List of prime ministers of Nepal

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The position of Prime Minister of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री, romanized: Nepālko Pradhānmantrī) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history. During the reign of the Shah kings, the Mulkajis (Chief Kajis) or Chautariyas served as prime ministers in a council of 4 Chautariyas, 4 Kajis, and sundry officers. These Bharadars (officers) were drawn from high caste and politically influential families such as the Pande, Basnyat, and Thapa families. The nobility of Gorkha was mainly based from Chhetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs.[1] All prime ministers of Nepal between 1768 and 1950 were Chhetris with the exception of Ranga Nath Poudyal, being a Brahmin.[2] The executive power allocation was fluctuating between Kajis and Chautariyas. In 1804, a single authoritative position of Mukhtiyar was created by Rana Bahadur Shah which carried the executive powers of nation.[3] Mukhtiyar held the position of head of the executive until the adoption of the title of Prime Minister in November 1843 by Mathabar Singh Thapa who became Mukhtiyar as well as Prime Minister and Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese army.[4][5] During the Rana dynasty, the position of prime minister was hereditary and the officeholder held additional titles — Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Nepal and Grand Master of the Royal Orders of Nepal.

After the revolution of 1951, non-aristocratic citizens like Matrika Prasad Koirala held the position of prime minister still under the declaration of the King of Nepal. The first general election was held in 1959 and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala became the first elected prime minister of Nepal. However, he was deposed and imprisoned in 1960 by King Mahendra who went on to establish an oligarchic authoritative regime, the Panchayat system, and Nepal did not have a democratic government until 1990. After the Jana Andolan movement in 1990, the country became a constitutional monarchy. The monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly and the country was declared a federal democratic republic. The current constitution was adopted on 20 September 2015, and the first prime minister under this new constitution is KP Sharma Oli.

Heads of government of the Kingdom of Nepal (1768–2008)[edit]

Before 1800s[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Title King
(Reign)
Took office Left office
1 Bamsa Raj Pandey.jpg Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c. 1776 c. 1779 Dewan[note 1] Pratap Singh Shah
Pratap Singh Shah.jpg
(1751–1777)
2 No image.png Swarup Singh Karki
(1751–1785)
c. 1776 c. 1777 Dewan[note 2]
3 No image.png Sarbajit Rana Magar
(1750–1778)
c. 1777 c. 1778 Kaji/Mulkaji[note 3] Rana Bahadur Shah
Rana Bahadur Shah.jpg
(1775–1806)
(1) Bamsa Raj Pandey.jpg Vamsharaj Pande
(1739–1785)
c. 1782 c. 1785 Dewan/Mantri–Nayak[note 4]
4 Abhiman Singh Basnyat.jpg Abhiman Singh Basnyat
(1744–1800)
c. 1785 c. 1794 Mulkaji[note 5]
No image.png Bahadur Shah of Nepal
(1757–1797)
c. 1785 c. 1794 Mul–Chautariya[note 6]
5 Kirtiman Singh Basnyat (cropped).jpg Kirtiman Singh Basnyat
(1760–1801)
c. 1794 c. 1801 Mulkaji[note 7]
Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah
Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah.jpg
(1799–1816)
6 No image.png Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat
(1759–1840)
c. 1801 c. 1803 Mulkaji[note 8]

Mul-Kajis and Muktiyars during the Shah expansion era and before the Rana era[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office King
(Reign)
Took office Left office
1 Damodar Pande.jpg Damodar Pande
(1752–1804)
February 1803 March 1804 Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah
Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah.jpg
(1799–1816)
Rana Bahadur Shah.jpg Rana Bahadur Shah
(1775–1806)
1804[note 9] 26 April 1806
2 Bhimsen-thapa-painting (cropped).jpg Bhimsen Thapa
(1775–1839)
1806 July 1837
Rajendra Bikram Shah
King Rajendra Bikram Shah Deva.jpg
(1816–1847)
3 Ranajang Pande.jpg Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
1st time
1837 1837
4 Ranganath Paudyal.jpg Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–1846)
1st time
October 1837 August 1838
5 Puskar Shah.jpg Chautariya Puskhar Shah
(1784–1846)
October 1838 1839
(3) Ranajang Pande.jpg Rana Jang Pande
(1789–1843)
2nd time
April 1839 1840
(4) Ranganath Paudyal.jpg Ranga Nath Poudyal
(1773–1846)
2nd time
1840 1840
6 Fatteh Jang Shah.jpg Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
1st time
November 1840 January 1843
7 Mathabar Simha Thapa.jpg Mathabar Singh Thapa
(1798–1845)
November 1843 25 December 1843

Prime ministers before the Rana era (1843–1846)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Cabinet King
(Reign)
Took office Left office
(7) Mathabar Simha Thapa.jpg Mathabar Singh Thapa
(1798–1845)
25 December 1843 17 May 1845 Rajendra Bikram Shah
King Rajendra Bikram Shah Deva.jpg
(1816–1847)
(6) Fatteh Jang Shah.jpg Fateh Jung Shah
(1805–1846)
2nd time
September 1845 14 September 1846 Fateh Jung Shah II

Prime ministers during the Rana era (1846–1951)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
8 Jang Bahadur Ranaji.jpg Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
1st time
15 September 1846 1 August 1856 3608 Surendra Bikram Shah
Surendra Bikram Shah.jpg
(1847–1881)
9 Bam Bahadur Kunwar.jpg Bam Bahadur Kunwar
(1818–1857)
1 August 1856 25 May 1857 297
No image.png Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana
(1823–1863)
Acting Prime Minister
25 May 1857 28 June 1857 34
(8) Jang Bahadur Ranaji.jpg Jung Bahadur Rana
(1816–1877)
2nd time
28 June 1857 25 February 1877 7182
10 Ranoddip Singh Kunwar.jpg Ranodip Singh Kunwar
(1825–1885)
27 February 1877 22 November 1885 3192
Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah
Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
(1881–1911)
11 Bir Shamsher JBR.jpg Bir Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1852–1901)
22 November 1885 5 March 1901 5581
12 Dev Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana.jpg Dev Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1862–1914)
5 March 1901 27 June 1901 114
13 Chandra Shamsher JBR.jpg Chandra Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1863–1929)
27 June 1901 26 November 1929 10379
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
(1911–1955)
14 Bhim Shamsher JB R.jpg Bhim Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
(1865–1932)
26 November 1929 1 September 1932 1010
15 Juddha Shamsher JBR.jpg Juddha Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1875–1952)
1 September 1932 29 November 1945 4837
16 Padma Shamsher JBR.jpg Padma Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1882–1961)
29 November 1945 30 April 1948 883
17 Mohan Shamsher JBR.jpg Mohan Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
(1885–1967)
30 April 1948 12 November 1951 1291

Prime ministers during the Transition era (1951–1960)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Election(s) Political party Cabinet King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
18 Matrika Prasad Koirala2.jpg Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
1st time
16 November 1951 14 August 1952 272 Nepali Congress M.P. Koirala I Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
(1911–1955)
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah.jpg Direct rule by King
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(1906–1955)
14 August 1952 15 June 1953 305
(18) Matrika Prasad Koirala2.jpg Matrika Prasad Koirala
(1912–1997)
2nd time
15 June 1953 11 April 1955 668 Rastriya Praja Party M.P. Koirala II
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
(1955–1972)
Surya Bahadur Thapa 2005-11-24.jpg Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
Acting
11 April 1955 14 April 1955 3
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
14 April 1955 27 January 1956 288
19 Tanka Prasad Acharya (cropped).jpg Tanka Prasad Acharya
(1912–1992)
27 January 1956 26 July 1957 546 Nepal Praja Parishad Tanka Acharya
20 KI Singh.jpg Kunwar Inderjit Singh
(1906–1982)
26 July 1957 15 May 1958 293 United Democratic Party K.I. Singh
21 Subarna Shamsher Rana
(1910–1977)
15 May 1958 27 May 1959 377 Nepali Congress
22 BP. Koirala.png Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala
(1914–1982)
MP for Morang–Biratnagar West
27 May 1959 26 December 1960 579 1959 B.P. Koirala

Prime ministers during the partyless Panchayat era (1960–1990)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg Direct rule by King
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920–1972)
26 December 1960 2 April 1963 827 Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
(1955–1972)
23 Tulsi Giri.jpg Tulsi Giri
(1926–2018)
1st time
2 April 1963 23 December 1963 265
24 Surya Bahadur Thapa 2005-11-24.jpg Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
1st time
23 December 1963 26 February 1964 65
(23) Tulsi Giri.jpg Tulsi Giri
(1926–2018)
2nd time
26 February 1964 26 January 1965 335
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa 2005-11-24.jpg Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
2nd time
26 January 1965 7 April 1969 1532
25 Kirti Nidhi Bista (cropped).jpg Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
1st time
7 April 1969 13 April 1970 371
No image.png Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari
(1923–1994)
Acting Prime Minister
13 April 1970 14 April 1971 366
(25) Kirti Nidhi Bista (cropped).jpg Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
2nd time
14 April 1971 16 July 1973 794
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah
King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
(1972–2001)
26 No image.png Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
1st time
16 July 1973 1 December 1975 898
(23) Tulsi Giri.jpg Tulsi Giri
(1926–2018)
3rd time
1 December 1975 12 September 1977 651
(25) Kirti Nidhi Bista (cropped).jpg Kirti Nidhi Bista
(1927–2017)
3rd time
12 September 1977 30 May 1979 625
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa 2005-11-24.jpg Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
3rd time
30 May 1979 12 July 1983 1504
27 Lokendra Bahadur Chand.jpg Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
1st time
12 July 1983 21 March 1986 983
(26) No image.png Nagendra Prasad Rijal
(1927–1994)
2nd time
21 March 1986 15 June 1986 86
28 Marich Man Singh Shrestha.jpg Marich Man Singh Shrestha
(1942–2013)
15 June 1986 6 April 1990 1391
(27) Lokendra Bahadur Chand.jpg Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
2nd time
6 April 1990 19 April 1990 13

Prime ministers during the Constitutional monarchy (1990–2008)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Election(s) Political party King
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
29 Krishna bhattarai.jpg Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
1st time
19 April 1990 26 May 1991 402 Nepali Congress Birendra Bir Bikram Shah
King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
(1972–2001)
30 GP Koirala.jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
MP for Morang 1
1st time
26 May 1991 30 November 1994 1284 1991
31 Man Mohan Adhikari.jpg Man Mohan Adhikari
(1920–1999)
MP for Kathmandu 3
30 November 1994 12 September 1995 286 1994 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
32 Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
MP for Dadeldhura 1
1st time
12 September 1995 12 March 1997 547 Nepali Congress
(27) Lokendra Bahadur Chand.jpg Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
MP for Baitadi 2
3rd time
12 March 1997 7 October 1997 209 Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Chand)
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa 2005-11-24.jpg Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
MP for Dhankuta 2
4th time
7 October 1997 15 April 1998 190 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(30) GP Koirala.jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
MP for Morang 1
2nd time
15 April 1998 31 May 1999 411 Nepali Congress
(29) Krishna bhattarai.jpg Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
(1924–2011)
MP for Parsa 1
2nd time
31 May 1999 22 March 2000 296 1999
(30) GP Koirala.jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
MP for Sunsari 5
3rd time
22 March 2000 26 July 2001 491
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
King Gyanendra of Nepal.jpg
(2001–2008)
(32) Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
MP for Dadeldhura 1
2nd time
26 July 2001 4 October 2002 435
King Gyanendra of Nepal.jpg Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1947–)
4 October 2002 11 October 2002 7
(27) Lokendra Bahadur Chand.jpg Lokendra Bahadur Chand
(1940–)
4th time
11 October 2002 5 June 2003 237 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(24) Surya Bahadur Thapa 2005-11-24.jpg Surya Bahadur Thapa
(1928–2015)
5th time
5 June 2003 3 June 2004 364
(32) Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
3rd time
3 June 2004 1 February 2005 243 Nepali Congress (Democratic)
King Gyanendra of Nepal.jpg Direct rule by King
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1947–)
1 February 2005 25 April 2006 448
(30) GP Koirala.jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
4th time
25 April 2006 28 May 2008 764 Nepali Congress

Prime ministers of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Election(s) Political party Cabinet President
(Term)
Took office Left office Days
(30) GP Koirala.jpg Girija Prasad Koirala
(1924–2010)
5th time
28 May 2008[20][21][22] 18 August 2008[21][22] 82 Nepali Congress Girija Prasad Koirala
GP Koirala.jpg
(2007–2008)
(Acting Head of State)
33 Prachanda 2009.jpg Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(1954–)
MCA for Kathmandu 10
1st time
18 August 2008 25 May 2009 280 2008

(Constituent Assembly)

Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Dahal I Dr. Ram Baran Yadav
Dr. Ram Baran Yadav.jpg
(2008–2015)
34 Madhav Kumar Nepal 2009-09-23.jpg Madhav Kumar Nepal
(1953–)
Nominated MCA
25 May 2009 6 February 2011 622 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) Madhav Nepal
35 J.n (2).jpg Jhala Nath Khanal
(1950–)
MCA for Ilam 1
6 February 2011 29 August 2011 204 Khanal
36 Baburam Bhattarai (cropped).jpg Baburam Bhattarai
(1954–)
MCA for Gorkha 2
29 August 2011 14 March 2013 563 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Bhattarai
Khil Raj Regmi (cropped).jpg Khil Raj Regmi
(1949–)
Chair of the Cabinet of Ministers
14 March 2013 11 February 2014 334 Independent Regmi Interim
37 Sushil Koirala Parliament.jpg Sushil Koirala
(1939–2016)
MCA for Banke 3
11 February 2014 12 October 2015 608 2013

(Constituent Assembly)

Nepali Congress Sushil Koirala
38 KP Oli.png KP Sharma Oli
(1952–)
MCA for Jhapa 7
1st time
12 October 2015 4 August 2016 297 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) Oli I
Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Bidhya Devi Bhandari.jpg
(2015–present)
(33) Prachanda 2009.jpg Pushpa Kamal Dahal
(1954–)
MCA for Siraha 5
2nd time
4 August 2016[23] 7 June 2017 307 Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) Dahal II
(32) Sher bahadur.jpg Sher Bahadur Deuba
(1946–)
MCA for Dadeldhura 1
4th time
7 June 2017[24] 15 February 2018[25] 253 Nepali Congress Deuba IV
(38) KP Oli.png KP Sharma Oli
(1952–)
MP for Jhapa 5
2nd time
15 February 2018[26] Incumbent 1153 2017 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) Oli II

Living former prime ministers[edit]

As of April 2021, there are seven living former prime ministers.

Prime minister Term of office Date of birth Portrait
Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1983-July-12) (1986-March-21)July 12, 1983 – March 21, 1986;
(1990-April-06) (1990-April-19)April 6 – April 19, 1990;
(1997-March-12) (1997-October-07)March 12 – October 7, 1997;
(2002-October-11) (2003-June-05)October 11, 2002 – June 5, 2003
(1940-02-15) 15 February 1940 (age 81) Lokendra Bahadur Chand.jpg
Sher Bahadur Deuba (1995-September-12) (1997-March-12)September 12, 1995 – March 12, 1997;
(2001-July-26) (2002-October-04)July 26, 2001 – October 4, 2002;
(2004-September-03) (2005-February-01)September 3, 2004 – February 1, 2005;
(2017-June-07) (2018-February-15)June 7, 2017 – February 15, 2018
(1946-06-13) 13 June 1946 (age 74) Sher bahadur.jpg
Pushpa Kamal Dahal (2008-August-18) (2009-May-25)August 18, 2008 – May 25, 2009;
(2016-August-04) (2017-June-07)August 4, 2016 – June 7, 2017
(1954-12-11) 11 December 1954 (age 66) Prachanda 2009.jpg
Madhav Kumar Nepal (2009-May-25) (2011-February-06)May 25, 2009 – February 6, 2011 (1953-03-06) 6 March 1953 (age 68) Madhav Kumar Nepal 2009-09-23.jpg
Jhala Nath Khanal (2011-February-11) (2011-August-29)February 11 – August 29, 2011 (1950-05-20) 20 May 1950 (age 70) Jhala Nath Khanal 2011-03-20.jpg
Baburam Bhattarai (2011-August-29) (2013-March-14)August 29, 2011 – March 14, 2013 (1954-06-18) 18 June 1954 (age 66) Baburam Bhattarai (cropped).jpg
Khil Raj Regmi (2013-March-14) (2014-February-11)March 14, 2013 – February 11, 2014

Chair of the Cabinet of Ministers

(1949-05-31) 31 May 1949 (age 71) Khil Raj Regmi (cropped).jpg

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[6]
  2. ^ The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August 1776), shows that both Swaroop Singh Karki and Vamsharaj Pande had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister).[6]
  3. ^ Historian Dilli Raman Regmi asserts that Sarbajit was chosen as Mulkaji (Chief Kaji).[7] Historian Rishikesh Shah asserts that Sarbajit was appointed only a Kaji [8] and was the head of the Nepalese government for a short period in 1778.[9]
  4. ^ Daniel Wright mentions him as the Mantri-Nayak (Prime Minister) under the King Rana Bahadur Shah (1777-1799).[10]
  5. ^ Abhiman Singh Basnyat was replaced by Kirtiman Singh Basnyat as Mulkaji[11] after the dismissal of government on maturity of King Rana Bahadur Shah in 1794 AD.[12]
  6. ^ On Shrawan 1842 B.S. (i.e. July 1785), after the death of Regent Queen Rajendra Laxmi, Bahadur Shah assumed the regency and administration on the call of Bharadars.[13] Historian Baburam Acharya referred the reign of Bahadur Shah as "Primeministership" or "Premiership".[14] Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal was Chief Chautariya (Mul-Chautariya) up to Baisakh 1851 B.S. (i.e. April 1794). The Chief Chautariya carried the functions of a Prime Minister.[15]
  7. ^ Though the position of Mulkaji (Chief Kaji) was bestowed on Kirtiman Singh in 1794, Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji.[12] and Damodar lead the military forces and the second government to prevent the re-establishment of royal authority of self-renounced King Rana Bahadur Shah in 1799.[16][17]
  8. ^ Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, brother of assassinated Kirtiman Singh, was then given the post of Mulkaji.[18]
  9. ^ The position of Mukhtiyar was formed and ruled by renounced King Rana Bahadur Shah on the year 1804 A.D.[19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pahari 1995, p. 632.
  2. ^ Raj 1996, p. 5.
  3. ^ Nepal, Gyanmani (2007). Nepal ko Mahabharat (in Nepali) (3rd ed.). Kathmandu: Sajha. p. 314. ISBN 9789993325857.
  4. ^ Kandel, Devi Prasad (2011). Pre-Rana Administrative System. Chitwan: Siddhababa Offset Press. p. 95.
  5. ^ Regmi 1971, p. 17.
  6. ^ a b Regmi 1975, p. 272.
  7. ^ D.R. Regmi 1975, p. 285.
  8. ^ Shaha 1990, p. 46.
  9. ^ Shaha 2001, p. 21.
  10. ^ Wright 1877, p. 260.
  11. ^ Karmacharya 2005, p. 56.
  12. ^ a b Pradhan 2012, p. 12.
  13. ^ Vaidya & Bajracharya 1991, p. 9.
  14. ^ Regmi 1972, p. 12.
  15. ^ Regmi 1971, p. 12.
  16. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 13.
  17. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 28-32.
  18. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 35.
  19. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 25.
  20. ^ "Girija Prasad koirla prime minister". nepalnews. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  21. ^ a b "Girija prasad, acting head of state of nepal". cnn. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  22. ^ a b bbc http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7475112.stm. Retrieved 2017-12-12. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ "Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda sworn in as new Nepal PM". Hindustan Times. 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  24. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba sworns in as Prime Minister". thehimalayantimes.com. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  25. ^ "PM Deuba announces resignation". The Kathmandu Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  26. ^ "Newly appointed PM KP Sharma Oli takes oath of office". The Kathmandu Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15.

Books[edit]

External links[edit]

See also[edit]