List of prime ministers of Nepal

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The position of a prime minister of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री, romanized: Nepālko Pradhānmantrī) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history. During the reign of the Shah kings, the Mulkajis (Chief Kajis) or Chautariyas served as prime ministers in a council of 4 Chautariyas, 4 Kajis, and sundry officers. These Bharadars (officers) were drawn from high caste and politically influential families such as the Pande, Basnyat, and Thapa families. The nobility of Gorkha was mainly based from Chetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs.[1] All prime ministers of Nepal between 1768 and 1950 were Chhetris with the exception of Ranga Nath Poudyal, being a Khas Brahmin.[2] Of the 23 men who have been elected since Nepal attained democracy from the Ranas in 1951, 15 have been Khas Brahmin, 3 Thakuri, 2 Newar Shresthas, 2 Chhetri, and 1 Sanyasi/Dasnami.[3] The executive power allocation was fluctuating between Kajis and Chautariyas.

In 1804, a single authoritative position of Mukhtiyar was created by Rana Bahadur Shah which carried the executive powers of nation.[4] Mukhtiyar held the position of head of the executive until the adoption of the title of Prime Minister in November 1843 by Mathabar Singh Thapa who became Mukhtiyar as well as Prime Minister and the Chief of the Nepalese Army.[5][6] During the Rana dynasty, the position of prime minister was hereditary and the officeholder held additional titles – Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Nepal and Grand Master of the Royal Orders of Nepal.

After the revolution of 1951, non-aristocratic citizens like Matrika Prasad Koirala held the position of prime minister still under the authority of the King of Nepal. The first general election was held in 1959 and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala became the first elected prime minister of Nepal. However, he was deposed and imprisoned in the 1960 coup d'état by King Mahendra who went on to establish an oligarchic authoritative regime, the Panchayat system, and Nepal did not have a democratic government until 1990. After the Jana Andolan movement in 1990, the country became a constitutional monarchy. However, this was interrupted with the 2005 coup d'état by King Gyanendra. After the Loktantrik Andolan movement in 2006, the monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly and the country was declared a federal parliamentary republic. The current constitution was adopted on 20 September 2015, and the first prime minister under this new constitution was KP Sharma Oli.

Heads of government of the Kingdom of Nepal (1768–2008)[edit]

Before 1800s[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Title King
(Reign)
Took office Left office
1 Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c. 1776 c. 1779 Dewan[note 1] Pratap Singh Shah

(1751–1777)
2 Swarup Singh Karki
(1751–1785)
c. 1776 c. 1777 Dewan[note 2]
3 Sarbajit Rana Magar
(1750–1778)
c. 1777 c. 1778 Kaji/Mulkaji[note 3] Rana Bahadur Shah

(1775–1806)
(1) Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c. 1782 c. 1785 Dewan/Mantri–Nayak[note 4]
4 Abhiman Singh Basnyat
(1744–1800)
c. 1785 c. 1794 Mulkaji[note 5]
Bahadur Shah of Nepal
(1757–1797)
c. 1785 c. 1794 Mul–Chautariya[note 6]
5 Kirtiman Singh Basnyat
(1760–1801)
c. 1794 c. 1801 Mulkaji[note 7]
Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah

(1799–1816)
6 Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat
(1759–1840)
c. 1801 c. 1803 Mulkaji[note 8]

Mul-Kajis and Muktiyars during the Shah expansion era (1803–1846)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office King
(Reign)
Took office Left office
1 Damodar Pande
(1752–1804)
February 1803 March 1804 Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah

(1799–1816)
Rana Bahadur Shah
(1775–1806)
1804[note 9] 25 April 1806
2 Bhimsen Thapa
(1775–1839)
1806 July 1837
Rajendra Bikram Shah

(1816–1847)
3 Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
1st time
1837 1837
4 Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–1846)
1st time
October 1837 August 1838
5 Chautariya Puskhar Shah
(1784–1846)
October 1838 1839
(3) Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
2nd time
April 1839 1840
(4) Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–1846)
2nd time
1840 1840
6 Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
1st time
November 1840 January 1843
7 Mathabar Singh Thapa
(1798–1845)
November 1843 17 May 1845
(6) Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
2nd time
September 1845 14 September 1846

Prime ministers during the Rana era (1846–1951)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
8 Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
1st time
15 September 1846 1 August 1856 9 years, 321 days Surendra Bikram Shah

(1847–1881)
9 Bam Bahadur Kunwar
(1818–1857)
1 August 1856 25 May 1857 297 days
Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana
(1823–1863)
Acting Prime Minister
25 May 1857 28 June 1857 34 days
(8) Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
2nd time
28 June 1857 25 February 1877 19 years, 242 days
10 Ranodip Singh Kunwar
(1825–1885)
27 February 1877 22 November 1885
(Assassinated)
8 years, 270 days
Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah

(1881–1911)
11 Bir Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1852–1901)
22 November 1885 5 March 1901 15 years, 103 days
12 Dev Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1862–1914)
5 March 1901 27 June 1901 114 days
13 Chandra Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1863–1929)
27 June 1901 26 November 1929 28 years, 152 days
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah

(1911–1955)
14 Bhim Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1865–1932)
26 November 1929 1 September 1932 2 years, 280 days
15 Juddha Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1875–1952)
1 September 1932 29 November 1945 13 years, 89 days
16 Padma Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1882–1961)
29 November 1945 30 April 1948 2 years, 153 days
17 Mohan Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1885–1967)
30 April 1948 12 November 1951 3 years, 196 days

Prime ministers during the Transition era (1951–1960)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Election(s) Political party Cabinet King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
18 Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
1st time
16 November 1951 14 August 1952 272 days Nepali Congress M.P. Koirala I Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah

(1911–1955)
Direct rule by King
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(1906–1955)
14 August 1952 15 June 1953 305 days
(18) Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
2nd time
15 June 1953 11 April 1955 1 year, 303 days Rastriya Praja Party M.P. Koirala II
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah

(1955–1972)
Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
Acting
11 April 1955 14 April 1955 3 days
Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
14 April 1955 27 January 1956 288 days
19 Tanka Prasad Acharya
(1912–1992)
27 January 1956 26 July 1957 1 year, 180 days Nepal Praja Parishad Tanka Acharya
20 Kunwar Inderjit Singh
(1906–1982)
26 July 1957 15 May 1958 293 days United Democratic Party K.I. Singh
21 Subarna Shamsher Rana
(1910–1977)
15 May 1958 27 May 1959 1 year, 12 days Nepali Congress
22 Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala
(1914–1982)
MP for Morang–Biratnagar West
27 May 1959 15 December 1960
(Deposed)
1 year, 202 days 1959 B.P. Koirala

Prime ministers during the partyless Panchayat era (1960–1990)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
15 December 1960 2 April 1963 2 years, 108 days Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah

(1955–1972)
23 Tulsi Giri
(1926–2018)
1st time
2 April 1963 23 December 1963 265 days
24 Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
1st time
23 December 1963 26 February 1964 65 days
(23) Tulsi Giri
(1926–2018)
2nd time
26 February 1964 26 January 1965 335 days
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
2nd time
26 January 1965 7 April 1969 4 years, 71 days
25 Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
1st time
7 April 1969 13 April 1970 1 year, 6 days
Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari
(1923–1994)
Acting Prime Minister
13 April 1970 14 April 1971 1 year, 1 day
(25) Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
2nd time
14 April 1971 16 July 1973 2 years, 63 days
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah

(1972–2001)
26 Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
1st time
16 July 1973 1 December 1975 2 years, 168 days
(23) Tulsi Giri
(1926–2018)
3rd time
1 December 1975 12 September 1977 1 year, 285 days
(25) Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
3rd time
12 September 1977 30 May 1979 1 year, 260 days
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
3rd time
30 May 1979 12 July 1983 4 years, 43 days
27 Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(born 1940)
1st time
12 July 1983 21 March 1986 2 years, 252 days
(26) Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
2nd time
21 March 1986 15 June 1986 86 days
28 Marich Man Singh Shrestha
(1942–2013)
15 June 1986 6 April 1990 3 years, 295 days
(27) Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(born 1940)
2nd time
6 April 1990 19 April 1990 13 days

Prime ministers during the Constitutional monarchy (1990–2008)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Election(s) Political party King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
29 Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
1st time
19 April 1990 26 May 1991 1 year, 37 days Nepali Congress Birendra Bir Bikram Shah

(1972–2001)
30 Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
MP for Morang 1
1st time
26 May 1991 30 November 1994 3 years, 188 days 1991
31 Man Mohan Adhikari
(1920–1999)
MP for Kathmandu 3
30 November 1994 12 September 1995 286 days 1994 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
32 Sher Bahadur Deuba
(born 1946)
MP for Dadeldhura 1
1st time
12 September 1995 12 March 1997 1 year, 181 days Nepali Congress
(27) Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(born 1940)
MP for Baitadi 2
3rd time
12 March 1997 7 October 1997 209 days Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Chand)
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
MP for Dhankuta 2
4th time
7 October 1997 15 April 1998 190 days Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
MP for Morang 1
2nd time
15 April 1998 31 May 1999 1 year, 46 days Nepali Congress
(29) Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
MP for Parsa 1
2nd time
31 May 1999 22 March 2000 296 days 1999
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
MP for Sunsari 5
3rd time
22 March 2000 26 July 2001 1 year, 126 days
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah

(2001–2008)
(32) Sher Bahadur Deuba
(born 1946)
MP for Dadeldhura 1
2nd time
26 July 2001 4 October 2002 1 year, 70 days
Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(born 1947)
4 October 2002 11 October 2002 7 days
(27) Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(born 1940)
4th time
11 October 2002 5 June 2003 237 days Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
5th time
5 June 2003 3 June 2004 364 days
(32) Sher Bahadur Deuba
(born 1946)
3rd time
3 June 2004 1 February 2005
(Deposed)
243 days Nepali Congress (Democratic)
Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(born 1947)
1 February 2005 25 April 2006 1 year, 83 days
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
4th time
25 April 2006 28 May 2008 2 years, 33 days Nepali Congress

Prime ministers of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Election(s) Political party Cabinet President
(Term)
Took office Left office Days
(30) Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
5th time
28 May 2008[20][21][22] 18 August 2008[21][22] 82 days Nepali Congress Girija Prasad Koirala

(2007–2008)
(Acting Head of State)
33 Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(born 1954)
MCA for Kathmandu 10
1st time
18 August 2008 25 May 2009 280 days 2008
(Constituent Assembly)
Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Dahal I Ram Baran Yadav

(2008–2015)
34 Madhav Kumar Nepal
(born 1953)
Nominated MCA
25 May 2009 6 February 2011 1 year, 257 days Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) Madhav Nepal
35 Jhala Nath Khanal
(born 1950)
MCA for Ilam 1
6 February 2011 29 August 2011 204 days Khanal
36 Baburam Bhattarai
(born 1954)
MCA for Gorkha 2
29 August 2011 14 March 2013 1 year, 197 days Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Bhattarai
Khil Raj Regmi
(born 1949)
Chair of the Cabinet of Ministers
14 March 2013 11 February 2014 334 days Independent Regmi Interim
37 Sushil Koirala
(1939–2016)
MCA for Banke 3
11 February 2014 12 October 2015 1 year, 243 days 2013
(Constituent Assembly)
Nepali Congress Sushil Koirala
38 KP Sharma Oli
(born 1952)
MCA for Jhapa 7
1st time
12 October 2015 4 August 2016 297 days Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) Oli I
Bidya Devi Bhandari

(2015–2023)
(33) Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(born 1954)
MCA for Siraha 5
2nd time
4 August 2016[23] 7 June 2017 307 days Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) Dahal II
(32) Sher Bahadur Deuba
(born 1946)
MCA for Dadeldhura 1
4th time
7 June 2017[24] 15 February 2018[25] 253 days Nepali Congress Deuba IV
(38) KP Sharma Oli
(born 1952)
MP for Jhapa 5
2nd time
15 February 2018[26] 13 May 2021[27] 3 years, 87 days 2017 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) Oli II
2nd term as minority PM 13 May 2021[28] 13 July 2021[29][30] 60 days
(32) Sher Bahadur Deuba
(born 1946)
MP for Dadeldhura 1
5th time
13 July 2021[31][32] 26 December 2022[33] 1 year, 166 days Nepali Congress Deuba V
(33) Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(born 1954)
MP for Gorkha 2
3rd time
26 December 2022[34] Incumbent 1 year, 68 days 2022 Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) Dahal III Ram Chandra Poudel

(2023–present)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[7]
  2. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[7]
  3. ^ Historian Dilli Raman Regmi asserts that Sarbajit was chosen as Mulkaji (Chief Kaji).[8] Historian Rishikesh Shah asserts that Sarbajit was appointed only a Kaji [9] and was the head of the Nepalese government for a short period in 1778.[10]
  4. ^ Daniel Wright mentions him as the Mantri-Nayak (Prime Minister) under the King Rana Bahadur Shah (1777–1799).[11]
  5. ^ Abhiman Singh Basnyat was replaced by Kirtiman Singh Basnyat as Mulkaji[12] after the dismissal of government on maturity of King Rana Bahadur Shah in 1794 AD.[13]
  6. ^ On Shrawan 1842 B.S. (i.e. July 1785), after the death of Regent Queen Rajendra Laxmi, Bahadur Shah assumed the regency and administration on the call of Bharadars.[citation needed] Historian Baburam Acharya referred the reign of Bahadur Shah as "Primeministership" or "Premiership".[14] Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal was Chief Chautariya (Mul-Chautariya) up to Baisakh 1851 B.S. (i.e. April 1794). The Chief Chautariya carried the functions of a Prime Minister.[15]
  7. ^ Though the position of Mulkaji (Chief Kaji) was bestowed on Kirtiman Singh in 1794, Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji.[13] and Damodar lead the military forces and the second government to prevent the re-establishment of royal authority of self-renounced King Rana Bahadur Shah in 1799.[16][17]
  8. ^ Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, brother of assassinated Kirtiman Singh, was then given the post of Mulkaji.[18]
  9. ^ The position of Mukhtiyar was formed and ruled by renounced King Rana Bahadur Shah on the year 1804 A.D.[19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pahari 1995, p. 632.
  2. ^ Raj 1996, p. 5.
  3. ^ Mandal, Monika (2013). Social Inclusion of Ethnic Communities in Contemporary Nepal. Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies (MAKAIS). ISBN 978-93-81904-58-9.
  4. ^ Nepal, Gyanmani (2007). Nepal ko Mahabharat (in Nepali) (3rd ed.). Kathmandu: Sajha. p. 314. ISBN 9789993325857.
  5. ^ Kandel, Devi Prasad (2011). Pre-Rana Administrative System. Chitwan: Siddhababa Offset Press. p. 95.
  6. ^ Regmi 1971, p. 17.
  7. ^ a b D.R. Regmi 1975, p. 272.
  8. ^ D.R. Regmi 1975, p. 285.
  9. ^ Shaha 1990, p. 46.
  10. ^ Shaha 2001, p. 21.
  11. ^ Wright 1877, p. 260.
  12. ^ Karmacharya 2005, p. 56.
  13. ^ a b Pradhan 2012, p. 12.
  14. ^ Regmi 1972, p. 12.
  15. ^ Regmi 1971, p. 12.
  16. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 13.
  17. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 28–32.
  18. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 35.
  19. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 25.
  20. ^ "Girija Prasad koirla prime minister". nepalnews. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  21. ^ a b "Girija prasad, acting head of state of nepal". cnn. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Nepalese prime minister resigns". BBC. 26 June 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  23. ^ "Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda sworn in as new Nepal PM". Hindustan Times. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  24. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba sworns in as Prime Minister". thehimalayantimes.com. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  25. ^ "PM Deuba announces resignation". The Kathmandu Post. 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  26. ^ "Newly appointed PM KP Sharma Oli takes oath of office". The Kathmandu Post. 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  27. ^ Subedi, Kamal. "PM Oli fails to secure parliament's confidence, what next now?". My Republica. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  28. ^ ONLINE, THT (13 May 2021). "Oli appointed PM as opposition fails to gather numbers". The Himalayan Times. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  29. ^ Livemint (12 July 2021). "Sher Bahadur Deuba to be Nepal's new prime minister orders Supreme Court". mint. Archived from the original on 12 July 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  30. ^ "दुई दिनभित्र देउवालाई प्रधानमन्त्री बनाउन परमादेश".
  31. ^ "देउवा प्रधानमन्त्री नियुक्त, सपथको तयारी". Setopati. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  32. ^ "यस्तो छ सर्वोच्च अदालतको आदेशको पूर्णपाठ". ratopati.com. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  33. ^ "Dahal becomes prime minister again, Oli the new kingmaker". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  34. ^ "Dahal sworn in as prime minister". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 26 December 2022.

Books[edit]

External links[edit]