List of prime ministers of Italy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The prime minister of Italy is the head of the Council of Ministers, which holds effective executive power in the Italian government.[1][2] The first officeholder was Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who was sworn in on 23 March 1861 after the unification of Italy.[3] Cavour previously served as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia, an office from which the Italian prime minister took most of its powers and duties.[4] During the monarchy period, prime ministers were appointed by the king of Italy, as laid down in the Albertine Statute.[5] From 1925 until the fall of his regime in 1943, fascist dictator Benito Mussolini formally modified the office title to "Head of Government, Prime Minister and Secretary of State".[6] From 1861 to 1946, 30 men served as prime ministers, leading 67 governments in total.[7]

After the abolition of the Kingdom of Italy in 1946 and the proclamation of the Italian Republic, the office was established by Articles 92 through 96 of the Constitution of Italy. Alcide De Gasperi is the only prime minister who has held this position both in the Kingdom of Italy and in the Republic of Italy.

The prime minister is appointed by the President of the Republic and must receive a confidence vote by both houses of Parliament: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.[8] From 1946 to 2022, in the first 76 years after the creation of the Republic, 30 men served as prime ministers.[9][10] The current officeholder is Giorgia Meloni, who was appointed on 22 October 2022, becoming the first woman to hold this office.[11][12]

The longest-serving prime minister in the history of Italy was Benito Mussolini, who ruled the country from 1922 until 1943;[13] the longest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic is Silvio Berlusconi, who held the position for more than nine years between 1994 and 2011.[14] The shortest-serving officeholder was Tommaso Tittoni, who served as prime minister for only 16 days in 1905,[15] while the shortest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic was Fernando Tambroni, who governed for 123 days in 1960.[16]

Prime ministers of Italy[edit]

Prime ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)[edit]

Parties:[a]

1861–1912:
  Historical Right
  Historical Left
  Military
1912–1922:
  Liberal Union / Italian Liberal Party
  Italian Radical Party
  Italian Reformist Socialist Party
1922–1943:
  National Fascist Party
1943–1946:
  Labour Democratic Party
  Action Party
  Christian Democracy
  Military

Coalitions:[b]

1861–1912:
  Rightist coalition
  Leftist coalition
  Mixed coalition
1912–1922:
  Liberal coalition
1922–1943:
  Fascist government
1943–1946:
  National Liberation Committee
  Mixed coalition

Symbols:
† Died in office

Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Government Composition Legislature
(Election)
Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour Count
Camillo Benso di Cavour
(1810–1861)
23 March
1861
6 June
1861†
75 days Historical Right Cavour IV[c] Right VIII[c]
(1861)
Victor Emmanuel II[c]

(1861–1878)
[17]
Bettino Ricasoli Baron
Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
12 June
1861
3 March
1862
264 days Historical Right Ricasoli I Right [18]
Urbano Rattazzi Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
3 March
1862
8 December
1862
280 days Historical Left Rattazzi I RightLeft [19]
Luigi Carlo Farini Luigi Carlo Farini
(1812–1866)
8 December
1862
24 March
1863
106 days Historical Right Farini Right [20]
Marco Minghetti Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
24 March
1863
28 September
1864
1 year, 188 days Historical Right Minghetti I Right [21]
Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora General
Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora
(1804–1878)
28 September
1864
31 December
1865
1 year, 265 days Military La Marmora II Right [22]
[23]
31 December
1865
20 June
1866
La Marmora III IX
(1865)
Bettino Ricasoli Baron
Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
20 June
1866
10 April
1867
294 days Historical Right Ricasoli II RightLeft [24]
Urbano Rattazzi Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
10 April
1867
27 October
1867
200 days Historical Left Rattazzi II RightLeft X
(1867)
[25]
Luigi Federico Menabrea Count
Luigi Federico Menabrea
(1809–1896)
27 October
1867
5 January
1868
2 years, 48 days Historical Right Menabrea I Right [26]
[27]
[28]
5 January
1868
13 May
1869
Menabrea II
13 May
1869
14 December
1869
Menabrea III
Giovanni Lanza Giovanni Lanza
(1810–1882)
14 December
1869
10 July
1873
3 years, 208 days Historical Right Lanza Right XI
(1870)
[29]
Marco Minghetti Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
10 July
1873
25 March
1876
2 years, 259 days Historical Right Minghetti II Right XII
(1874)
[30]
Agostino Depretis Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
25 March
1876
25 December
1877
1 year, 364 days Historical Left Depretis I Left XIII
(1876)
[31]
[32]
26 December
1877
24 March
1878
Depretis II Umberto I

(1878–1900)
Benedetto Cairoli Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
24 March
1878
19 December
1878
270 days Historical Left Cairoli I Left [33]
Agostino Depretis Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
19 December
1878
14 July
1879
214 days Historical Left Depretis III Left [34]
Benedetto Cairoli Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
14 July
1879
25 November
1879
1 year, 319 days Historical Left Cairoli II Left [35]
[36]
25 November
1879
29 May
1881
Cairoli III XIV
(1880)
Agostino Depretis Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
29 May
1881
25 May
1883
6 years, 61 days Historical Left Depretis IV Left [37]
[38]
[39]
[40]
[41]
25 May
1883
30 March
1884
Depretis V XV
(1882)
30 March
1884
29 June
1885
Depretis VI
29 June
1885
4 April
1887
Depretis VII XVI
(1886)
4 April
1887
29 July
1887†
Depretis VIII
Francesco Crispi Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
29 July
1887
9 March
1889
3 years, 192 days Historical Left Crispi I Left [42]
[43]
9 March
1889
6 February
1891
Crispi II XVII
(1890)
Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì Marquess
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
6 February
1891
15 May
1892
1 year, 99 days Historical Right Di Rudinì I LeftRight [44]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 May
1892
15 December
1893
1 year, 214 days Historical Left Giolitti I Left XVIII
(1892)
[45]
Francesco Crispi Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
15 December
1893
14 June
1894
2 years, 86 days Historical Left Crispi III LeftRight [46]
[47]
14 June
1894
10 March
1896
Crispi IV XIX
(1895)
Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì Marquess
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
10 March
1896
11 July
1896
2 years, 111 days Historical Right Di Rudinì II Right
with Left's external support
[48]
[49]
[50]
[51]
11 July
1896
14 December
1897
Di Rudinì III
14 December
1897
1 June
1898
Di Rudinì IV LeftRight XX
(1897)
1 June
1898
29 June
1898
Di Rudinì V LeftRight
Luigi Pelloux General
Luigi Pelloux
(1839–1924)
29 June
1898
14 May
1899
1 year, 360 days Military Pelloux I Left
with Right's external support
[52]
[53]
14 May
1899
24 June
1900
Pelloux II LeftRight
Giuseppe Saracco Giuseppe Saracco
(1821–1907)
24 June
1900
15 February
1901
236 days Historical Left Saracco LeftRight XXI
(1900)
Victor Emmanuel III

(1900–1946)
[54]
Giuseppe Zanardelli Giuseppe Zanardelli
(1826–1903)
15 February
1901
3 November
1903
2 years, 261 days Historical Left Zanardelli LeftRight [55]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
3 November
1903
12 March
1905
1 year, 129 days Historical Left Giolitti II LeftRight
with PSI's external support
XXII
(1904)
[56]
Tommaso Tittoni Tommaso Tittoni
(1855–1931)
12 March
1905
28 March
1905
16 days Historical Right Tittoni LeftRight [57]
Alessandro Fortis Alessandro Fortis
(1842–1909)
28 March
1905
24 December
1905
317 days Historical Left Fortis I LeftRight [58]
[59]
24 December
1905
8 February
1906
Fortis II Left
with Right's external support
Sidney Sonnino Baron
Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
8 February
1906
29 May
1906
110 days Historical Right Sonnino I LeftRightPR [60]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
29 May
1906
11 December
1909
3 years, 196 days Historical Left Giolitti III LeftRight [61]
Sidney Sonnino Baron
Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
11 December
1909
31 March
1910
110 days Historical Right Sonnino II Right
with Left's external support
XXIII
(1909)
[62]
Luigi Luzzatti Luigi Luzzatti
(1841–1927)
31 March
1910
30 March
1911
364 days Historical Right Luzzatti LeftRightPR [63]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
30 March
1911
21 March
1914
2 years, 356 days Liberal Union Giolitti IV ULPR [64]
Antonio Salandra Antonio Salandra
(1853–1931)
21 March
1914
5 November
1914
2 years, 89 days Liberal Union Salandra I UL XXIV
(1913)
[65]
[66]
5 November
1914
18 June
1916
Salandra II ULPRI
Paolo Boselli Paolo Boselli
(1838–1932)
18 June
1916
30 October
1917
1 year, 134 days Liberal Union Boselli ULPRUECIPSRI [67]
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
(1860–1952)
30 October
1917
23 June
1919
1 year, 236 days Liberal Union Orlando ULPRUECIPSRI [68]
Francesco Saverio Nitti Francesco Saverio Nitti
(1868–1953)
23 June
1919
21 May
1920
358 days Italian Radical Party Nitti I ULPLDIPPIPRPSRI [69]
[70]
21 May
1920
15 June
1920
Nitti II ULPLDIPPIPR XXV
(1919)
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 June
1920
4 July
1921
1 year, 19 days Liberal Union Giolitti V ULPLDIPPIPDSIPRPSRI [71]
Ivanoe Bonomi Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
4 July
1921
26 February
1922
237 days Italian Reformist Socialist Party Bonomi I PPIPLIPLDIPDSIPSRI XXVI
(1921)
[72]
Luigi Facta Luigi Facta
(1861–1930)
26 February
1922
1 August
1922
247 days Liberal Union /
Italian Liberal Party
Facta I PPIPLIPLDIPDSIPSRIPA [73]
[74]
1 August
1922
31 October
1922
Facta II PPIPLIPLDIPDSIPSRI
Duce
Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
31 October
1922
25 July
1943
20 years, 267 days National Fascist Party Mussolini PPIPLIPDSIPNFANI [75]
PNF XXVII
(1924)
XXVIII
(1929)
XXIX
(1934)
XXX
(no election)
Pietro Badoglio Marshal
Pietro Badoglio
(1871–1956)
25 July
1943
24 April
1944
329 days Military Badoglio I IndependentsDCPLI Parliament abolished [76]
[77]
24 April
1944
18 June
1944
Badoglio II CLN
DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL
Ivanoe Bonomi Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
18 June
1944
12 December
1944
1 year, 3 days Labour Democratic Party Bonomi II CLN
DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL
[78]
[79]
12 December
1944
21 June
1945
Bonomi III CLN
DCPCIPLIPDL
Ferruccio Parri Ferruccio Parri
(1890–1981)
21 June
1945
10 December
1945
172 days Action Party Parri CLN
DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL
National Council [80]
Alcide De Gasperi Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
10 December
1945
13 July
1946
212 days Christian Democracy De Gasperi I CLN
DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL
Umberto II

(1946)
[81]
  1. ^ Colors in the "Party" column indicate the party to which a prime minister belongs.
  2. ^ Colors in the "Cabinet" and "Composition" columns indicate the governing coalition.
  3. ^ a b c After the Italian unification, the regnal number of King Victor Emmanuel, as well as the numbering for governments and legislatures, were taken in continuation with the corresponding numbers in the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Prime ministers of the Italian Republic (1946–present)[edit]

Prime Ministers of the Italian Republic (1946–present)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Government Composition Legislature
(Election)
President
(Tenure)
Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
Alcide De Gasperi Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
13 July
1946
2 February
1947
7 years, 35 days Christian Democracy De Gasperi II CLN
DCPSIUPPCIPRI
Constituent
Assembly

(1946)
Enrico
De Nicola


(1946–1948)
[82]
[83]
[84]
[85]
[86]
[87]
[88]
2 February
1947
1 June
1947
De Gasperi III CLN
DCPSIPCIPDL
1 June
1947
24 May
1948
De Gasperi IV Centrism
DCPSDIPLIPRI
24 May
1948
27 January
1950
De Gasperi V I
(1948)
Luigi Einaudi

(1948–1955)
27 January
1950
26 July
1951
De Gasperi VI Centrism
DCPSDIPRI
26 July
1951
16 July
1953
De Gasperi VII Centrism
DCPRI
16 July
1953
17 August
1953
De Gasperi VIII[c] DC II
(1953)
Giuseppe Pella Giuseppe Pella
(1902–1981)
17 August
1953
19 January
1954
155 days Christian Democracy Pella DC [89]
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
19 January
1954
10 February
1954
22 days Christian Democracy Fanfani I[c] DC [90]
Mario Scelba Mario Scelba
(1901–1991)
10 February
1954
6 July
1955
1 year, 146 days Christian Democracy Scelba Centrism
DCPSDIPLI
[91]
Antonio Segni Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
6 July
1955
20 May
1957
1 year, 318 days Christian Democracy Segni I Centrism
DCPSDIPLI
Giovanni
Gronchi


(1955–1962)
[92]
Adone Zoli Adone Zoli
(1887–1960)
20 May
1957
2 July
1958
1 year, 43 days Christian Democracy Zoli DC [93]
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
2 July
1958
16 February
1959
229 days Christian Democracy Fanfani II Centrism
DCPSDI
III
(1958)
[94]
Antonio Segni Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
16 February
1959
26 March
1960
1 year, 39 days Christian Democracy Segni II DC [95]
Fernando Tambroni Fernando Tambroni
(1901–1963)
26 March
1960
27 July
1960
123 days Christian Democracy Tambroni DC [96]
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
27 July
1960
22 February
1962
2 years, 330 days Christian Democracy Fanfani III DC [97]
[98]
22 February
1962
22 June
1963
Fanfani IV DCPSDIPRI Antonio Segni

(1962–1964)
Giovanni Leone Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
22 June
1963
5 December
1963
166 days Christian Democracy Leone I DC IV
(1963)
[99]
Aldo Moro Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
5 December
1963
23 July
1964
4 years, 203 days Christian Democracy Moro I Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[100]
[101]
[102]
23 July
1964
24 February
1966
Moro II Giuseppe
Saragat


(1964–1971)
24 February
1966
25 June
1968
Moro III
Giovanni Leone Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
25 June
1968
13 December
1968
171 days Christian Democracy Leone II DC V
(1968)
[103]
Mariano Rumor Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
13 December
1968
6 August
1969
1 year, 236 days Christian Democracy Rumor I Organic centre-left
DCPSUPRI
[104]
[105]
[106]
6 August
1969
28 March
1970
Rumor II DC
28 March
1970
6 August
1970
Rumor III Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
Emilio Colombo Emilio Colombo
(1920–2013)
6 August
1970
18 February
1972
1 year, 196 days Christian Democracy Colombo Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[107]
Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
18 February
1972
26 June
1972
1 year, 140 days Christian Democracy Andreotti I[c] DC Giovanni
Leone


(1971–1978)
[108]
[109]
26 June
1972
8 July
1973
Andreotti II DCPSDIPLI VI
(1972)
Mariano Rumor Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
8 July
1973
15 March
1974
1 year, 138 days Christian Democracy Rumor IV Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[110]
[111]
15 March
1974
23 November
1974
Rumor V Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDI
Aldo Moro Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
23 November
1974
12 February
1976
1 year, 250 days Christian Democracy Moro IV DCPRI [112]
[113]
12 February
1976
30 July
1976
Moro V DC
Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
30 July
1976
13 March
1978
3 years, 6 days Christian Democracy Andreotti III Historic Compromise
DC
VII
(1976)
[114]
[115]
[116]
13 March
1978
21 March
1979
Andreotti IV Sandro Pertini

(1978–1985)
21 March
1979
5 August
1979
Andreotti V[c] DCPSDIPRI
Francesco Cossiga Francesco Cossiga
(1928–2010)
5 August
1979
4 April
1980
1 year, 74 days Christian Democracy Cossiga I DCPSDIPLI VIII
(1979)
[117]
[118]
4 April
1980
18 October
1980
Cossiga II Organic centre-left
DCPSIPRI
Arnaldo Forlani Arnaldo Forlani
(1925–2023)
18 October
1980
28 June
1981
253 days Christian Democracy Forlani Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[119]
Giovanni Spadolini Giovanni Spadolini
(1925–1994)
28 June
1981
23 August
1982
1 year, 156 days Italian Republican Party Spadolini I Pentapartito
DCPSIPSDIPRIPLI
[120]
[121]
23 August
1982
1 December
1982
Spadolini II
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
1 December
1982
4 August
1983
246 days Christian Democracy Fanfani V DCPSIPSDIPLI [122]
Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi
(1934–2000)
4 August
1983
1 August
1986
3 years, 257 days Italian Socialist Party Craxi I Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
IX
(1983)
[123]
[124]
1 August
1986
18 April
1987
Craxi II Francesco Cossiga

(1985–1992)
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
18 April
1987
29 July
1987
102 days Christian Democracy Fanfani VI[c] DC [98]
Giovanni Goria Giovanni Goria
(1943–1994)
29 July
1987
13 April
1988
259 days Christian Democracy Goria Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
X
(1987)
[125]
Ciriaco De Mita Ciriaco De Mita
(1928–2022)
13 April
1988
23 July
1989
1 year, 101 days Christian Democracy De Mita Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
[126]
Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
23 July
1989
13 April
1991
2 years, 341 days Christian Democracy Andreotti VI Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
[127]
[128]
13 April
1991
28 June
1992
Andreotti VII Quadripartito
DCPSIPSDIPLI
Giuliano Amato Giuliano Amato
(born 1938)
28 June
1992
28 April
1993
304 days Italian Socialist Party Amato I Quadripartito
DCPSIPLIPSDI
XI
(1992)
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro

(1992–1999)
[129]
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
(1920–2016)
28 April
1993
11 May
1994
1 year, 13 days Independent Ciampi DCPSIPDS[d]PLIPRIPSDIFdV[d] [130]
Silvio Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi
(1936–2023)
11 May
1994
17 January
1995
251 days Forza Italia Berlusconi I PdLPBG
FILNANCCDUdC
XII
(1994)
[131]
Lamberto Dini Lamberto Dini
(born 1931)
17 January
1995
18 May
1996
1 year, 122 days Independent Dini Independents [132]
Romano Prodi Romano Prodi
(born 1939)
18 May
1996
21 October
1998
2 years, 156 days Independent[e] Prodi I The Olive Tree
PDSPPIRIFdVUD
XIII
(1996)
[133]
Massimo D'Alema Massimo D'Alema
(born 1949)
21 October
1998
22 December
1999
1 year, 188 days Democrats of the Left D'Alema I The Olive Tree
DSPPIRISDI[f]FdVPdCIUDR[g]UDEUR[h]Dem[h]
[134]
[135]
22 December
1999
26 April
2000
D'Alema II Carlo Azeglio Ciampi

(1999–2006)
Giuliano Amato Giuliano Amato
(born 1938)
26 April
2000
11 June
2001
1 year, 46 days Independent[e] Amato II The Olive Tree
DSPPIDemFdVPdCIUDEURRISDI
[136]
Silvio Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi
(1936–2023)
11 June
2001
23 April
2005
4 years, 340 days Forza Italia Berlusconi II House of Freedoms
FIANLNUDCNPSIPRI
XIV
(2001)
[137]
[138]
23 April
2005
17 May
2006
Berlusconi III
Romano Prodi Romano Prodi
(born 1939)
17 May
2006
8 May
2008
1 year, 357 days Independent /
Democratic Party
Prodi II The Union
DSDLPRCRnPPdCIIdVFdVUDEUR
XV
(2006)
Giorgio Napolitano

(2006–2015)
[139]
Silvio Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi
(1936–2023)
8 May
2008
16 November
2011
3 years, 192 days The People of Freedom Berlusconi IV Centre-right coalition
PdLLN
XVI
(2008)
[140]
Mario Monti Mario Monti
(born 1943)
16 November
2011
28 April
2013
1 year, 163 days Independent Monti Independents [141]
Enrico Letta Enrico Letta
(born 1966)
28 April
2013
22 February
2014
300 days Democratic Party Letta Grand coalition
PDPdL[i]NCD[j]SCPpIUDCRI
XVII
(2013)
[142]
Matteo Renzi Matteo Renzi
(born 1975)
22 February
2014
12 December
2016
2 years, 294 days Democratic Party Renzi Centre-left coalition
PDNCDSCUDC
[143]
Paolo Gentiloni Paolo Gentiloni
(born 1954)
12 December
2016
1 June
2018
1 year, 171 days Democratic Party Gentiloni Centre-left coalition
PDNCD/APCpE
Sergio Mattarella

(2015–present)
[144]
Giuseppe Conte Giuseppe Conte
(born 1964)
1 June
2018
5 September
2019
2 years, 257 days Independent[k] Conte I M5SLega XVIII
(2018)
[145]
[146]
5 September
2019
13 February
2021
Conte II M5SPDArt.1IV[l]
Mario Draghi Mario Draghi
(born 1947)
13 February
2021
22 October
2022
1 year, 251 days Independent Draghi M5SLegaPDFIIpF[m]IVArt.1A[n] [147]
Giorgia Meloni Giorgia Meloni
(born 1977)
22 October
2022
Incumbent 1 year, 178 days Brothers of Italy Meloni Centre-right coalition
FdILegaFI
XIX
(2022)
[148]
  1. ^ Colors in the "Party" column indicate the party to which a prime minister belongs.
  2. ^ Colors in the "Cabinet" and "Composition" columns indicate the governing coalition.
  3. ^ a b c d e The cabinet did not receive the confidence of the Parliament.
  4. ^ a b Until 4 May 1993
  5. ^ a b Within The Olive Tree coalition
  6. ^ Until December 1999
  7. ^ Until February 1999
  8. ^ a b From February 1999
  9. ^ Until November 2013
  10. ^ From November 2013
  11. ^ Close to the Five Star Movement
  12. ^ From September 2019 to January 2021
  13. ^ From June 2022
  14. ^ From July 2022

Timeline[edit]

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)[edit]

Alcide De GasperiFerruccio ParriPietro BadoglioBenito MussoliniLuigi FactaIvanoe BonomiFrancesco Saverio NittiVittorio Emanuele OrlandoPaolo BoselliAntonio SalandraLuigi LuzzatiSidney SonninoAlessandro FortisTommaso TittoniGiuseppe ZanardelliGiuseppe SaraccoLuigi PellouxGiovanni GiolittiAntonio Starabba, Marchese di RudinìFrancesco CrispiBenedetto CairoliAgostino DepretisGiovanni LanzaFederico Luigi, Conte MenabreaAlfonso Ferrero La MarmoraMarco MinghettiLuigi Carlo FariniUrbano RattazziBettino RicasoliCamillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Italian Republic (1946–present)[edit]

Giorgia MeloniMario DraghiGiuseppe ContePaolo GentiloniMatteo RenziEnrico LettaMario MontiMassimo D'AlemaRomano ProdiLamberto DiniSilvio BerlusconiCarlo Azeglio CiampiGiuliano AmatoCiriaco De MitaGiovanni GoriaBettino CraxiGiovanni SpadoliniArnaldo ForlaniFrancesco CossigaGiulio AndreottiEmilio ColomboMariano RumorAldo MoroGiovanni LeoneFernando TambroniAdone ZoliAntonio SegniMario ScelbaAmintore FanfaniGiuseppe PellaAlcide De Gasperi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]