List of Prime Ministers of Nepal

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Prime Minister of Nepal
नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री
Emblem of Nepal.svg
KP Oli.jpeg
Incumbent
Khadga Prasad Oli

since 15 February 2018
Style The Right Honourable (formal)
His Excellency (diplomatic)
Residence Baluwatar, Kathmandu[1]
Seat Singha Durbar, Kathmandu
Appointer President of Nepal
Inaugural holder Bhimsen Thapa
as second Mukhtiyar of Nepal and de facto first Prime Minister.
Formation 25 December 1843; 174 years ago (1843-12-25)
Deputy Deputy Prime Minister of Nepal (multiple)
Salary NPR 77,280 (basic monthly pay)[2]
Website www.opmcm.gov.np
Emblem of Nepal.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Nepal

The position of Prime Minister of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री; Nēpālakō pradhānamantrī) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history. At the time of the Shah dynasty, the Mulkajis (Chief Kajis) served the function of Prime Ministers. In 1806, the position of Mukhtiyar was created by Rana Bahadur Shah which carried executive powers of nation.[3] Mukhtiyar is formed from two words: Mukhya and Akhtiyar. Mukhya means Chief[4] and Akhtiyar means Authority.[5] Altogether it means the "Executive Head of the State". Mukhtiyar held the position of Executive Head till adoption of title of Prime Minister on 1843 A.D.[6] During the Rana dynasty, the position of Prime Minister was hereditary and the officeholder held additional titles — Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Nepal and Grand Master of the Royal Orders of Nepal. The Prime Minister of Nepal does not have a term limit.

Mukhtiyar Bhimsen Thapa was the first person to be referred to as Prime Minister by the British. However, the first Mukhtiyar to title himself as Prime Minister, as per the British convention, was Bhimsen's nephew, Mathabar Singh Thapa.[6]

Few of Nepalese Prime Ministers have carried a democratic mandate. The first elected Prime Minister was Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, in 1959. After he was deposed and imprisoned in 1960, the King established the Panchayat system and Nepal did not have a democratic government until 1990, when the country became a constitutional monarchy after the Jana Andolan movement. The monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly.

The current Prime Minister is Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, since 15 February 2018.[7] The residence of Prime Minister of Nepal is in Baluwatar, Kathmandu.[1][8] The seat of the Prime Minister is Singha Darbar since the time of Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana.[9] The basic monthly salary of Prime Minister of Nepal is NPR 77,280.[2]

Chief Ministers of Kingdom of Nepal (1768-1803)[edit]

Old Bharadari governmentship[edit]

The character of government in Kingdom of Nepal was driven from consultative state organ of the previous Gorkha hill principality, known as Bharadar.[10][note 1] These Bharadars were drawn from high caste and politically influential families. For instance; Thar Ghar in previous Gorkha hill principality. The nobility of Gorkha were mainly based from Chhetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs.[11] All of the Prime Minister of Nepal between 1768 to 1950 were Chhetris with the exception of Ranga Nath Poudyal, being a Brahmin.[12] Bharadars formed consultative body in the kingdom for the most important functions of the state as Councellors, Ministers and Diplomats.[10] There was no single successful coalition government as court politics were driven from large factional rivalries, consecutive conspiracies and ostracization of opponent Bharadar families through assassination rather than legal expulsion.[10] Another reason was the minority of the reigning King between 1777 to 1847 that led to establishment of anarchial rule.[13] The government was stated to have controlled by regents, Mukhtiyars and alliance of political faction with strong fundamental support.[13] In the end of the 18th century, the central politics was regularly dominated by two notable political factions; Thapas and Pandes.[13] Per historians and contemporary writer Francis Hamilton, the government of Nepal[note 2] comprised

Per historian Dilli Raman Regmi, the states the government of Nepal were

In 1794, King Rana Bahadur Shah came of age and his first act was to re-constitute the government such that his uncle, Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal, had no official part to play.[14][15] Rana Bahadur appointed Kirtiman Singh Basnyat as Chief (Mul) Kaji among the newly appointed four Kajis though Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji.[15] Kirtiman had succeeded Abhiman Singh Basnyat as Chief Kaji[16] while Prince Bahadur Shah was succeeded as Chief (Mul) Chautariya by Prince Ranodyot Shah, then heir apparent of King Rana Bahadur Shah by a Chhetri Queen Subarna Prabha Devi.[15] Kajis had held the administrative and executive powers of nation after the fall of Chief Chautariya Prince Bahadur Shah in 1794. Later, Kirtiman Singh was secretly assassinated on 28 September 1801, by the supporters of Raj Rajeshwari Devi[17] and his brother Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, was then given the post of Chief (Mul) Kaji.[18] During Bakhtawar's tenure as the Mul Kaji, on 28 October 1801, a Treaty of Commerce and Alliance was signed between Nepal and East India Company.[19] Queen Rajrajeshwari was restored as regent of Nepal in 17 December 1802.[20][21] On subsequent February, Damodar Pande was appointed by Queen Rajrajeshwari as Mulkaji (Chief Kaji)[22] as a reward for establishing her regency.[21]

Persons equivalent to Prime Minister of Nepal (1768-1803)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Position
Took Office Left Office
1 Swarup Singh Karki
(1751–1785)
c.1775 c.1777 Dewan[note 3]
2 Bamsa Raj Pandey.jpg Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c.1775 c.1779 Dewan[note 4]
3 Sarbajit Rana Magar
(??–1778)
c.1777 1778 Kaji/Mulkaji[note 5]
2 Bamsa Raj Pandey.jpg Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c.1782 c.1785 Dewan/Mantri-Nayak[note 6]
4 Abhiman Singh Basnyat.jpg Abhiman Singh Basnyat
(1744–1800)
c.1785 1794 Mulkaji
5 Kirtiman Singh Basnyat (cropped).jpg Kirtiman Singh Basnyat
(??–1801)
1794 28 September, 1801 Mulkaji[note 7]
6 Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat
(??–??)
1801 February 1803 Mulkaji[note 8]

Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Nepal (1803–2008)[edit]

Mul-Kajis and Muktiyars during the Shah expansion era and before the Rana era[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
1 Damodar Pande.jpg Damodar Pande
(1752–1804)
February 1803 March 1804 Independent Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah
Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah.jpg

(8 March 1799-20 November 1816)
Rana Bahadur Shah.jpg Rana Bahadur Shah
(1775–1806)
26 February 1806 26 April 1806 Independent
2 Bhimsen-thapa-painting (cropped).jpg Bhimsen Thapa
(1775–1839)
1806 July 1837 Independent Rajendra Bikram Shah
King Rajendra Bikram Shah Deva.jpg

(20 November 1816-12 May 1847)
3 Ranajang Pande.jpg Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
1st time
1837 1837 Independent
4 Ranganath Paudyal.jpg Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–?)
1st time
October 1837 August 1838 Independent
5 Puskar Shah.jpg Chautariya Puskhar Shah
(1784–1846)
October 1838 1839 Independent
(3) Ranajang Pande.jpg Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
2nd time
April 1839 1840 Independent
(4) Ranganath Paudyal.jpg Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–?)
2nd time
1840 1840 Independent
6 Fatteh Jang Shah.jpg Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
1st time
November 1840 January 1843 Independent
7 Mathabar Simha Thapa.jpg Mathabar Singh Thapa
(1798–1845)
November 1843 25 December 1843 Independent

Prime Ministers before the Rana era (1845–1846)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
7 Mathabar Simha Thapa.jpg Mathabar Singh Thapa
(1798–1845)
25 December 1843 17 May 1845 Independent Rajendra Bikram Shah
King Rajendra Bikram Shah Deva.jpg

(20 November 1816-12 May 1847)
(6) Fatteh Jang Shah.jpg Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
2nd time
September 1845 14 September 1846 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Rana era (1846–1951)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
8 Jang Bahadur Ranaji.jpg Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
1st time
15 September 1846 1 August 1856 Independent Surendra Bikram Shah
Surendra Bikram Shah.jpg

(12 May 1847-17 May 1881)
9 Bam Bahadur Kunwar.jpg Bam Bahadur Kunwar
(1818–1857)
1 August 1856 25 May 1857 Independent
No image.png Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana
(1823–1863)
Acting Prime Minister
25 May 1857 28 June 1857 Independent
(8) Jang Bahadur Ranaji.jpg Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
2nd time
28 June 1857 25 February 1877 Independent
10 Ranoddip Singh Kunwar.jpg Ranodip Singh Kunwar
(1825–1885)
27 February 1877 22 November 1885 Independent
11 Bir Shamsher JBR.jpg Bir Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1852–1901)
22 November 1885 5 March 1901 Independent Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah
Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah.jpg

(17 May 1881-11 December 1911)
12 Dev Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana.jpg Dev Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1862–1914)
5 March 1901 27 June 1901 Independent
13 Chandra Shamsher JBR.jpg Chandra Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1863–1929)
27 June 1901 26 November 1929 Independent Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah.jpg

(11 December 1911-13 March 1955)
14 Bhim Shamsher JB R.jpg Bhim Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1865–1932)
26 November 1929 1 September 1932 Independent
15 Juddha Shamsher JBR.jpg Juddha Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1875–1952)
1 September 1932 29 November 1945 Independent
16 Padma Shamsher JBR.jpg Padma Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1882–1961)
29 November 1945 30 April 1948 Independent
17 Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana.jpg Mohan Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1885–1967)
30 April 1948 12 November 1951 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Transition era (1951–1960)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
18 Matrika Prasad Koirala2.jpg Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
1st time
16 November 1951 14 August 1952 Nepali Congress Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah.jpg

(11 December 1911–13 March 1955)
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah.jpg Direct rule by King
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(1906–1955)
14 August 1952 15 June 1953
(18) Matrika Prasad Koirala2.jpg Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
2nd time
15 June 1953 14 April 1955 Rastriya Praja Party
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
14 April 1955 27 January 1956 Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg

(14 March 1955–31 January 1972)
19 Tanka Prasad Acharya (cropped).jpg Tanka Prasad Acharya
(1912–1992)
27 January 1956 26 July 1957 Nepal Praja Parishad
20 No image.png Kunwar Inderjit Singh
(1906–1982)
26 July 1957 15 May 1958 United Democratic Party
21 Subarna Shamsher Rana
(1910–1977)
15 May 1958 27 May 1959 Nepali Congress
22 BP. Koirala.png Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala
(1914–1982)
27 May 1959 26 December 1960 Nepali Congress

Prime Ministers during the Panchayat era (1960–1990)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
26 December 1960 2 April 1963 Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg

(14 March 1955–31 January 1972)
23 No image.png Tulsi Giri
(1926–)
1st time
2 April 1963 23 December 1963 Independent
24 Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
1st time
23 December 1963 26 February 1964 Independent
(23) No image.png Tulsi Giri
(1926–)
2nd time
26 February 1964 26 January 1965 Independent
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
2nd time
26 January 1965 7 April 1969 Independent
25 No image.png Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
1st time
7 April 1969 13 April 1970 Independent
Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari
(1923–1994)
Acting Prime Minister
13 April 1970 14 April 1971 Independent
(25) No image.png Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
2nd time
14 April 1971 16 July 1973 Independent Birendra Bir Bikram Shah
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg

(31 January 1972–1 June 2001)
26 No image.png Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
1st time
16 July 1973 1 December 1975 Independent
(23) No image.png Tulsi Giri
(1926–)
3rd time
1 December 1975 12 September 1977 Independent
(25) No image.png Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
3rd time
12 September 1977 30 May 1979 Independent
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
3rd time
30 May 1979 12 July 1983 Independent
27 No image.png Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
1st time
12 July 1983 21 March 1986 Independent
(26) No image.png Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
2nd time
21 March 1986 15 June 1986 Independent
28 No image.png Marich Man Singh Shrestha
(1942–2013)
15 June 1986 6 April 1990 Independent
(27) No image.png Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
2nd time
6 April 1990 19 April 1990 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Constitutional monarchy (1990–2008)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal
(Reign)
Took Office Left Office Days
29 Krishna bhattarai.jpg Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
1st time
19 April 1990 26 May 1991 402 Nepali Congress Birendra Bir Bikram Shah
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg

(31 January 1972–1 June 2001)
30 Girija Prasad Koirala (cropped).jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1925–2010)
1st time
26 May 1991 30 November 1994 1284 Nepali Congress
31 No image.png Man Mohan Adhikari
(1920–1999)
30 November 1994 12 September 1995 286 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
32 Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
1st time
12 September 1995 12 March 1997 547 Nepali Congress
(27) No image.png Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
3rd time
12 March 1997 7 October 1997 209 Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Chand)
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
4th time
7 October 1997 15 April 1998 190 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala (cropped).jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1925–2010)
2nd time
15 April 1998 31 May 1999 411 Nepali Congress
(29) Krishna bhattarai.jpg Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
2nd time
31 May 1999 22 March 2000 296 Nepali Congress
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala (cropped).jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1925–2010)
3rd time
22 March 2000 26 July 2001 491 Nepali Congress
(32) Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
2nd time
26 July 2001 4 October 2002 435 Nepali Congress Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Gyanendra 01.jpg

(4 June 2001–28 May 2008)
Gyanendra 01.jpg Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1947–)
4 October 2002 11 October 2002 7
(27) No image.png Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
4th time
11 October 2002 5 June 2003 237 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
5th time
5 June 2003 3 June 2004 364 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(32) Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
3rd time
3 June 2004 1 February 2005 243 Nepali Congress (Democratic)
Gyanendra 01.jpg Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1947–)
1 February 2005 25 April 2006 448
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala (cropped).jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1925–2010)
4th time
25 April 2006 28 may 2008 764 Nepali Congress

Prime Ministers of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Cabinet President of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
(1. Term of Office)
(2. Political Party)
Took Office Left Office Days
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala (cropped).jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1925–2010)
5th time
28 May 2008[30][31][32] 18 August 2008[31][32] 82 Nepali Congress Girija Prasad Koirala
Girija Prasad Koirala (cropped).jpg

Head of state of Nepal
(1. 15 January 2007-23 July 2008
(2. Nepali Congress)

33 Prachanda 2009.jpg Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(1954–)
1st time
18 August 2008 25 May 2009 280 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 2008 Dahal Cabinet Ram Baran Yadav
Dr. Ram Baran Yadav.jpg

(1. 23 July 2008-29 October 2015)
(2. Nepali Congress)
34 Madhav Kumar Nepal 2009-09-23.jpg Madhav Kumar Nepal
(1953–)
25 May 2009 6 February 2011 622 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2009 Madhav Nepal Cabinet
35 Jhala Nath Khanal 2011-03-20.jpg Jhala Nath Khanal
(1950–)
6 February 2011 29 August 2011 204 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2011 Khanal Cabinet
36 Baburam Bhattarai (cropped).jpg Baburam Bhattarai
(1954–)
29 August 2011 14 March 2013 563 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 2011 Bhattarai Cabinet
Khil Raj Regmi (cropped).jpg Khil Raj Regmi
(1949–)
Acting Prime Minister
14 March 2013 11 February 2014 334 Independent 2013 Regmi Interim Cabinet
37 Sushil Koirala 2010-04-15.jpg Sushil Koirala
(1939–2016)
11 February 2014 12 October 2015 608 Nepali Congress 2013 Koirala Cabinet
38 KP Oli.jpg Khadga Prasad Oli
(1952–)
1st time
12 October 2015 4 August 2016 297 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2015 Oli Cabinet Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Vidhya Bhandari2.JPG

(1. 29 October 2015-)
(2. Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist))
(33) Prachanda 2009.jpg Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(1954–)
2nd time
4 August 2016[33] 7 June 2017 307 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 2016 Dahal Cabinet
(32) Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
4th time
7 June 2017[34] 15 February 2018[35][36] 253 Nepali Congress 2017 Deuba Cabinet
(38) KP Oli.jpg Khadga Prasad Oli
(1952–)
2nd time
15 February 2018[37] Incumbent 183 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2018 Oli Cabinet

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Bharadar translates as 'bearers of burden of state'.
  2. ^ Here the government of Nepal can simply be called Bharadari Sabha or Council of Bharadars.
  3. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August, 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[23]
  4. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August, 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[23]
  5. ^ Historian Dilli Raman Regmi asserts that Sarbajit was chosen as Chief Kazi.[24] Historian Rishikesh Shah asserts that Sarbajit was appointed only a Kaji [25] and was the head of the Nepalese government for a short period in 1778.[26]
  6. ^ Daniel Wright mentions him as the Mantri-Nayak (Prime Minister) under the King Rana Bahadur Shah (1777-1799).[27]
  7. ^ Though the position of Mulkaji (Chief Kaji) was bestowed on Kirtiman Singh in 1794, Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji.[15] and Damodar lead the military forces and the second government to prevent the re-estabishment of royal authority of self-renounced King Rana Bahadur Shah in 1799.[28][29]
  8. ^ Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, brother of assassinated Kirtiman Singh, was then given the post of Mulkaji.[18]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "PM Deuba shifts to official residence in Baluwatar". thehimalayantimes.com. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  2. ^ a b "How much are VIPs, including President and PM, paid monthly?". thehimalayantimes.com. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  3. ^ Nepal, Gyanmani (2007). Nepal ko Mahabharat (in Nepali) (3rd ed.). Kathmandu: Sajha. p. 314. ISBN 9789993325857. 
  4. ^ "English Translation of "मुख्य" - Collins Hindi-English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  5. ^ "English Translation of "अख़्तियार" - Collins Hindi-English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  6. ^ a b Kandel, Devi Prasad (2011). Pre-Rana Administrative System. Chitwan: Siddhababa Offset Press. p. 95. 
  7. ^ "Left alliance urges President to appoint UML Chair Oli as prime minister". thehimalayantimes.com. 15 February 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  8. ^ "Baluwatar vacated - The Himalayan Times". thehimalayantimes.com. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  9. ^ "PM's Office - Heritage Tale - ECSNEPAL - The Nepali Way". ecs.com.np. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Pradhan 2012, p. 8.
  11. ^ Pahari 1995, p. 632.
  12. ^ Raj 1996, p. 5.
  13. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 9.
  14. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 14.
  15. ^ a b c d Pradhan 2012, p. 12.
  16. ^ Karmacharya 2005, p. 56.
  17. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 34.
  18. ^ a b Acharya 2012, p. 35.
  19. ^ Nepal 2007, p. 51; Amatya 1978; Acharya 2012, pp. 35–36.
  20. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 36–37.
  21. ^ a b Karmacharya 1995, p. 64.
  22. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 14.
  23. ^ a b Regmi 1975, p. 272.
  24. ^ D.R. Regmi 1975, p. 285.
  25. ^ Shaha 1990, p. 46.
  26. ^ Shaha 2001, p. 21.
  27. ^ Wright 1877, p. 260.
  28. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 13.
  29. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 28-32.
  30. ^ "Girija Prasad koirla prime minister". nepalnews. Retrieved 2017-12-12. 
  31. ^ a b "Girija prasad, acting head of state of nepal". cnn. Retrieved 2017-12-12. 
  32. ^ a b bbc http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7475112.stm. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. ^ "Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda sworn in as new Nepal PM". Hindustan Times. 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  34. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba sworns in as Prime Minister". thehimalayantimes.com. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  35. ^ "PM Deuba announces resignation". The Kathmandu Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  36. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba resigns, KP Oli to take over as Nepal PM". The Indian Express. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  37. ^ "Newly appointed PM KP Sharma Oli takes oath of office". The Kathmandu Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 

Books[edit]

External links[edit]

See also[edit]