robert Menzies
(1894–1978)
1949 19 December
1949
26 January
1966
16 years, 38 days Liberal
(Coalition)
Kooyong, Vic,
1934–1966 (resigned)
4th Menzies
1951 5th Menzies
1954 6th Menzies
1955 7th Menzies
1958 8th Menzies
1961 9th Menzies
1963 10th Menzies
17 Harold Holt 1965 01.jpg Harold Holt
(1908–1967)
26 January
1966
19 December
1967 †
1 year,

327 days

Liberal
(Coalition)
Fawkner, Vic,
1935–1949
Higgins, Vic,
1949–1967 (died)
1st Holt
1966 2nd Holt
18 Sir John McEwen.jpg John McEwen
(1900–1980)
19 December
1967
10 January
1968
22 days Country
(Coalition)
Echuca, Vic,
19341937
Indi, Vic,
19371949
Murray, Vic,
1949–1971 (resigned)
McEwen
19 JohnGorton1968.jpg John Gorton
(1911–2002)
10 January
1968
10 March
1971
3 years,

59 days

Liberal
(Coalition)
Senator 1950–1968 (resigned)[b]

MP for Higgins, Vic,
19681975 (retired)[c]

1st Gorton
1969 2nd Gorton
20 McMahon 1971 (cropped).jpg William McMahon
(1908–1988)
10 March
1971
5 December
1972
1 year,

270 days

Liberal
(Coalition)
Lowe, NSW,
1949–1982 (resigned)
McMahon
21 Gough Whitlam - ACF - crop.jpg Gough Whitlam
(1916–2014)
1972 5 December
1972
11 November
1975
2 years, 341 days Labor Werriwa, NSW,
1952–1978 (resigned)
1st Whitlam
2nd Whitlam
1974 3rd Whitlam
22 Malcolm Fraser 1977 - crop.jpg Malcolm Fraser
(1930–2015)
11 November
1975
11 March
1983
7 years, 120 days Liberal
(Coalition)
Wannon, Vic,
1955–1983 (resigned)
1st Fraser
1975 2nd Fraser
1977 3rd Fraser
1980 4th Fraser
23 Bob Hawke 1987 portrait crop.jpg Bob Hawke
(1929–2019)
1983 11 March
1983
20 December
1991
8 years, 284 days Labor Wills, Vic,
1980–1992 (resigned)
1st Hawke
1984 2nd Hawke
1987 3rd Hawke
1990 4th Hawke
24 Second Keating Cabinet 1994 (cropped Keating).jpg Paul Keating
(b. 1944)
20 December
1991
11 March
1996
4 years,

82 days

Labor Blaxland, NSW,
1969–1996 (resigned)
1st Keating
1993 2nd Keating
25 Image-Howard2003upr.JPG John Howard
(b. 1939)
1996 11 March
1996
3 December
2007
11 years, 267 days Liberal
(Coalition)
Bennelong, NSW,
19742007 (defeated)
1st Howard
1998 2nd Howard
2001 3rd Howard
2004 4th Howard
26 Kevin Rudd official portrait.jpg Kevin Rudd
(b. 1957)
2007 3 December
2007
24 June
2010
2 years, 203 days Labor Griffith, Qld,
1998–2013 (resigned)
1st Rudd
27 Julia Gillard 2010.jpg Julia Gillard
(b. 1961)
24 June
2010
27 June
2013
3 years,

3 days

Labor Lalor, Vic,
1998–2013 (retired)
1st Gillard
2010 2nd Gillard
(26) Kevin Rudd official portrait.jpg Kevin Rudd
(b. 1957)
27 June
2013
18 September
2013
83 days Labor Griffith, Qld,
1998–2013 (resigned)
2nd Rudd
28 Tony Abbott - 2010.jpg Tony Abbott
(b. 1957)
2013 18 September
2013
15 September
2015
1 year,

362 days

Liberal
(Coalition)
Warringah, NSW,
19942019 (defeated)
Abbott
29 Malcolm Turnbull PEO (cropped).jpg Malcolm Turnbull
(b. 1954)
15 September
2015
24 August
2018
2 years, 343 days Liberal
(Coalition)
Wentworth, NSW,
2004–2018 (resigned)
1st Turnbull
2016 2nd Turnbull
30 Scott Morrison 2014 crop.jpg Scott Morrison
(b. 1968)
24 August
2018
Incumbent 2 years, 97 days[d] Liberal
(Coalition)
Cook, NSW,
since 2007
1st Morrison
2019 2nd Morrison

Timeline[edit]

Australia Prime Ministers of Australia (1901–today)
Scott MorrisonMalcolm TurnbullTony AbbottJulia GillardKevin RuddJohn HowardPaul KeatingBob HawkeMalcolm FraserGough WhitlamWilliam McMahonJohn GortonJohn McEwenHarold HoltBen ChifleyFrank FordeJohn CurtinArthur FaddenRobert MenziesEarle PageJoseph LyonsJames ScullinStanley BruceBilly HughesJoseph CookAndrew FisherGeorge ReidChris WatsonAlfred DeakinEdmund Barton

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The Electoral Division of Ballaarat was spelled with a double a until 1977.
  2. ^ Gorton was elected to the Senate at the general election of 10 December 1949, but his term did not commence until 22 February 1950. He was appointed Prime Minister on 10 January 1968; resigned from the Senate on 1 February; and was elected to the House of Representatives at a by-election on 24 February.
  3. ^ Gorton retired from the House of Representatives at the double dissolution of 11 November 1975, and stood for an Australian Capital Territory Senate seat as an independent at the general election of 13 December 1975, but was unsuccessful.
  4. ^ Scott Morrison's time in office as of 29 November 2020

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Prime Minister". Parliamentary Education Office. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  2. ^ Rutledge.
  3. ^ Norris 1981.
  4. ^ Nairn 1990.
  5. ^ McMinn.
  6. ^ Murphy.
  7. ^ Crowley.
  8. ^ Fitzhardinge.
  9. ^ Radi 1979.
  10. ^ Robertson 1988.
  11. ^ Hart 1986.
  12. ^ Bridge.
  13. ^ Martin.
  14. ^ Cribb.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]