List of Prime Ministers of Spain

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The following is the list of those who have served as President of the Government (i.e., the Prime Minister) of Spain. It also includes similar offices presiding over the Council of Ministries since the position gained a significant power.

Kingdom of Spain (1705–1873)[edit]

Secretaries of the Universal Bureau[edit]

Picture Name From Until Monarch
(Reign)
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Fernández del Campo y Angulo,
Marquis of Mejorada
11 July 1705 15 April 1714 King Philip V
Felipe V de España.jpg
(1700–1724)
Manuel de Vadillo y Velasco 15 April 1714 30 November 1714
José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano
Marquis of Grimaldo
(1st time)
30 November 1714 14 January 1724
Juan Bautista de Orendáin y Azpilicueta
(1st time)
14 January 1724 4 September 1724 King Louis I
Luis I, rey de España.jpg
(1724)
José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano
Marquis of Grimaldo
(2nd time)
4 September 1724 12 December 1725 King Philip V
Felipe V de España.jpg
(1724–1746)
Johan Willem Ripperda.jpg Juan Guillermo Ripperdá
Duke and Baron of Ripperdá
12 December 1725 14 April 1726
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano
Marquis of Grimaldo
(3rd time)
14 April 1726 1 October 1726
Juan Bautista de Orendáin y Azpilicueta
Marquis of La Paz
(2nd time)
1 October 1726 21 November 1734

First Secretaries of State[edit]

Picture Name From Until Monarch
(Reign)
JoséPatiñoMuseoNaval.jpg José de Patiño y Rosales 21 November 1734 3 November 1736 King Philip V
Felipe V de España.jpg
(1724–1746)
Sebastian de la Cuadra.jpg Sebastián de la Cuadra y Llerena
1st Marquis of Villarías
26 November 1736 4 December 1746
José de Carvajal y Lancaster.jpg José de Carvajal y Lancaster 4 December 1746 9 April 1754 King Ferdinand VI
Rey Fernando VI.jpg
(1746–1759)
12th Duke of Alba by Mengs.jpg Fernando de Silva Mendoza y Toledo
Duke of Huéscar
9 April 1754 15 May 1754
Ricardo Wall.jpg Ricardo Wall y Devreux 15 May 1754 10 August 1759
10 August 1759 9 October 1763 King Charles III
Charles III of Spain.jpg
(1759–1788)
Jerónimo Grimaldi.jpg Pablo Jerónimo de Grimaldi y Pallavicini
Duke of Grimaldi
9 October 1763 19 February 1777
The Count of Floridablanca by Francisco Goya.jpg José Moñino y Redondo
Count of Floridablanca
19 February 1777 14 December 1788
14 December 1788 28 February 1792 King Charles IV
Carlos IV de rojo.jpg
(1788–1808)
Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda.jpg Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y Ximénez de Urrea
Count of Aranda
Acting First Secretary of State
28 February 1792 15 November 1792
Manuel de Godoy, por Antonio Carnicero (Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando).jpg Manuel de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria
Duke of Alcudia
15 November 1792 28 March 1798
Francisco-Saavedra-by-Goya.jpg Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis
Acting First Secretary of State until 6 September 1798
30 March 1798 21 February 1799
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga
Acting First Secretary of State
12 February 1799 13 December 1799
Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(1st time)
13 December 1799 3 March 1808
Gonzalo O'Farrill y Herrera
Acting First Secretary of State
3 March 1808 19 March 1808
Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(2nd time)
19 March 1808 7 July 1808 King Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
(1808)
Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga
(2nd time)
7 July 1808 27 June 1813 King Joseph I
Joseph-Bonaparte.jpg
(1808–1813)
JuanODonoju.jpg Juan O'Donoju O'Ryan
Acting First Secretary of State
10 October 1813 17 October 1813
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fernando de Laserna
Acting First Secretary of State
17 October 1813 3 December 1813
José Luyando
Acting First Secretary of State
3 December 1813 4 May 1814 King Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
(1813–1833)
Retrato del Duque de San Carlos.jpg José Miguel de Carvajal-Vargas y Manrique de Lara
Duke of San Carlos
4 May 1814 15 November 1814
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(3rd time)
15 November 1814 24 January 1816
Juan Esteban Lozano de Torres 24 January 1816 26 January 1816
Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(4th time)
26 January 1816 30 October 1816
José García de León y Pizarro 30 October 1816 14 September 1818
Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón.jpg Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón
Marquis of Casa Irujo
Acting First Secretary of State
14 September 1818 12 June 1819
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres
Acting First Secretary of State
12 June 1819 12 September 1819
Joaquín José Melgarejo y Saurín
Duke of San Fernando de Quiroga
12 September 1819 18 March 1820
Juan Jabat Aztal
Acting First Secretary of State
18 March 1820
Evaristo Pérez de Castro.jpg Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito 18 March 1820 2 March 1821
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín Anduaga Cuenca
Acting First Secretary of State
2 March 1821 23 April 1821
Francisco de Paula Escudero
Acting First Secretary of State
23 April 1821
Eusebio Bardají y Azara 23 April 1821 8 January 1822
Ramón López Pelegrín
Acting First Secretary of State
8 January 1822 24 January 1822
José Gabriel de Silva y Bazán
Marquis of Santa Cruz
24 January 1822 30 January 1822
Ramón López Pelegrín
Acting First Secretary of State
30 January 1822 28 February 1822
MartinezRosa-1-.jpg Francisco Martínez de la Rosa 28 February 1822 5 August 1822
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor
Acting First Secretary of State from 28 February 1822
5 August 1822 25 April 1823
José Manuel Vadillo
Acting First Secretary of State
25 April 1823 7 May 1823
Santiago Usoz y Mozi
Acting First Secretary of State
7 May 1823 13 May 1823
José María Pando de la Riva y Ramírez de Laredo 13 May 1823 29 August 1823
Luis María de Salazar y Salazar
Acting First Secretary of State
29 August 1823 4 September 1823
Juan Antonio Yandiola Garay
Acting First Secretary of State
4 September 1823 6 September 1823
José Luyando
(2nd time)
6 September 1823 1 October 1823
Víctor Damián Sáez y Sánchez-Mayor
Acting First Secretary of State until 7 August 1823
(counter-government until 1 October 1823.)
25 April 1823 2 December 1823
Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón.jpg Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón
Marquis of Casa Irujo
(2nd time)
2 December 1823 18 January 1824
Conde de Ofalia.JPG Narciso Fernández de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos
Count of Ofalia
18 January 1824 11 July 1824
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Luis María de Salazar y Salazar
Acting First Secretary of State
11 July 1824
Francisco Cea Bermúdez
(1st time)
11 July 1824 24 October 1825
Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo y Salm Salm, XIII duque del Infantado (Museo del Prado).jpg Pedro Alcantara Álvarez de Toledo y Salm Salm
Duke of the Infantado
24 October 1825 19 August 1826
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres
Acting First Secretary of State until 15 October 1830
19 August 1826 20 January 1832
Francisco Tadeo Calomarde.jpg Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arría
Acting First Secretary of State
20 January 1832 22 February 1832
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio de Saavedra y Frígola, conde de Alcudia
Acting First Secretary of State
22 February 1832 1 October 1832
José Cafranga Costilla
Acting First Secretary of State
1 October 1832 29 November 1832
Francisco Cea Bermúdez
(2nd time)
29 November 1832 15 January 1834

Prime Ministers (Presidents of the Council of Ministers)[edit]

Political Persuasion:   Moderate   Progressive   Liberal Union   Radical Democratic

Portrait Name Term of office Political Party Government Monarch
(Reign)
MartinezRosa-1-.jpg Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa y Berdejo 15 January 1834 7 June 1835 Moderate Royalist Martínez de la Rosa Queen Dowager Maria Christina
Regent for
Queen Isabella II

María Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias, reina de España.jpg
(1833–1840)
José María Queipo de Llano, conde de Toreno (Museo del Prado).jpg José María Queipo de Llano Ruiz de Saravia, 7th Count of Toreno 7 June 1835 14 September 1835 Toreno
Don Miguel Ricardo de Alava by William Salter cropped.jpg Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel
(rejected his nomination, staying as
the Spanish ambassador in London.
)
14 September 1835 25 September 1835 Progressive Álava
Juan Álvarez Mendizábal.jpg Juan Álvarez Mendizábal 25 September 1835 15 May 1836 Mendizábal
Francisco Javier Istúriz.jpg Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
(1st time)
15 May 1836 14 August 1836 Moderate Isturiz I
Calatrava.jpg José María Calatrava y Peinado 14 August 1836 18 August 1837 Progressive Calatrava
Baldomero Espartero.jpg Baldomero Espartero, Count of Luchana
(1st time)
18 August 1837 18 October 1837 Espartero I
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Eusebio Bardají y Azara 18 October 1837 16 December 1837 Moderate Bardají
Conde de Ofalia.JPG Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos, Count of Ofalia 16 December 1837 6 September 1838 Heredia
Bernardino Fernández de Velasco y Benavides-Duque de Frías.JPG Bernardino Fernández de Velasco, 14th Duke of Frías 6 September 1838 9 December 1838 Frías
Alaix-galería.jpg Isidro de Alaix Fábregas
Acting Prime Minister
9 December 1838 3 February 1839
Evaristo Pérez de Castro.jpg Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito (9 December 1838)
3 February 1839
18 July 1840 Pérez de Castro
Antonio González González.jpg Antonio González y González
(1st time)
20 July 1840 12 August 1840 Progressive González I
Ferraz.JPG Valentín Ferraz y Barrau 12 August 1840 28 August 1840 Ferraz
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Modesto Cortázar
Acting Prime Minister
29 August 1840 11 September 1840
Vicente Sancho redondeado.png Vicente Sancho y Cobertores 11 September 1840 16 September 1840 Sancho
Baldomero Espartero.jpg Baldomero Espartero, Duke of la Victoria
(2nd time)
16 September 1840 10 May 1841 Progressive Espartero II Baldomero Espartero
Regent for
Queen Isabella II

Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara.jpg
(1840–1843)
Joaquín María Ferrer por Francisco de Goya.jpg Joaquín María de Ferrer y Cafranga 10 May 1841 20 May 1841 Ferrer
Antonio González González.jpg Antonio González y González
(2nd time)
20 May 1841 17 June 1842 González II
Retrato del general Rodil (Dionisio Fierros Álvarez).jpg José Ramón Rodil y Campillo, Marquis of Rodil 17 June 1842 9 May 1843 Rodil
Joaquín María López.png Joaquín María López y López
(1st time)
9 May 1843 19 May 1843 López I
Álvaro Gómez Becerra (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg Álvaro Gómez Becerra 19 May 1843 23 July 1843 Gómez Becerra
Joaquín María López.png Joaquín María López y López
(2nd time)
23 July 1843 20 November 1843 López II Queen Isabella II
Isabel II of Spain.jpg
(1833/1843–1868)
Salustiano Olózaga.jpg Salustiano de Olózaga y Almandoz 20 November 1843 5 December 1843 Olózaga
Luis gonzalez bravo.jpg Luis González-Bravo y López de Arjona
(1st time)
5 December 1843 3 May 1844 Moderate González-Bravo
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(1st time)
3 May 1844 12 February 1846 Moderate Década Moderada
Marques de miraflores.jpg Manuel de Pando, 6th Marquis of Miraflores
(1st time)
12 February 1846 16 March 1846
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(2nd time)
16 March 1846 5 April 1846
Francisco Javier Istúriz.jpg Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
(2nd time)
5 April 1846 28 January 1847
Carlos mirujo sotomayor.jpg Carlos Martínez de Irujo
Marquis of Casa Irujo, Duke of Sotomayor
28 January 1847 28 March 1847
JoaquinFranciscoPacheco.jpg Joaquín Francisco Pacheco y Gutiérrez Calderón 28 March 1847 31 August 1847
Marqués de Salamanca joven.jpg José de Salamanca y Mayol 31 August 1847 12 September 1847
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Florencio García Goyena 12 September 1847 4 October 1847
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(3rd time)
4 October 1847 19 October 1849
Serafín María de Sotto (Museo del Ejército).JPG Serafín María de Sotto, 3rd Count of Clonard
(appointment revoked before he could take office.)
19 October 1849 20 October 1849
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(4th time)
20 October 1849 14 January 1851
Juan Bravo Murillo.jpg Juan Bravo Murillo 14 January 1851 14 December 1852
Conde de alcoy.JPG Federico de Roncali, 1st Count of Alcoy 14 December 1852 14 April 1853
Francisco Lersundi Hormaechea.jpg Francisco de Lersundi y Hormaechea 14 April 1853 19 September 1853
Luis José Sartorius.jpg Luis José Sartorius, 1st Count of San Luis 19 September 1853 17 July 1854
Fernándo Fernández de Córdova, 2nd Marquis of Mendigorría.jpg Fernando Fernández de Córdova 17 July 1854 18 July 1854
DuquedeRivas.jpg Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas 18 July 1854 19 July 1854
Baldomero Espartero.jpg Baldomero Espartero, Duke of la Victoria
(3rd time)
19 July 1854 14 July 1856 Progressive Bienio progresista
Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
(1st time)
14 July 1856 12 October 1856 Liberal Union O'Donnell I
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(5th time)
12 October 1856 15 October 1857 Moderate Narváez V
Francisco Armero y Fernández de Peñaranda.jpg Francisco Armero y Peñaranda, 1st Marquis of Nervión 15 October 1857 14 January 1858 Nervión
Francisco Javier Istúriz.jpg Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
(3rd time)
14 January 1858 30 June 1858 Isturiz III
Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
(2nd time)
30 June 1858 2 March 1863 Liberal Union O'Donnell II
O'Donnell III
Marques de miraflores.jpg Manuel de Pando, 6th Marquis of Miraflores
(2nd time)
2 March 1863 17 January 1864 Moderate Miraflores II
Lorenzo Arrazola y García.jpg Lorenzo Arrazola y García 17 January 1864 1 March 1864 Arrazola
Alejandro Mon.png Alejandro Mon y Menéndez 1 March 1864 16 September 1864 Moderate Mon
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(6th time)
16 September 1864 21 June 1865 Moderate Narváez VI
Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
(3rd time)
21 June 1865 10 July 1866 Liberal Union O'Donnell IV
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(7th time)
10 July 1866 23 April 1868 Moderate Narváez VII
Luis gonzalez bravo.jpg Luis González-Bravo y López de Arjona
(2nd time)
23 April 1868 19 September 1868 Moderate González-Bravo II
José de la Concha, en La Ilustración Ibérica.jpg José Gutiérrez de la Concha, 1st Marquis of Havana 19 September 1868 30 September 1868 Moderate Havana
Pascual madoz.jpg Pascual Madoz Ibáñez
Acting Prime Minister
30 September 1868 3 October 1868 Progressive No formal
Head of State
Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, 1st Duke of La Torre
(1st time)
3 October 1868 18 June 1869 Liberal Union Serrano I
Prim madrazo.jpeg General Juan Prim y Prats, 1st Marquis of Los Castillejos 18 June 1869 27 December 1870
(assassinated:
died 30 December 1870)
Progressist Liberal Prim Regent Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
(1869–1870)
JuanBatistaTopeteYCarballoPorRafaelMonleón.jpg Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo
Acting Prime Minister
27 December 1870 4 January 1871 Liberal Union King Amadeo
Amadeo I, rey de España.jpg
(1870–1873)
Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, 1st Duke of La Torre
(2nd time)
4 January 1871 24 July 1871 Serrano II
RuizZorrilla.png Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
(1st time)
24 July 1871 5 October 1871 Radical Democratic Party Ruiz Zorrilla I
José Malcampo, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael.jpg José Malcampo y Monge, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael 5 October 1871 21 December 1871 Democratic Malcampo
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta 1877 (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1st time)
21 December 1871 26 May 1872 Progressist Liberal Sagasta I
JuanBatistaTopeteYCarballoPorRafaelMonleón.jpg Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo
Acting Prime Minister
26 May 1872 4 June 1872 Liberal Union
Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, 1st Duke of La Torre
(3rd time)
4 June 1872 13 June 1872 Serrano III
Fernándo Fernández de Córdova, 2nd Marquis of Mendigorría.jpg Fernando Fernández de Córdova, 2nd Marquis of Mendigorría
Acting Prime Minister
13 June 1872 16 June 1872 Radical Democratic Party
RuizZorrilla.png Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
(2nd time)
16 June 1872 12 February 1873 Radical Democratic Party Ruiz Zorrilla II

List of officeholders[edit]

First Spanish Republic (1873–1874)[edit]

  Federal Republican       Constitutional
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
Electoral mandates
Days
(Years and days)
Other ministerial offices
held whilst Prime Minister
Political party Government President
(Term)

President of the Executive Power of the Spanish Republic[edit]

Estanislao Figueras.png The Most Excellent
Estanislao Figueras
(1819–1882)
12 February
1873
11 June
1873
119 days – Minister of War from 1873 Federal Republican Figueras I Himself
Figueras II
Figueras III
Figueras IV
1873
Antonio Dorregaray's military uprising; Cristino Martos' coup d'etat attempts in February and April; slavery in Puerto Rico abolished; federal republic proclaimed. Allegedly fed up with parliamentary and governmental deadlock in the political, economic and social situation of the country, he left the country and went into exile during the night.
Pi y margall.jpg The Most Excellent
Francesc Pi i Margall
(1824–1901)
11 June
1873
18 July
1873
37 days – Minister of Governance Federal Republican Pi y Margall Himself
1873 oil rebellion; Cartagena canton proclaimed, start of the Cantonal rebellion; Spanish Draft Constitution of 1873. Third Carlist War: Carlos VII advances into the Basque provinces.
Nicolas Salmeron.jpg The Most Excellent
Nicolás Salmerón
(1838–1908)
18 July
1873
7 September
1873
51 days Federal Republican Salmerón Himself
Cantonal rebellion: cantonal ships declared as pirates; Provisional Government of the Spanish Federation created by the Cartagena canton; Battle of Chinchilla; start of Siege of Cartagena. Resigned after refusing to sign the death sentences of soldiers tried for collaborating with cantonalists.
Emilio Castelar Ripoll 1901 Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida.jpg The Most Excellent
Emilio Castelar
(1832–1899)
7 September
1873
3 January
1874
118 days Federal Republican
unitary republican
Castelar Himself
Francisco-serrano.jpg The Most Excellent
Francisco Serrano,
1st Duke of la Torre

(1810–1885)
3 January
1874
26 February
1874
54 days Constitutional
conservative wing
Serrano V Himself

President of the Council of Ministers[edit]

Juan de Zavala y de la Puente.jpg The Most Excellent
Juan Zavala y de la Puente,
1st Marquess of Sierra Bullones

(1804–1879)
26 February
1874
3 September
1874
189 days – Minister of War Constitutional
conservative wing
Zavala I Francisco Serrano
Francisco-serrano.jpg
(1874)
Zavala II
Praxedes sagasta.jpg The Most Excellent
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
3 September
1874
31 December
1874
119 days – Minister of Governance Constitutional
progressive wing
Sagasta III
Sagasta IV

Restoration Spain (1874–1931)[edit]

  Conservative       Liberal Fusionist/Liberal       Dynastic Left       Conservative Union       Liberal Democrats       Maurist       Military       Patriotic Union       Monarchists
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
Electoral mandates
Days
(Years and days)
Other ministerial offices
held whilst Prime Minister
Political party Government Monarch
(Reign)

President of the Council of Ministers[edit]

Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG The Most Excellent
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
31 December
1874
12 September
1875
255 days – President of the Ministry-Regency until 1875
– Minister of the Navy during 1875
Conservative Cánovas I Alfonso XII
Alfons XII (cropped).JPG
(1874–1885)
President of the Ministry-Regency until King Alfonso XII's return from exile; return of ecclesiastical goods; closure of several opposition newspapers; re-incorporation of military officers expelled during the revolutionary period.
General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting.jpg The Most Excellent
Joaquín Jovellar
(1819–1892)
12 September
1875
2 December
1875
81 days – Minister of War Conservative Jovellar
Named to the post to organize the 1876 Constituent Cortes election.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG The Most Excellent
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
2 December
1875
7 March
1879
3 years, 94 days Conservative Cánovas II
1876
End of Third Carlist War; Spanish Constitution of 1876 adopted; abolition of the fueros in the Vascongadas and Navarre; German–Spanish secret agreement for military cooperation; Pact of Zanjón ending Ten Years' War; Alfonso XII married to Mercedes of Orléans, who would die later that year of typhoid fever; 1878 pro-Republican protest in Navalmoral de la Mata; electoral law introducing census suffrage; unsuccessful 1878 assassination attempt on Alfonso XII.
Arsenio Martinez Campos cph.3c34807.jpg The Most Excellent
Arsenio Martínez Campos
(1831–1900)
7 March
1879
9 December
1879
277 days – Minister of War Conservative Martínez Campos
1879
Reforms in Cuba resulting from the Pact of Zanjón; outbreak of Little War; Print Law 1979; Alfonso XII married to Maria Christina of Austria.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG The Most Excellent
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
9 December
1879
8 February
1881
1 year, 61 days – Minister of State during 1880 Conservative Cánovas III
Slavery in Cuba abolished; end of Little War; unsuccessful 1879 assassination attempt on Alfonso XII and Maria Christina of Austria; Madrid Conference of 1880; issue of mortgage notes from the Treasury of the island of Cuba; Public Meetings Law 1880; Civil Procedure Law 1881. Resigned after the King refused to sign the Debt Conversion Law 1881.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
8 February
1881
13 October
1883
2 years, 247 days Liberal Fusionist Sagasta V
1881
First turno Prime Minister. María de las Mercedes becomes Princess of Asturias; Catalan industrialists proters over 1880 Franco–Spanish commercial agreement; progresses in press freedom and labour movement claims; Criminal Procedure Law 1882; commercial agreements with the German and British Empires. The 1883 pro-Republican protests in Badajoz, Santo Domingo de la Calzada and Seo de Urgel, the Paris Incident during Alfonso XII state visit and political pressure from the Dynastic Left led to his resignation.
José de Posada Herrera.jpg The Most Excellent
José Posada Herrera
(1814–1885)
13 October
1883
18 January
1884
97 days Dynastic Left Posada Herrera
Previously President of the Congress of Deputies in 1876–78 and from 1881. Reform of Public Instruction Law; use of shackles abolished in Cuba; creation of Social Reform Commission. Resigned after his rivalry with Sagasta resulted in the loss of a parliamentary vote on the implantation of universal suffrage.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG The Most Excellent
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
18 January
1884
27 November
1885
1 year, 313 days Conservative Cánovas IV
1884
Spanish annexation of Río de Oro; 1885 cholera pandemic; crackdown on pro-Republican protests supporters; 1885 Commercial Code; start of Caroline Crisis; Madrid Protocol of 1885; Pact of El Pardo. Death of King Alfonso XII on 25 November 1885.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
27 November
1885
5 July
1890
4 years, 220 days Liberal Sagasta VI Maria Christina
Alfonso XIII et sa mère photo valentin gomez.jpg
(1886–1902)
Regent for
Alfonso XIII
Sagasta VII
Sagasta VIII
Sagasta IX
1886
Longest Restoration term (Long Parliament). End of Caroline Crisis through the arbitration of Pope Leo XIII; birth of King Alfonso XIII on 17 May 1886; abolition of patronage in Cuba; Associations Law 1887 and legalization of trade unions; 1887 Mediterranean Agreements; Cassola's military service reform to end redemptions; Jurisdiction Law 1888; 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition; 1889 Civil Code; 1890 electoral law introducing universal manhood suffrage.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG The Most Excellent
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
5 July
1890
11 December
1892
2 years, 159 days – Minister of the Navy during 1890–1891 Conservative Cánovas V
Cánovas VI
1891
1890–92 Phylloxera Blight; Weyler's campaign in Mindanao; introduction of 1891 Cánovas Tariff and move of economic policy towards protectionism; Amnesty Law por political offences; 1892 Jerez Insurrection; Plaza Real bombing; surge of Catalan nationalism (Manresa Bases 1892). Resigned after a corruption scandal in the City Council of Madrid prompted a rebellion within his party led by Francisco Silvela.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
11 December
1892
23 March
1895
2 years, 102 days Liberal Sagasta X
Sagasta XI
Sagasta XII
1893
Margallo War; Buenaventura Abarzuza's autonomy plan for the Philippines; unsuccessful administrative decentralization plan for Cuba and Puerto Rico; unsuccessful 1893 assassination attempt on General Martínez Campos; Liceu Bomb. The start of the Cuban War of Independence led to Sagasta's government downfall.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG The Most Excellent
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
23 March
1895
8 August
1897
2 years, 138 days Conservative Cánovas VII
1896
Rise of Basque nationalism (PNV founded); 1896 Corpus procession bombing; start of Philippine Revolution. †Assassinated by Italian anarchist Michele Angiolillo.
Marcelo Azcárraga por Kaulak.png The Most Excellent
Marcelo Azcárraga
(1832–1915)
8 August
1897
21 August
1897
57 days – Minister of War Conservative (acting)
21 August
1897
4 October
1897
Azcárraga I
Served as Minister of War under Cánovas and as acting Prime Minister following his assassination. He was appointed officeholder on 21 August 1897, before giving way to a new Sagasta government in October 1897.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
4 October
1897
4 March
1899
1 year, 151 days – Minister of Development during 1898–1899 Liberal Sagasta XIII
Sagasta XIV
1898
Approval of 1897 Autonomy Charts for Cuba and Puerto Rico; Pact of Biak-na-Bato; Sinking of USS Maine leading the US to declare war on Spain, starting the Spanish–American War; 1898 Treaty of Paris resulting in the loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
Francisco Silvela 1905 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Francisco Silvela
(1843–1905)
4 March
1899
23 October
1900
1 year, 233 days – Minister of State until 1900
– Minister of the Navy from 1900
Conservative Union Silvela I
Silvela II
1899
1899 German–Spanish Treaty, under which the Caroline Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands were sold to Germany; Silvela–Polavieja agreement for regenerationist reform; Overseas Ministry disestablished; policial crisis over the Princess of Asturias' engagement to Carlos of Bourbon; Fernández Villaverde's tax reform; 1899 taxpayer strike in Barcelona (tancament de caixes); Work Accidents Law 1900; Ministry of Public Instruction established. Silvela's government fell as a result of party division over budgetary balance.
Marcelo Azcárraga por Kaulak.png The Most Excellent
Marcelo Azcárraga
(1832–1915)
23 October
1900
6 March
1901
134 days – Minister of the Navy until 1900 Conservative Azcárraga II
Princess of Asturias' marriage with Carlos of Bourbon and subsequent protests; Carlist uprisings in some areas of Catalonia, Valencia and Alicante.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
6 March
1901
6 December
1902
1 year, 275 days Liberal Sagasta XV
Sagasta XVI
Sagasta XVII Alfonso XIII
Alfonso XIIIdeEspaña.jpg
(1886/1902–1931)
Sagasta XVIII
1901
1901 anti-clerical protests and Royal Decree on Religious Associations; University Autonomy Law 1901; creation of Institute for Work; Alfonso XIII comes of age on 17 May 1902, end of Maria Christina's regency. Resigned due to ill health; died one month after leaving office.
Francisco Silvela 1905 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Francisco Silvela
(1843–1905)
6 December
1902
20 July
1903
226 days Conservative Silvela III
1903
The resignation of Raimundo Fernández Villaverde as Minister of Finance on 26 March 1903 weakened Silvela's government; student protests resulting in the death of two students in Salamanca. Tired, Silvela resigned from all his offices and retired from politics.
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde, de Franzen.jpg The Most Excellent
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde
(1848–1905)
20 July
1903
5 December
1903
138 days Conservative Villaverde I
Previously President of the Congress of Deputies in 1900–01 and from 1903. Labor conflicts led to a general strike which in Biscay obliged to declare the "state of war".
Antonio Maura 1917 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
5 December
1903
16 December
1904
1 year, 11 days Conservative Maura I
Nozaleda issue; Law on Sunday Rest; 1904 assassination attempt; Spain–Holy See Agreements of 1904; creation of Army Staff. Government crisis over King Alfonso XIII pressures for General Camilo García de Polavieja to become new Chief of the Army Staff ahead of the government's candidate Francisco de Paula Loño y Pérez; resigned shortly afterwards.
Marcelo Azcárraga por Kaulak.png The Most Excellent
Marcelo Azcárraga
(1832–1915)
16 December
1904
27 January
1905
42 days – Minister of the Navy until 1905 Conservative Azcárraga III
Third and final time as Prime Minister.
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde, de Franzen.jpg The Most Excellent
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde
(1848–1905)
27 January
1905
23 June
1905
147 days Conservative Villaverde II
Kept the Cortes closed until June 1905 due to lack of parliamentary support. Resigned after defeats in the Senate (17 June) and Congress (21 June).
Eugenio Montero Ríos 1914.jpg The Most Excellent
Eugenio Montero Ríos
(1832–1914)
23 June
1905
1 December
1905
161 days Liberal Montero Ríos I
Montero Ríos II
1905
Unsuccessful 1905 assassination attempt on Alfonso XIII in Paris; ¡Cu-Cut! incident. Resigned after King Alfonso XIII refused to support punishments on the military personnel involved in the attack.
Segismundo Moret, de Kaulak (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Segismundo Moret
(1833–1913)
1 December
1905
6 July
1906
217 days Liberal Moret I
Algeciras Conference; Jurisdiction Law 1906 redirecting all crimes "against the country or the army" to military justice; massive protests in Catalonia against the law and creation of Catalan Solidarity. Resigned after the unsuccessful 1906 assassination attempt on King Alfonso XIII.
Jose-Lopez-Dominguez-1897.jpg The Most Excellent
José López Domínguez
(1829–1911)
6 July
1906
30 November
1906
147 days – Minister of War until 1906 Liberal López Dominguez
The Papelito crisis caused by Segismundo Moret led to the government's downfall.
Segismundo Moret, de Kaulak (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Segismundo Moret
(1833–1913)
30 November
1906
4 December
1906
4 days Liberal Moret II
Papelito crisis leading to Moret lacking the necessary support to govern. Resigned before a successful vote of no confidence in the Senate was enforced.
RetratoGrabadoAntonioAguilarYCorrea.jpg The Most Excellent
Antonio Aguilar y Correa,
8th Marquess of la Vega de Armijo

(1824–1908)
4 December
1906
25 January
1907
52 days Liberal Aguilar y Correa
Previously President of the Congress of Deputies in 1893–95, 1898–99, 1901, 1902–03 and from 1905. His brief tenure was limited to having the 1907 budget passed. The crisis within the Liberal Party led the King to dismiss them from the government.
Antonio Maura 1917 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
25 January
1907
21 October
1909
2 years, 269 days Conservative Maura II
(Long Government)
1907
"Revolution from above". 1907 electoral law, introducing automatic election for candidates running unopposed; Pact of Cartagena; creation of National Insurance Institute; Local Administration and Terrorism Suppression Laws not approved; Hispano-French Exposition of 1908; Second Melillan Campaign and Lobo Canyon Disaster; 1909 Tragic Week in Barcelona. After public outrage over the execution of Francisco Ferrer, King Alfonso XIII withdrew his support from Maura's government, leading to his downfall.
Segismundo Moret, de Kaulak (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Segismundo Moret
(1833–1913)
21 October
1909
9 February
1910
111 days – Minister of Governance Liberal Moret III
His approachment to Alejandro Lerroux's republicans and Melquíades Álvarez's reformists led to a crisis within the Liberals and cost him the support of the King. Resigned after Alfonso XIII refused to sign Moret's decree of dissolution of the Cortes.
José Canalejas (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
José Canalejas
(1854–1912)
9 February
1910
12 November
1912
2 years, 277 days – Minister of Grace and Justice during 1911–1912 Liberal Canalejas I
Canalejas II
Canalejas III
1910
Previously President of the Congress of Deputies in 1906–07. 1910–12 restriction of religious congregation establishments (Padlock Law); prohibition of night work for women; Crime of Cuenca; Law of chair recognising women the right to a seat during worktime; industrial courts reform; Third Melillan campaign; Establishment of compulsory military service; 1912 railway strike; draft for Catalan Management Community. †Assassinated by Spanish anarchist Manuel Pardiñas.
Manuel García Prieto 1900 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel García Prieto,
1st Marquess of Alhucemas

(1859–1938)
Acting Prime Minister
12 November
1912
14 November
1912
2 days – Minister of State Liberal (acting)
Served as Minister of State under Canalejas and as acting Prime Minister following his assassination.
Comte Romanones. Agence Rol. BNF Gallica.jpg The Most Excellent
Álvaro Figueroa y Torres,
1st Count of Romanones

(1863–1950)
14 November
1912
27 October
1913
347 days – Minister of Grace and Justice during 1913 Liberal Romanones I
Romanones II
Previously President of the Congress of Deputies from 1910. Treaty Between France and Spain Regarding Morocco; Spanish protectorate in Morocco established; Jebala tribes uprising in Morocco, led by Ahmed er Raisuni.
EDato.jpg The Most Excellent
Eduardo Dato
(1856–1921)
27 October
1913
9 December
1915
2 years, 43 days – Minister of Grace and Justice during 1914–1915 Conservative Dato I
1914
Previously President of the Congress of Deputies in 1907–10. Establishment of Catalan Management Community; First World War outbreak, with Spain maintaining neutrality; High Commissioner in Morocco José Marina Vega replaced by Francisco Gómez Jordana.
Comte Romanones. Agence Rol. BNF Gallica.jpg The Most Excellent
Álvaro Figueroa y Torres,
1st Count of Romanones

(1863–1950)
9 December
1915
19 April
1917
1 year, 131 days – Minister of State during 1916 Liberal Romanones III
1916
Luque y Coca's military reform and creation of the Boards of Defence; Alfonso XIII's refusal to the government's attempted dissolution of the Boards; February Revolution in Russia. U-boat campaign during the War resulting in the sinking of Spanish merchant shipping; his pro-belligerent stance on Germany was unsupported by his allies, leading to his resignation.
Manuel García Prieto 1900 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel García Prieto,
1st Marquess of Alhucemas

(1859–1938)
19 April
1917
11 June
1917
53 days Liberal Democrats García Prieto I
Start of Spanish Crisis of 1917. Resigned after an attempted crack down on the Boards of Defence led to massive military outcry.
EDato.jpg The Most Excellent
Eduardo Dato
(1856–1921)
11 June
1917
3 November
1917
145 days Conservative Dato II
Spanish Crisis of 1917: Assembly of Parliamentarians and 1917 general strike; outbreak of pistolerismo. Government fell due to pressures from the Boards of Defence.
Manuel García Prieto 1900 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel García Prieto,
1st Marquess of Alhucemas

(1859–1938)
3 November
1917
22 March
1918
139 days – Minister of State Liberal Democrats García Prieto II
(Lib.Dem.Lib.rom.Maur.Cierv.
LRC until 1918
)
Formed national unity government with members from several ideologies (liberal democrats, conservatives and regionalists); October Revolution in Russia; 1918 flu pandemic; de la Cierva's attempt to legislate in favour of the Boards of Defence; 1918 mail strike.
Antonio Maura 1917 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
22 March
1918
9 November
1918
232 days – Minister of Grace and Justice from 1918 Maurist Maura III
(National unity)
1918§
§Hung parliament; formed national unity government. 1918 Law of Bases on the inalienability of the civil servants; riots in several cities against high prices (subsistence problems).
Manuel García Prieto 1900 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel García Prieto,
1st Marquess of Alhucemas

(1859–1938)
9 November
1918
5 December
1918
26 days – Minister of Development Liberal Democrats García Prieto III
End of First World War; start of Catalan autonomist campaign of 1918–19.
Comte Romanones. Agence Rol. BNF Gallica.jpg The Most Excellent
Álvaro Figueroa y Torres,
1st Count of Romanones

(1863–1950)
5 December
1918
15 April
1919
131 days – Minister of State Liberal Romanones IV
The Bolshevik Three Years in Andalusia; La Canadiense strike; public pension system established; Eight-hour day Decree.
Antonio Maura 1917 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
15 April
1919
20 July
1919
96 days Maurist Maura IV
(Maur.Cierv.Lib.)
Called a general election for June 1919, but failed to win an outright majority. Unrecognized by the Conservatives as their leader, his government fell shortly thereafter.
Sánchez Toca.JPG The Most Excellent
Joaquín Sánchez de Toca
(1852–1942)
20 July
1919
12 December
1919
145 days Conservative Sánchez de Toca
1919§
Creation of Sindicatos Libres. Social tensions and pressure from the Boards of Defence led to the government's downfall.
Mallendesalazar.jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel Allendesalazar
(1856–1923)
12 December
1919
5 May
1920
145 days – Minister of the Navy from 1920 Conservative Allendesalazar I
(Con.Lib.)
League of Nations founded; first newly-approved budget since 1914.
EDato.jpg The Most Excellent
Eduardo Dato
(1856–1921)
5 May
1920
8 March
1921
307 days – Minister of the Navy Conservative Dato III
1920§
Ministry of Labour created; start of Rif War; Severiano Martínez's state terror campaign on trade unionists. †Assassinated by Spanish anarchist Pedro Mateu.
Gabino Bugallal.JPG The Most Excellent
Gabino Bugallal,
2nd Count of Bugallal

(1861–1932)
Acting Prime Minister
8 March
1921
13 March
1921
5 days – Minister of Governance Conservative (acting)
Served as Minister of Governance under Dato in 1920–21 and as acting Prime Minister following his assassination.
Mallendesalazar.jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel Allendesalazar
(1856–1923)
13 March
1921
14 August
1921
154 days Conservative Allendesalazar II
Disaster of Annual. After losing Conservative support in favour of Maura, his government resigned.
Antonio Maura 1917 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
14 August
1921
8 March
1922
206 days Maurist Maura V
(Con.Lib.LRC)
Rif Republic established. Resigned after refusing to accept the Liberals, Republicans and Socialists' demand to restitute the constitutional guarantees (suspended since 1919).
J.SánchezGuerra.jpg The Most Excellent
José Sánchez-Guerra
(1859–1935)
8 March
1922
7 December
1922
274 days – Minister of War from 1922 Conservative Sánchez-Guerra
(Con.LRC)
Previously President of the Congress of Deputies from 1919. 1922 postal officials strike; crisis over the Picasso report. After opposition parties censured Allendesalazar and Sánchez-Guerra's government during the report's debate in the Congress, he tendered his resignation to the King.
Manuel García Prieto 1900 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel García Prieto,
1st Marquess of Alhucemas

(1859–1938)
7 December
1922
15 September
1923
282 days Liberal Democrats García Prieto IV
1923
Attempted liberal reform of the Restoration system; killing of Archbishop of Barcelona Juan Soldevilla; Primo de Rivera's coup d'etat.
General Primo de Rivera.jpg The Most Excellent
Miguel Primo de Rivera,
2nd Marquess of Estella

(1870–1930)
15 September
1923
3 December
1925
6 years, 137 days – President of the Military Directory until 1925
– Minister of State during 1927–1928
– Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1928
Military Military Directory
3 December
1925
30 January
1930
Patriotic Union Civil Directory
Establishment of an authoritarian military dictatorship and suppression of the 1876 Constitution. National Somatén Decree; Municipal Statute of 1924; Patriotic Union created; Provincial Statute of 1925; Alhucemas landing and end of the Rif War; 1926 coup d'etat attempt (Sanjuanada); creation of Telefónica, CAMPSA, National Circuit Special Firms and of hydrographic confederations; 1928 Penal Code; 1929 Ibero-American and Barcelona International Expositions; draft Constitution of 1929 (Fundamental Statute of the Monarchy); 1929 coup d'etat attempt; Great Depression. Resigned after growing political and social unrest, mounting economic problems, the withdrawal of support from the King and the Armed Forces and the impending threat of a new coup attempt, ending the dictatorship. Died two months after leaving office.
Dámaso Berenguer, de Christian Franzen.jpg The Most Excellent
Dámaso Berenguer,
1st Count of Xauen

(1873–1953)
30 January
1930
18 February
1931
1 year, 19 days – Minister of the Army Military Berenguer
Dictablanda. Government promises to call for elections and restore the Constitution; Pact of San Sebastián; Jaca Uprising. Rejection from political parties to participate in a Restoration-style general election led to his resignation.
Juan Bautista Aznar.jpg The Most Excellent
Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas
(1860–1933)
18 February
1931
14 April
1931
55 days Monarchist Aznar-Cabañas
Republican victory in the 1931 local elections leading to the government's resignation; the Second Spanish Republic and Provisional Government established; Alfonso XIII flees the country into exile.

Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939)[edit]

  DLR       AR       PRR       Independent       IR       UR       PSOE
Portrait Name
Honorifics & Constituency
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
Electoral mandates
Days
(Years and days)
Other ministerial offices
held whilst Prime Minister
Political party Government President
(Term)

President of the Provisional Government[edit]

Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12783, Alcala Zamora.jpg The Most Excellent
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
(1877–1949)
14 April
1931
14 October
1931
183 days DLR Provisional I
(Republican coalition)
Himself
Statute of the Provisional Government; Francesc Macià proclaims the Catalan Republic within the Iberian Confederation; the Generalitat de Catalunya is re-established; 1931 Burning of Convents and subsequent May Decrees for Church and State Separation in Education; freedom of worship and conscience in schools; Azaña's military reform (Azaña Law); Largo Caballero's Agrarian Decrees; draft Basque–Navarrese Statute (Statute of Estella).
Manuel Azaña, 1933.jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel Azaña
(1880–1940)
14 October
1931
16 December
1931
63 days – Minister of War AR Provisional II
(Azaña I)
(Republican coalition)
Himself
1931§
Defense of the Republic Law 1931; Labor Contracts Law; Mixed Juries Law; Spanish Constitution of 1931 adopted.

President of the Council of Ministers[edit]

Manuel Azaña, 1933.jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel Azaña
(1880–1940)
16 December
1931
12 June
1933
1 year, 270 days – Minister of War AR Azaña II
(ARPSOEPRRSERCORGA)
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12783, Alcala Zamora.jpg
(1931–1936)
12 June
1933
12 September
1933
Azaña III
(ARPSOEPRRSERCORGAPRDF)
Reformist Biennium. 1932 Catalonia Statute of Autonomy; Divorce Law 1932; 1932 coup d'état attempt (La Sanjurjada); Agrarian Reform Law 1932; Income Tax introduced; January 1933 anarchist uprising and Casas Viejas incident; Public Order Law 1933; Confessions and Religious Congregations Law 1933; creation of Constitutional Guarantees Court; introduction of women's suffrage. President Niceto Alcalá-Zamora withdrew his support from the government after an unsuccessful vote of no confidence, causing its downfall.
Alejandro Lerroux García.jpg The Most Excellent
Alejandro Lerroux
(1864–1949)
12 September
1933
9 October
1933
27 days PRR Lerroux I
(PRRPRRSIRSERCARORGA)
Named to the post after Azaña's resignation. Resigned after failing to form a stable government.
Martínez Barrio.JPG The Most Excellent
Diego Martínez Barrio
(1883–1962)
9 October
1933
16 December
1933
68 days PRR Martínez Barrio I
(PRRPRRSIRSERCARORGAPP)
Named to the post to organize the 1933 election.
Alejandro Lerroux García.jpg The Most Excellent
Alejandro Lerroux
(1864–1949)
16 December
1933
3 March
1934
133 days PRR Lerroux II
(PRRPAEPPPLD)
3 March
1934
28 April
1934
Lerroux III
(PRRPAEPPPLD)
1933§
Start of Black Biennium. December 1933 anarchist uprising; gained support from CEDA to govern. President Niceto Alcalá-Zamora's attempt to veto the Amnesty Law 1934 (releasing all involved in the 1932 coup d'etat from prison) led to his resignation.
Ricardo Samper.jpg The Most Excellent
Ricardo Samper
(1881–1938)
28 April
1934
4 October
1934
159 days PRR Samper
(PRRPAEPPPLD)
1934 day laborers' strike; BarcelonaMadrid political crisis over Constitutional Guarantees Court's nullification of the 1934 Catalan Crop Contracts Law. Resigned after pressures from CEDA.
Alejandro Lerroux García.jpg The Most Excellent
Alejandro Lerroux
(1864–1949)
4 October
1934
3 April
1935
356 days – Minister of War until 1935 PRR Lerroux IV
(PRRCEDAPAEPLD)
3 April
1935
6 May
1935
Lerroux V
(PRRPP)
6 May
1935
25 September
1935
Lerroux VI
(PRRCEDAPAEPLD)
CEDA's incorporation into the government. 1934 Asturian miners' strike (Revolution of 1934); proclamation of Catalan State and government's crack down on uprisings (Events of October the 6th); suspension of the Catalonia Statute of Autonomy; Agrarian Reform Law 1935. PRR–CEDA divisions over an attempted constitutional reform and the Catalan issue led to his resignation as Prime Minister.
Joaquín Chapaprieta.jpg The Most Excellent
Joaquín Chapaprieta
(1871–1951)
25 September
1935
14 December
1935
80 days – Minister of Finance Independent Chapaprieta I
(PRRCEDAPAELlC)
Chapaprieta II
(PRRCEDAPAELlC)
The Straperlo and Nombela corruption scandals led to CEDA withdrawing support from the government and causing its fall.
Portela1935.jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel Portela Valladares
(1867–1952)
14 December
1935
30 December
1935
67 days – Minister of Governance Independent Portela I
(PRRLlCPLDPP)
30 December
1935
19 February
1936
Portela II
(Centr.–PP)
Coup d'etat attempt on 17–18 February; Popular Front victory in the 1936 election.
Manuel Azaña, 1933.jpg The Most Excellent
Manuel Azaña
(1880–1940)
19 February
1936
10 May
1936
81 days IR Azaña IV
(IRUR)
1936§
Elected to the post after the Popular Front victory. Amnesty Law releasing all involved in the 1934 events; restoration of the Generalitat de Catalunya; removal of Alcalá-Zamora as President of the Republic. Left the office to become new President.
Augusto Barcia Trelles 1936.jpg The Most Excellent
Augusto Barcía Trelles
(1881–1961)
Acting Prime Minister
10 May
1936
13 May
1936
3 days – Minister of State IR (acting)
(IRUR)
Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña, 1933.jpg
(1936–1939)
Served as Minister of State under Azaña and as acting Prime Minister following his resignation.
Casares Quiroga.JPG The Most Excellent
Santiago Casares Quiroga
(1884–1950)
13 May
1936
19 July
1936
67 days – Minister of War IR Casares Quiroga
(IRURERC)
1936 Galicia autonomy referendum and ratification of the 1936 Galician Statute of Autonomy (implementation aborted as a result of the Civil War outbreak). Political unrest leading to the killings of José Castillo and José Calvo Sotelo; Spanish coup of July 1936. Resigned after proving incapable of confronting the uprising.
Martínez Barrio.JPG The Most Excellent
Diego Martínez Barrio
(1883–1962)
19 July
1936
19 July
1936
0 days UR Martínez Barrio II
(URIR–PNR–ERC)
Never confirmed, took on the role as incumbent President of the Cortes; failed negotiation attempt with the Nationalists; Spanish Civil War outbreak. To date the shortest-serving Prime Minister.
José Giral 1936.jpg The Most Excellent
José Giral
(1879–1962)
19 July
1936
4 September
1936
47 days – Minister of the Navy IR Giral
(IRURERC)
Spanish Civil War: Non-Intervention Agreement and Committee by European powers (August 1936); massacrees of Badajoz and Modelo prison in Madrid; Siege of the Alcázar and Extremaduran and Gipuzkoa campaigns. Outbreak of Spanish Revolution of 1936. Resigned after the Fall of Talavera allowed the Nationalists to lay siege to Madrid.
Francisco Largo Caballero 1927 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Francisco Largo Caballero
(1869–1946)
4 September
1936
4 November
1936
255 days – Minister of War PSOE Caballero I
(PSOEIRPCEURERCPNV)
4 November
1936
17 May
1937
Caballero II
(PSOECNTIRPCEURERCPNV)
1936 Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country; expropriation and nationalization of land. Spanish Civil War: Fernando Poo island revolt; 1936 Battle of Cape Spartel; International Brigades created; start of Siege of Madrid; the Republican government moves to Valencia on 7 November 1936; Battle of Ciudad Universitaria; Aceituna Campaign; Paracuellos and Málaga–Almería road massacres; Battles of Jarama and Guadalajara; start of Biscay Campaign and War in the North; Bombing of Guernica; 1937 May Days and end of Spanish Revolution.
Juan Negrín.png The Most Excellent
Juan Negrín
(1892–1956)
17 May
1937
5 April
1938
1 year, 318 days – Minister of Finance and Economy until 1938
– Minister of National Defence from 1938
PSOE Negrín I
(PSOEIRPCEURERCPNV)
5 April
1938
31 March
1939
Negrín II
(PSOEIRPCEURERCANVCNT
PSUC from 1938
)
Diego Martínez Barrio
(1939)
Acting President
Spanish Civil War: Fall of Bilbao; Battle of Brunete; Zaragoza Offensive; Sovereign Council of Asturias and León proclaimed; Asturias Offensive; Battles of Teruel and Cape Palos; Aragon and Levante Offensives; Thirteenth Points of Negrín; Battle of the Ebro; disbandment of the International Brigades; Catalonia Offensive; resignation of President Manuel Azaña on 27 February 1939; Segismundo Casado's coup d'etat and establishment of the National Defence Council under José Miaja on 5 March. Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War.

Francoist Spain (1936–1975)[edit]

  No party       National Movement
Portrait Name
Honorifics & Constituency
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
Electoral mandates
Days
(Years and days)
Other ministerial offices
held whilst Prime Minister
Political party Government Head of State
(Term)

President of the Government[edit]

Francisco Franco en 1964.jpg His Excellency
Generalissimo
Francisco Franco
(1892–1975)
Franco Dictatorship 35 years, 131 days – Caudillo No party
(Military/National Movement)
Franco I Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco en 1964.jpg
(1936–1975)
31 January
1938
11 June
1973
Franco II
Franco III
Franco IV
Franco V
Franco VI
Franco VII
Franco VIII
Head of State and of Government within the Nationalist faction since 1 October 1936. Republican defeat in 1939 (end of Spanish Civil War); establishment of an autocratic one-party military dictatorship. White Terror; 1939–59 Spanish Autarky; Spanish Maquis; non-belligerency during the Second World War; Hendaye Meeting; nationalization of Spanish railways and creation of RENFE; signing of Anti-Comintern Pact; Begoña Bombing; Fundamental Laws of the Realm; Laurel Incident; Endesa founded; Spanish Question; beginning of the Cold War; 1947 law of succession referendum; Obligatory Old-Age and Disability Insurance (SOVI); Spain entry to the United Nations; Concordat of 1953; Pact of Madrid; TVE incorporated; independence of Morocco and Ifni War; Valle de los Caídos built; Stabilization Plan of 1959 and 1959–74 Spanish Miracle; ETA and FRAP are created (start of Basque conflict); 1962 Asturian miners' strike; Spanish Methanol Poisonings; Public Order Courts established; creation of social security system (Social Security Bases Law 1963 and General Social Security Law 1966); Palomares Incident; Press and Print Law 1966; 1966 organic law referendum; decolonization of Spanish Guinea; Eurovision Song Contest 1969; closure of Gibraltar–Spain border; Juan Carlos de Bourbon named Prince of Spain and Franco's heir apparent; Matesa affair; Burgos Trial of 1970; General Education Law 1970.
Luis Carrero Blanco.jpg The Most Excellent
Luis Carrero Blanco
(1904–1973)
11 June
1973
20 December
1973
192 days National Movement Carrero Blanco
1973 Penal Code. †Assassinated by ETA members six months after taking office (last Prime Minister to die while in office).
Franco met vrouw Dona Carmen Polo (rechts) links opvolger Prins Juan Carlos met (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Torcuato Fernández-Miranda
(1915–1980)
Acting Prime Minister
20 December
1973
29 December
1973
9 days – Deputy Prime Minister
– Minister-Secretary General of the Movement
National Movement (acting)
Served as Deputy Prime Minister under Carrero Blanco and as acting Prime Minister following his assassination.
Carlos Arias Navarro 1975.jpg The Most Excellent
Carlos Arias Navarro
(1908–1989)
29 December
1973
22 November
1975
1 year, 328 days National Movement Arias Navarro I
Appointed to the office as a result of the assassination of Luis Carrero Blanco; served as interim until 3 January 1974. 1973–74 oil crisis; Spirit of 12 February; Carnation Revolution in Portugal; Military Democratic Union founded; garroting of Catalan anarchist Salvador Puig Antich; Cafetería Rolando bombing; launching of the PCE-led Democratic Junta and the PSOE-led Democratic Convergence Platform; last use of capital punishment in Spain; Green March and Madrid Accords ending Spanish presence in the Sahara. Death of Francisco Franco on 20 November 1975.

Kingdom of Spain (1975–present)[edit]

  National Movement       UCD       PSOE       PP
Portrait Name
Honorifics & Constituency
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
Electoral mandates
Days
(Years and days)
Other ministerial offices
held whilst Prime Minister
Political party Government Monarch
(Reign)

President of the Government[edit]

Carlos Arias Navarro 1975.jpg The Most Excellent
Carlos Arias Navarro
(1908–1989)
22 November
1975
1 July
1976
222 days National Movement Arias Navarro I Juan Carlos I
Ministru prezidents Valdis Dombrovskis oficiālās pusdienās tiekas ar Spānijas karali Huanu Karlosu I un karalieni Sofiju (3506936051) (cropped).jpg
(1975–2014)
Arias Navarro II
Confirmed by King Juan Carlos I after Franco's death. Vitoria and Montejurra massacres. Disagreements over political and democratic reform led to the King demanding his resignation, which he tendered.
Coat of Arms of Spain (1945-1977).svg The Most Excellent
Fernando de Santiago
(1910–1994)
Acting Prime Minister
1 July
1976
3 July
1976
2 days – First Deputy Prime Minister for Defence Affairs National Movement (acting)
Served as First Deputy Prime Minister for Defence Affairs under Arias Navarro and as acting Prime Minister following his resignation.
Adolfo Suárez 1977b (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Adolfo Suárez
(1932–2014)
3 July
1976
4 July
1977
4 years, 237 days National Movement Suárez I
4 July
1977
25 February
1981
UCD Suárez II
Suárez III
Appointed in 1976 by King Juan Carlos I after Arias Navarro's resignation. First Prime Minister appointed by a democratically elected parliament since the Second Republic. Spanish transition to democracy; 1976 political reform referendum; Political Reform Law 1977; Massacre of Atocha; PCE legalized; Amnesty Law 1977; Moncloa Pact; Spanish Constitution of 1978 adopted after its approval and ratification in referendum; Operation Galaxia; Spain–Holy See Agreements of 1979; first autonomy referenda in Andalusia, Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia; Constitutional Court of Spain established; Alonsotegi bombing; 1979 energy crisis and early 1980s recession; unsuccessful 1980 vote of no confidence. Resignation announced on 29 January 1981, remaining in the post as a caretaker until Calvo-Sotelo's appointment.
Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo 1978 (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo
(1926–2008)
25 February
1981
2 December
1982
1 year, 280 days UCD Calvo-Sotelo
Served as Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economic Affairs under Suárez in 1980–81, succeeding him after his resignation. 1981 failed coup d'état during investiture. Divorce legalized; Spain entry to NATO; toxic oil syndrome scandal; change of national flag; 1981 autonomic pacts; 1982 coup d'état attempt.
Felipe González 1986d (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Felipe González
(born 1942)
2 December
1982
5 May
1996
13 years, 155 days PSOE González I
González II
González III
González IV
Expropriation of Rumasa in 1983. Social security reforms leading to the establishment of a welfare state in Spain, including: 40-hour week, free and compulsory education and fixed-term contracts; decriminalization of abortion and creation of the National Health System. Reorganization of the Spanish Armed Forces to deal with military insurrectionism; industrial reconversion program; Flick affair; re-opening of Gibraltar–Spain border; 1985 El Descanso bombing; introduction of VAT; NATO membership referendum; Spain entry to the EEC; Plaza República Dominicana bombing; unsuccessful 1987 vote of no confidence; Hipercor bombing; Inheritance and Donation Taxes introduced; 1988 general strike; Collapse of Communism and dissolution of the USSR; legalization of private TV channels and temporary employment agencies; Education Law 1990 (LOGSE); Gulf War; ratification of the Maastricht Treaty; Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics and Seville Expo '92; inauguration of AVE Madrid–Seville line; §Hung parliament; minority government reliant on CiU support. 1993 economic crisis; 1993 EEA Agreement; corruption scandals (Filesa, Luis Roldán, CESID espionage); 1994 general strike; Turbot War; pension system reform (1995 Toledo Pact); Corporate Tax introduced; 1995 Penal Code and abolition of the death penalty. Public outcry after the unveiling of GAL actions and withdrawal of CiU support led to the calling of a snap election in 1996, which was won by the PP.
José María Aznar 2002c (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
José María Aznar
(born 1953)
5 May
1996
17 April
2004
7 years, 348 days PP Aznar I
Aznar II
§Hung parliament; minority government reliant on CiU (Majestic Agreement) and CC support, initially including the PNV. Killing of Miguel Ángel Blanco and subsequent public outcry (Spirit of Ermua); privatization of many previously government-owned industries (Telefónica, Repsol YPF, Endesa and Tabacalera); 1997 economic boom; Doñana disaster; Land Law 1998; Non-Residents Income Tax introduced; 1998–99 ETA's ceasefire declaration; introduction of the euro; NATO bombing of Yugoslavia; Civil Procedure Law 2000; compulsory military service abolished; Immigration Law 2000; 2000–01 Mad Cow disease outbreak; 2001 Organic Law on Universities; 11 September attacks and support of US War in Afghanistan; National Hydrological Plan; Political Parties Law 2002 and banning of Batasuna; cuts in unemployment benefits resulting in a general strike in 2002; Perejil Island crisis; Prestige oil spill and Nunca Máis movement; Education Law 2002 (LOCE); Bush–Aznar memo; 2003 Iraq War and subsequent protests; Yak-42 air flight accident; 2004 Madrid train bombings.
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 2009b (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
(born 1960)
17 April
2004
21 December
2011
7 years, 248 days PSOE Zapatero I
Zapatero II
§Hung parliaments. Spanish forces leave Iraq in 2004; social reforms (Gender Violence and Dependent Care Laws; same-sex marriage legalized); European Constitution referendum; Ibarretxe Plan; 2006 ETA's ceasefire and Madrid–Barajas Airport bombing; 2006–07 Statute of Autonomy reforms and new Catalonia Statute; Marbella City Council dissolution; Education Law 2006 (LOE); 2007 diplomatic conflicts with Venezuela and Morocco; ratification of the Lisbon Treaty; Historical Memory Law; Iñaki de Juana Chaos hunger strike and release; financial crisis of 2008–11; 2008 transport strike; Expo 2008; 2009 flu pandemic; 2009 Alakrana attack; retirement age increased to 67; labour market reform of 2010 and subsequent general strike; reform of abortion to a deadline-based scheme; "state of alarm" declared during the 2010 air traffic controllers strike; military intervention in Libya (Operation Unified Protector); 15-M anti-austerity movement; 2011 constitutional reform on budgetary stability; ETA's permanent ceasefire declaration and end of Basque conflict.
Mariano Rajoy 2017b (cropped).jpg The Most Excellent
Mariano Rajoy
(born 1955)
21 December
2011
Incumbent 5 years, 213 days PP Rajoy I
Rajoy II Felipe VI
King of Spain (2015, cropped).jpg
(2014–present)
2012 labour market reform; budget cuts to public services (health and education); 2012 Asturian miners' strike; partial nationalization of Bankia, banking system crisis and bailout; start of Catalan sovereigntist process; 2012 general strikes; Parot doctrine repealed by the European Court of Human Rights; PP corruption scandals (Bárcenas affair, Púnica, Lezo); Santiago de Compostela derailment; Education Law 2013 (LOMCE); Islamic terrorism in Europe; abdication of Juan Carlos I; 2014 Ebola disease outbreak; 2014 Catalan self-determination referendum; Citizen Security Law 2015 (Gag Law); introduction of life imprisonment; Podemos and C's surge. §Hung parliaments; his second government was allowed by PSOE's abstention after 315 days in caretaker capacity. Gürtel case trial; ETA's disarmament; Banco Santander rescue of Banco Popular Español; unsuccessful 2017 vote of no confidence.

Timeline[edit]

Mariano Rajoy José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero José María Aznar Felipe González Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo Adolfo Suárez Fernando de Santiago y Díaz Carlos Arias Navarro Torcuato Fernández-Miranda Luis Carrero Blanco Francisco Franco Juan Negrín Francisco Largo Caballero José Giral Santiago Casares Quiroga Augusto Barcía Trelles Manuel Portela Valladares Joaquín Chapaprieta Ricardo Samper Diego Martínez Barrio Alejandro Lerroux Manuel Azaña Niceto Alcalá-Zamora Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas Dámaso Berenguer Miguel Primo de Rivera José Sánchez-Guerra y Martínez Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz de Salazar Joaquín Sánchez de Toca Eduardo Dato Álvaro de Figueroa, 1st Count of Romanones Manuel García-Prieto, 1st Marquis of Alhucemas José Canalejas Antonio González de Aguilar, 8th Marquis of la Vega de Armijo José López Domínguez Segismundo Moret Eugenio Montero Ríos Antonio Maura Raimundo Fernández-Villaverde, Marquis of Pozo Rubio Francisco Silvela Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero José Posada Herrera Arsenio Martínez Campos Joaquín Jovellar y Soler Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Juan de Zavala, 1st Marquis of Sierra Bullones Emilio Castelar Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso Francesc Pi i Margall Estanislao Figueras Práxedes Mateo Sagasta José Malcampo, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla Juan Bautista Topete Juan Prim, 1st Marquis of los Castillejos Francisco Serrano, 1st Duke of la Torre Pascual Madoz José Gutiérrez de la Concha, 1st Marquis of Havana Luis González-Bravo y López de Arjona Alejandro Mon y Menéndez Lorenzo Arrazola y García Manuel de Pando, 6th Marquis of Miraflores Francisco Javier de Istúriz y Montero Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan

See also[edit]