List of Qijian Xia Tianshan characters

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The following is a list of characters from the wuxia novel Qijian Xia Tianshan by Liang Yusheng. Some of these characters also appear in the novels Baifa Monü Zhuan and Saiwai Qixia Zhuan.

Mount Heaven Sect[edit]

  • Ling Weifeng (凌未風; 凌未风; Líng Wèifēng), nicknamed "Holy Light of Mount Heaven" (天山神芒) after his famous anqi (projectile weapon), was previously known as Liang Mulang (梁穆郎; Liáng Mùláng). Years ago, he was tricked into revealing the identities of the anti-Qing rebels. He attempted suicide in guilt after being slapped and accused by Liu Yufang, whom he had a crush on, but refrained from doing so upon encountering a dying Yang Yuncong. He follows Yang's instructions and brings Yang's orphaned daughter to Reverend Huiming. He becomes Huiming's third apprentice and becomes as a formidable swordsman after training for 18 years. However, he has a strong tendency to suffer from seizures when exposed to cold weather. This becomes his fatal weakness, as he experiences a sudden fit during a fight with Chu Zhaonan when he is just about to slay his opponent. Chu turns the tables on him and captures him, imprisoning him in a labyrinth in Tibet. Chu Zhaonan also cuts off his right thumb, preventing him from using a sword again. Ling survives his ordeal and continues his heroic quest as a Mount Heaven swordsman dedicated to upholding justice and helping the poor and oppressed.
  • Yilan Zhu (易蘭珠; 易兰珠; Yìlán Zhū) is Yang Yuncong and Nalan Minghui's daughter. She was brought to Mount Heaven by Ling Weifeng, and raised and trained in martial arts by him and Reverend Huiming. She assassinates Prince Dodo to avenge her father, but is captured and imprisoned. She becomes Zhang Huazhao's love interest and marries him eventually.
  • Chu Zhaonan (楚昭南; Chǔ Zhāonán) is Reverend Huiming's second apprentice, who inherited the Soaring Dragon Sword (游龍劍) from his master. He succumbs to temptations of fame and glory, and becomes a servant of Wu Sangui. He betrays Wu later and defects to serve the Kangxi Emperor, who appoints him as an imperial guard commander. He is defeated by Yilan Zhu in the final battle in the Tibetan labyrinth and sustains serious injuries, including the loss of his left arm. He chooses to commit suicide to avoid humiliation.
  • Yang Yuncong (楊雲驄; 杨云骢; Yáng Yúncōng) is Reverend Huiming's first apprentice, who inherited the Jade Breaking Sword (斷玉劍) from his master. He has a secret affair with Nalan Minghui, who bore him a daughter. However, he cannot be together with Nalan as she is forced to marry Prince Dodo. He is severely injured by Dodo's henchman Niuhuru and dies from his wounds after killing his foe. He entrusts his infant daughter to Ling Weifeng before his death.
  • Reverend Huiming (晦明禪師; 晦明禅师; Huìmíng Chánshī; Fui3-ming4 Sim4-si1) is a reclusive monk residing on Mount Heaven. Previously known as Yue Mingke (岳鳴珂; 岳鸣珂; Yuè Míngkē) in Baifa Monü Zhuan, he is considered a martial arts grandmaster and one of the most powerful martial artists of his time. He dies in peace at the age of 112.
  • Wuxing (悟性; Wùxìng) is a monk who serves as Huiming's personal assistant.

Gui Zhongming and associates[edit]

  • Gui Zhongming (桂仲明; Guī Zhòngmíng) is Shi Tiancheng's son. He was adopted by Gui Tianlan and assumes his stepfather's family name. He is drawn into the conflict between his father and stepfather, and goes berserk after thinking that he had killed his father in rage. He loses memory of his past and starts sleepwalking, during which he attacks people unknowingly. He meets Mao Wanlian and Fu Qingzhu, who help to cure him of his mental illness and reunite him with his family. He falls in love with Mao Wanlian and becomes extremely protective of her. Despite his formidable prowess in swordplay and anqi, he is reckless, nonchalant, easily agitated, and bereft of social etiquette. He becomes the founder of the northern branch of the Wudang Sect.
  • Gui Tianlan (桂天瀾; 桂天澜; Guī Tiānlán) is Ye Yunsun's eldest apprentice. He brings Shi Tiancheng's family with him to join Zhang Xianzhong's forces, and settles at Jiange after Sichuan falls to Qing forces. Believing that Shi Tiancheng had died, he marries Shi's wife and adopts Shi's children. He is killed in a fight against Shi Tiancheng and four imperial guards.
  • Shi Daniang (石大娘; Shí Dàniáng) is Ye Yunsun's daughter. She marries Shi Tiancheng and bears him Zhongming and Zhujun. After her husband's apparent death, she marries Gui Tianlan, who helps to take care of her and her children. She and Gui Tianlan maintain a sibling-like relationship even though they are a married couple in name. She is versed in the 'Five Birds Swordplay' (五禽劍法) and she imparts this skill to her son.
  • Shi Zhujun (石竹君; Shí Zhújūn) is Gui Zhongming's younger sister.
  • Ye Yunsun (葉雲蓀; 叶云荪; Yè Yúnsūn) is Gui Zhongming's maternal grandfather. He treated Gui Tianlan and Shi Tiancheng like his sons and trained them in martial arts.
  • Yu Zhong (于中; Yú Zhōng) is Shi Tiancheng's apprentice. He saved his master when the latter attempted suicide by jumping off a cliff.

Zhongnan Sect and associates[edit]

  • Fu Qingzhu (傅青主; Fù Qīngzhǔ) is an eccentric swordsman and physician from the Zhongnan Sect (終南派). He is renowned for his mastery of the 'Wuji Swordplay' (無極劍法).
  • Mao Wanlian (冒浣蓮; 冒浣莲; Mào Wǎnlián) is Mao Pijiang and Dong Xiaowan's daughter. She was raised and trained in martial arts by Fu Qingzhu. She meets Gui Zhongming, who was suffering from hallucinations then, and helps him recover from his mental illness and reunite him with his family. Gui falls in love with her and becomes extremely protective of her. Just like her parents, she is talented in poetry and literary arts. She develops a close relationship with Nalan Rongruo because of their common interest. She marries Gui Zhongming eventually.
  • Shan Sinan (單思南; 单思南; Shàn Sīnán) is Fu Qingzhu's senior and Liu Jingyi's close friend. He becomes Liu Yufang's godfather and mentors her in swordplay.

Wu family[edit]

  • Wu Yuanying (武元英; Wǔ Yuányīng) is the master of the Wu Family Manor and a close friend of Fu Qingzhu. He offers shelter to the rebels in his residence.
  • Wu Chenghua (武成化; Wǔ Chénghuà) is Wu Yuanying's son.

Lian Nichang and associates[edit]

  • Lian Nichang, also called Lian Nishang (練霓裳; 练霓裳; Liàn Nícháng / Liàn Nísháng), nicknamed "White Haired Demoness" (白髮魔女), is the protagonist in Baifa Monü Zhuan and Zhuo Yihang's lover. She was heartbroken after she wrongly believed that Zhuo had betrayed her love, and her hair turned white overnight. She died at the age of 100, and her corpse is last seen lying beside Zhuo's shrunken remains.
  • Hamaya (哈瑪雅; 哈玛雅; Hāmáyǎ), nicknamed "Flying Red Sash" (飛紅巾; 飞红巾; Fēihóngjīn), is Lian Nichang's apprentice and the love rival of Nalan Minghui in Saiwai Qixia Zhuan. Her hair turned white overnight after Yang Yuncong rejected her. She resolves her rivalry with Nalan and saves Yilan Zhu from death. She transfers her love for Yang Yuncong to Yilan Zhu and treats Yilan Zhu like a daughter. At the end of the novel, she returns to her former position as chief of the tribal people in northwestern China.
  • Wu Qiongyao (武瓊瑤; 武琼瑶; Wǔ Qíongyáo) is Wu Yuanying's daughter. By chance, she encounters Lian Nichang, who likes her and accepts her as an apprentice. Despite learning martial arts for only three years under Lian's tutelage, she emerges as a powerful swordswoman. She marries Li Siyong eventually and bears him a son and a daughter. She settles on Mount Heaven with her children after her husband's death.

Wudang Sect[edit]

See also: Wudang Sect
  • Xin Longzi (辛龍子; 辛龙子; Xīn Lóngzǐ) is Zhuo Yihang's first apprentice. Even though he started learning from Zhuo before Shi Tiancheng, he is younger than Shi, so his master wanted him to address Shi as his senior. While in Tibet, he once saw Han Zhibang practising martial arts from the Yijin Jing, and immediately realised that the manual contained the missing moves to his master's 'Bodhidharma Swordplay' (達摩劍法). He seizes the manual from Han through trickery and masters the skills in it, becoming even more powerful than before. He desires to have a precious sword of his own and is tricked by Chu Zhaonan into helping the villains. Chu attempts to kill him to seize the Yijin Jing but he is saved by Ling Weifeng and survives. He is turned back to the path of goodness by Ling and decides to follow his benefactor. He engages Qi Zhenjun in a prolonged duel and inflicts a killing blow on Qi after the latter is severely injured by Shi Tiancheng. However, he suffers from over-exhaustion and dies shortly after the fight.
  • Shi Tiancheng (石天成; Shí Tiānchéng) is Gui Tianlan's junior. He left to fetch his relatives during the Qing invasion of Sichuan and entrusted his family to Gui Tianlan's care. He was thought to be dead, so Gui Tianlan married his wife and adopted his children. When he returns later, he feels that Gui Tianlan had betrayed him by taking away his family from him. He is accepted by Zhuo Yihang as an apprentice, despite already having a background in other forms of martial arts. He returns to confront Gui Tianlan later and causes the latter to die. He regrets upon learning the truth from his wife after Gui's death. He promises that the firstborn child of his son shall bear Gui's family name, as a form of "compensation" to his late senior. He helps Xin Longzi in the fight against Qi Zhenjun, managing to inflict severe wounds on Qi. However, he is also mortally wounded and dies from his injuries later.
  • Zhuo Yihang (卓一航; Zhuó Yīháng) is Lian Nichang's lover and was Wudang's leader in Baifa Monü Zhuan. He is already dead when the events in Qijian Xia Tianshan take place. He finally obtained the flowers that can turn his lover's white hair black again, but did not live to pass them to her personally. Before his death, he told Xin Longzi to use chemical means to reduce the size of his body in order to prevent his enemies from identifying and destroying his remains. His shrunken skeleton is last seen lying beside Lian Nichang's dead body.
  • Xuanzhen (玄貞; 玄贞; Xuánzhēn) is Taoist Huangye's apprentice and the current leader of Wudang. He encounters Wu Qiongyao and duels with her when she teases him about his skills. He is unable to defeat Wu and feels angry and ashamed. At the end of the novel, he gives up his position as leader of Wudang to Gui Zhongming after seeing that Gui had mastered their sect's long-lost 'Bodhidharma Swordplay'.
  • He Lühua (何綠華; 何绿华; Hé Lǜhuá) is a character from Baifa Monü Zhuan. Although she is approaching the age of 50, she is described to be still looking youthful. She accompanies Xuanzhen on the journey to northwestern China.
  • He Lühua's husband, whose name is not mentioned in the novel, accompanies his wife and Xuanzhen to northwestern China.
  • Xuantong (玄通; Xuántōng) and Xuanjue (玄覺; 玄觉; Xuánjué) are Xuanzhen's juniors. They accompany Xuanzhen to northwestern China.

Heaven and Earth Society and rebel forces[edit]

See also: Tiandihui
  • Han Zhibang (韓志邦; 韩志邦; Hán Zhìbāng), initially a stable keeper, is the chief of the Heaven and Earth Society, an anti-Qing secret society. He passes his position as chief to Liu Yufang later. He has a secret crush on Liu, but does not dare to admit it and decides to leave after seeing that she has affections for Ling Weifeng. He finds the Yijin Jing and masters an incomplete set of the skills, which temporarily boosts his prowess in martial arts. He helps the Tibetan lamas retrieve the stolen śarīras and earns their respect in return. He uses his close relations with the Tibetans to help the rebels on a few occasions. He encounters a dying Xin Longzi later and obliges to Xin's final request to join the Wudang Sect. He takes back the Yijin Jing and passes his knowledge of the 'Bodhidharma Swordplay' to Gui Zhongming later. He willingly sacrifices himself to save Ling Weifeng by secretly switching places with Ling when the latter is imprisoned in a Tibetan labyrinth. He attempts to ambush Chu Zhaonan when the latter comes to check on Ling, but is no match for Chu and is slain by Chu.
  • Yang Yiwei (楊一維; 杨一维; Yáng Yīwéi)
  • Hua Zishan (華紫山; 华紫山; Huà Zǐshān)

Southern Ming rebels[edit]

  • Liu Yufang (劉郁芳; 刘郁芳; Líu Yùfāng), nicknamed "Brocade Cloud Sword" (雲錦劍), is Liu Jingyi's daughter. She leads the rebels to resist Prince Dodo's forces in Hangzhou. She succeeds Han Zhibang as leader of the Heaven and Earth Society later. She becomes a "Friend of Mount Heaven" (an ally of the Seven Swords) at the end of the novel.
  • Zhang Huazhao (張華昭; 张华昭; Zhāng Huázhāo) is Zhang Huangyan's son. He attempts to assassinate Prince Dodo on Mount Wutai but fails due to Yilan Zhu's untimely interruption. He falls in love with Yilan Zhu and goes through troubles to save her from death. In addition to his reunion with Yilan Zhu after she is rescued by Hamaya, he also learns a set of qinggong techniques from Lian Nichang. He marries Yilan Zhu at the end of the novel, and also joins the Wudang Sect as Gui Zhongming's junior, becoming a master in the 'Bodhidharma Swordplay'.
  • Monk Tongming (通明和尚; Tōngmíng Héshàng) is nicknamed "Strange Monk" (怪頭陀).
  • Chang Ying (常英; Cháng Yīng) is nicknamed "God of Death" (喪門神).
  • Cheng Tong (程通; Chéng Tōng) is nicknamed "Iron Tower" (鐵塔).
  • The Prince of Lu (魯王; 鲁王; Lǔ Wáng) is the self-appointed Regent (監國) of the Southern Ming dynasty.
  • Prince of Lu's followers:
    • Zhang Huangyan (張煌言; 张煌言; Zhāng Huángyán)
    • Zhang Mingzhen (張名振; 张名振; Zhāng Míngzhèn)
    • Liu Jingyi (劉精一; 刘精一; Líu Jīngyī)

Mount Changbai Sect[edit]

  • Qi Zhenjun (齊真君; 齐真君; Qí Zhēnjūn; "True Lord Qi") is the founder of the Mount Changbai Sect (長白山派). In his younger days, he challenged Reverend Huiming to a duel but was refused, causing him to have a false impression that he was better than Huiming. He encountered Lian Nichang later and was defeated by her and driven away. He spent 50 years improving his skills in the Changbai Mountains and becomes a formidable swordsman. He returns to assist the Qing government in dealing with the rebels. He is severely injured by Shi Tiancheng in a fight and is eventually slain by Xin Longzi.
  • Qiu Dongluo (邱東洛; 邱东洛; Qīu Dōngluò) is Niuhuru's junior. He wields a pair of blades in combat and uses a variety of combination attacks to confuse his opponents. He takes on a fake Han Chinese identity to gather news in the jianghu. He is responsible for disfiguring Ling Weifeng when the latter was bringing the baby Yilan Zhu to Mount Heaven. He encounters Ling again several years later and had his ears sliced off by Ling for revenge. He is killed by Yilan Zhu in a later fight.
  • Niuhuru (紐祜盧; 纽祜卢; Nǐuhùlú) is a Manchu martial artist and an apprentice of Qi Zhenjun. He is slain by Yang Yuncong in a fight but manages to injure Yang mortally before dying.
  • Liu Xiyan (柳西岩; Lǐu Xīyán) is one of Qi Zhenjun's apprentices. He follows his master and Qiu Dongluo to help the Qing government fight the rebels.

Qing Empire[edit]

Imperial family[edit]

  • The Shunzhi Emperor (順治皇帝; 顺治皇帝; Shùnzhì Huángdì) was the former ruler of the Qing Empire. He disappeared mysteriously after Dong Xiaowan's death and became a monk in Qingliang Temple on Mount Wutai to seek peace and redemption. He is murdered by Yan Zhongtian on his son's orders.
  • The Kangxi Emperor (康熙皇帝; Kāngxī Huángdì) is the Shunzhi Emperor's son and the current ruler of the Qing Empire. He orders Yan Zhongtian to murder his father and then tries to poison Yan to silence the latter.
  • The Third Princess (三公主; Sān Gōngzhǔ), whose name is not mentioned, is the Shunzhi Emperor's third daughter and a sister of the Kangxi Emperor. She often sneaks out to find Nalan Rongruo to escape the boredom of living in the palace. Once, Nalan Rongruo requested a special medicine from her to heal an injured Zhang Huazhao, and she insisted on meeting Nalan's new guest. She becomes attracted to Zhang and develops a crush on him. She decides to sacrifice herself to help Zhang rescue Yilan Zhu, because she knows Zhang truly loves Yilan Zhu. She commits suicide after stealing a special imperial seal from the Kangxi Emperor that can authorise Yilan Zhu's release from prison.


  • Dodo (多鐸; 多铎; Duōduò) is a Manchu prince who is also the governor of Jiangnan and Jiangxi. He is versed in military strategy and martial arts. He loves Nalan Minghui even though he is aware that she is unhappy about their forced marriage. He is assassinated by Yilan Zhu, and dies in his wife's arms.
  • Nalan Minghui (納蘭明慧; 纳兰明慧; Nàlán Mínghuì) is Nalan Xiuji's daughter. She is talented in both literary and martial arts. She had a secret affair with Yang Yuncong and bore him a daughter, but is forced to marry Prince Dodo. She treats Dodo indifferently after their marriage but still respects him as her husband. When Yilan Zhu returns to take revenge on Dodo, she tries to stop both sides from harming each other but fails. When Yilan Zhu is imprisoned for murdering Prince Dodo, she tries to save her daughter but is unable to do so and commits suicide.
  • Nalan Xingde (納蘭性德; 纳兰性德; Nàlán Xìngdé), referred to as Nalan Rongruo (納蘭容若; 纳兰容若; Nàlán Róngruò) in the novel, is Yilan Zhu's cousin. He is talented in literary arts. His reputation as a renowned scholar and poet earns him the favour of the Kangxi Emperor. He has a strong disdain for bloodshed and conflict, and constantly hopes that everyone in the Qing Empire can live in harmony. He secretly helps the rebels on numerous occasions.
  • Nalan Mingzhu (納蘭明珠; 纳兰明珠; Nàlán Míngzhū) is Nalan Rongruo's father. He pretends to be a patron of literary arts by hiring people to help him write poems and pieces of literature, so that he can win the favour of the Kangxi Emperor, who likes intellectuals and literati. His son, in contrast with him, is the one who truly appreciates the arts.
  • Nalan Xiuji (納蘭秀吉; 纳兰秀吉; Nàlán Xìují) is a Manchu general who contributed to the founding of the Qing Empire. He is appointed chief of Hangzhou's military forces.
  • Yunti (允禵; Yǔntí) is the Kangxi Emperor's 14th son. He leads the Qing army to conquer Tibet and capture the Dalai Lama.
  • Geji, Prince Cheng (成親王格濟; 成亲王格济; Chéng Qīnwáng Géjì) is a Manchu noble in command of the Qing army attacking northwestern China. He is versed in military strategy but is not good in martial arts.

Government officials[edit]

  • Chen Jin (陳錦; 陈锦; Chén Jǐn) is one of Prince Dodo's generals. He conquered the Southern Ming regime.
  • Hutunuke (呼圖努克; 呼图努克; Hūtúnǔkè) is a Qing general involved in the campaign in northwestern China.
  • Zhao Liangdong (趙良棟; 赵良栋; Zhào Liángdòng) is the governor-general of Sichuan and Shaanxi.
  • Li Benshen (李本深; Lí Běnshēn) is the West Pacifying General of Kunming.
  • Zhu Guozhi (朱國治; 朱国治; Zhū Guózhì) is the Inspector of Yunnan.
  • Hong Chengchou (洪承疇; 洪承畴; Hóng Chéngchóu)

Imperial guards[edit]

  • Zhang Chengbin (張承斌; 张承斌; Zhāng Chéngbīn) is the second-in-command of the imperial guards (禁衛軍). Prince Dodo orders him to lead 3,000 men on a manhunt for the rebels, and he arrives at the Wu Family Manor. He is ordered to retreat by Yan Zhongtian, who is superior in rank to him.
  • Hu Tianzhu (胡天柱; Hú Tiānzhù) is an imperial guard commander ranking below Chu Zhaonan and Zhang Chengbin. He follows Chu Zhaonan to capture Gui Zhongming and the rebels hiding in Nalan Rongruo's house. He is defeated by Meng Wuwei and knocked into a ditch.
  • Gu Yuanliang (古元亮; Gǔ Yuánliàng) is an imperial guard from Henan who specialises in dianxue techniques. He follows Chu Zhaonan to seize the śarīras.
  • Hao Dashou (郝大綬; 郝大绶; Hǎo Dàshòu) is an imperial guard who follows Chu Zhaonan to seize the śarīras. He is killed by the Tibetan lamas protecting the relics.
  • Zhang Kui (張魁; 张魁; Zhāng Kuí) follows Qiu Dongluo to hunt down and kill Ling Weifeng. He uses a red copper saber. He has his arm sliced off by Liu Yufang in a fight.
  • Peng Kunlin (彭昆林; Péng Kūnlín) is Zhang Kui's companion. He uses a white wax pole in combat.
  • Hao Jiming (郝繼明; 郝继明; Hǎo Jìmíng) is Zhang Kui's companion. He uses a pair of grappling hooks.
  • Jiao Ba (焦霸; Jiāo Bà) is a former bandit nicknamed "Eight Armed Nezha" (八臂哪吒). He and three other guards are sent to hunt down and kill Gui Tianlan. He is killed by Shi Tiancheng, who grabs him and they fall off a cliff together.
  • Wang Gang (王剛; 王刚; Wáng Gāng) specialises in 'Vajra Sanshou' (金剛散手). He wants to become chief of the imperial guards but is disappointed when Chu Zhaonan takes the position. He intends to defeat and capture Ling Weifeng to prove his ability but fails. After his defeat, he grabs Mao Wanlian and holds her hostage, but Ling Weifeng saves Mao and kills him with his anqi.
  • Shen Tianbao (申天豹; Shēn Tiānbào) and his brother Shen Tianhu (申天虎; Shēn Tiānhǔ) are the apprentices of Hong Sibazi (洪四把子; Hóng Sìbǎzǐ), a martial arts master from Cangzhou. They are skilled in the 'Wugou Swordplay' (吳鉤劍法). They are slain by Ling Weifeng in a duel.
  • Diao Sifu (刁四福; Diāo Sìfú) is an imperial guard serving under Chu Zhaonan. He is good in qinggong and slightly better than Han Zhibang in martial arts.

Palace guards[edit]

  • Cheng Tianting (成天挺; Chéng Tiāntíng) is a palace guard (大內侍衛) commander nicknamed "Iron Brush Judge" (鐵筆判官). He specialises in dianxue techniques and uses a pair of ink brushes in combat. He is almost on par with Chu Zhaonan in martial arts prowess. At the end of the novel, he is caught off guard and immobilised by Han Zhibang while watching over the captured Ling Weifeng. He is defeated and slain by the combined efforts of Yilan Zhu and Liu Yufang.
  • Yan Zhongtian (閻中天; 阎中天; Yán Zhōngtiān) is a trusted bodyguard of the Kangxi Emperor. He discovers that the Shunzhi Emperor is still alive and has become a monk. The Kangxi Emperor forces him to murder the Shunzhi Emperor and attempts to poison him to death later to silence him. He is saved by Ling Weifeng and given medical treatment by Fu Qingzhu. He sacrifices himself to help the rebels by ordering Zhang Chengbin and his men to retreat, but dies from poisoning as his healing process was interrupted.
  • Zheng Tiepai (鄭鐵牌; 郑铁牌; Zhèng Tiěpái) is a palace guard who uses a pair of iron shields in combat. He is slain by Ling Weifeng.
  • Cheng Tianting's deputies:
    • Zheng Dakun (鄭大錕; 郑大锟; Zhèng Dàkūn)
    • Lian Sanhu (連三虎; 连三虎; Lián Sānhǔ) is blinded by Wu Qiongyao in a fight.


  • Hong Tao (洪濤; 洪涛; Hóng Tāo) and Jiao Zhi (焦直; Jiāo Zhí) are guards from the residence of the governor-general of Sichuan and Shaanxi. They lead Wang Gang and the Shen brothers to Gui Tianlan's house. They are slain by Gui Zhongming in a duel.
  • Lu Ming (陸明; 陆明; Lù Míng) and Lu Liang (陸亮; 陆亮; Lù Liàng) are two brothers who serve as martial arts instructors in Nalan Mingzhu's residence.
  • Zhou Qing (周青; Zhōu Qīng) is one of the guards watching over Ling Weifeng when Ling is imprisoned in a Tibetan labyrinth. His grandfather served Dorgon during the Shunzhi Emperor's reign and was killed after helping his master complete a secret mission. Ling Weifeng's kindness leads him to understand true friendship and loyalty. He is impressed with Ling and befriends him, secretly agreeing to help Ling escape.
  • Ma Fang (馬方; 马方; Mǎ Fāng) is Zhou Qing's colleague. He is a native of northwestern China and was recommended by Shang Yunting to serve the Qing government. He is ashamed of himself when Ling Weifeng tells him about how Qing soldiers invaded his homeland and mistreated his people. Like many others, he becomes impressed with Ling and decides to help Ling escape.

Li Laiheng forces[edit]

  • Li Siyong (李思永; Lǐ Sīyǒng) is Li Laiheng's younger brother. He is versed in both military and literary arts, and specialises in using anqi. He is sent as an envoy to discuss a truce and temporary alliance with Wu Sangui. He marries Wu Qiongyao, whom he met and fell in love with. At the end of the novel, he is killed in action in western Sichuan.
  • Li Laiheng (李來亨; 李来亨; Lǐ Láihēng) is Li Jin's foster son. He escapes to Yunnan with Li Zicheng's remnant forces and forms an insurgent army to resist the Qing Empire. He commits suicide after his army is defeated and besieged by Qing forces.
  • Li Jin (李錦; 李锦; Lí Jǐn) is Li Zicheng's nephew. He is killed in action in Henan against Qing forces.
  • Zhang Qingyuan (張清原; 张清原; Zhāng Qīngyuán) is sent by Li Laiheng to lead a group of men to eliminate the Five Dragons Gang.
  • Jiang Zhuang (蔣壯; 蒋壮; Jiǎng Zhuàng) is Zhang Qingyuan's deputy. He is injured by Zhang Yihu and healed by Fu Qingzhu later.


These bandits initially plotted with Han Jing to rob Li Dingguo's treasure. They are impressed with Ling Weifeng's heroism and skills after losing to him in a contest, and agree to submit to him. Ling recommends them to join Li Laiheng's rebel army later.

  • Zhang Yuanzhen (張元振; 张元振; Zhāng Yuánzhèn) is nicknamed "Eight Directions Saber" (八方刀).
  • Tao Hong (陶宏; Táo Hóng) is nicknamed "Dark Fearsome Deity" (黑煞神). He specialises in wrestling.
  • Luo Da (羅達; 罗达; Luó Dá) is a bandit chief from Mount Mei in northern Sichuan. He is the most greedy of the group, and was the first to charge into the treasure cave. He is injured by the traps.
  • Da Sangong (達三公; 达三公; Dá Sāngōng) is the headman of a tribe. He is referred to as "Headman Da" (達土司; 达土司; Dá Tǔsī) in the novel. He specialises in the 'Iron Vest Skill' (鐵布衫), which allows him to concentrate inner energy on parts of his body and make them extremely tough and impenetrable by sharp weapons.
  • Lu Dalengzi (盧大楞子; 卢大楞子; Lú Dàlèngzǐ) is the chief of the Qingyang Gang (青陽幫). He is the most honest and lawful of the group. He loses to Ling Weifeng in a qinggong competition.

Li Dingguo forces[edit]

  • Li Dingguo (李定國; 李定国; Lǐ Dìngguó) was a former deputy of Zhang Xianzhong. He took control of Sichuan after Zhang's death and resisted the Qing invaders until his death. He left behind a treasure hoard for future generations to continue his legacy. The treasure comprises 18 giant statues of himself, all made of gold. He also left behind a precious Soaring Dragon Sword (騰蛟劍), which once belonged to Xiong Tingbi. The sword becomes Gui Zhongming's weapon.
  • Han Jing (韓荊; 韩荆; Hán Jīng) is a former subordinate of Li Dingguo. He is a hunchback, and specialises in the 'Heavenly Demon Staff Skill' (天魔杖法). He loses to Ling Weifeng in a contest of inner energy and pledges allegiance to Ling later. Ling suggests to him to bring his fellows to join Li Laiheng's rebel army.
  • He Wanfang (賀萬方; 贺万方; Hè Wànfāng) is a craftsman who worked with Gui Tianlan on constructing the traps in the treasure cave. He leads Han Jing and company into the cave to rob the treasure. He follows the others to join Li Laiheng later.
  • Zhu Tianmu (Chinese: 朱天木; pinyin: Zhū Tiānmù) and Yang Qingbo (楊青波; 杨青波; Yáng Qīngbō) are two former subordinates of Li Dingguo. They are killed in action against Qing forces.

Wuwei Escort Agency[edit]

  • Meng Wuwei (孟武威; Mèng Wǔwēi) is the master of the Wuwei Escort Agency (武威鏢局). He has a strong reputation in the jianghu and most bandits would usually avoid robbing his convoys. He uses a tobacco pipe to blow smoke patterns whenever his men are escorting a convoy, so as to alert potential robbers to his presence. He also uses the pipe as a dianxue weapon. He and his son appear to help the protagonists fight Chu Zhaonan and some imperial guards at one point.
  • Meng Jian (孟堅; 孟坚; Mèng Jiān) is Meng Wuwei's son. He is tasked with escorting a group of maidens to Nalan Mingzhu's residence, with the Lu brothers assisting him. He runs into the Three Devils, who attempt to seize the maidens from him. He is no match for them and manages to survive when Gui Zhongming and Mao Wanlian appear to help him.


  • The Dalai Lama (達賴活佛; 达赖活佛; Dálài Huófó) is the spiritual leader of Tibet.
  • The Red Robed Lama (紅衣喇嘛; 红衣喇嘛; Hóngyī Lǎmā), whose name is not mentioned, is sent by the Dalai Lama to follow Chu Zhaonan to meet Wu Sangui and affirm their alliance. He discovers that Chu is planning to betray Wu. Chu attempts to kill him to silence him. He is saved by Ling Weifeng and brings news of Wu Sangui's rebellion to the Southern Ming rebels. He is killed by Chu Zhaonan during the battle in the Tibetan labyrinth near the end of the novel.
  • Zongda Wanzhen (宗達完真; 宗达完真; Zōngdá Wánzhēn) is one of the lamas escorting the śarīras. He is installed as the Dalai Lama by Yunti when Qing forces occupied Tibet. He agrees to help Han Zhibang save Ling Weifeng from prison and is so impressed with Han's sacrifice that he called Han a tulku.

Heaven Dragon Sect[edit]

  • Tianlong Shangren (天龍上人; 天龙上人; Tiānlóng Shàngrén) is the leader and founder of the Heaven Dragon Sect (天龍派).
  • Tianmeng Shangren (天蒙上人; Tiānméng Shàngrén) is Tianlong Shangren's junior.
  • Tianxiong Shangren (天雄上人; Tiānxíong Shàngrén) is another of Tianlong Shangren's juniors. He and Qi Zhenjun appear at the tribal chiefs' meeting to help Menglu intimidate the chiefs into submitting to the Qing government. He is defeated by Xin Longzi in a fight.

Tribal peoples of Xinjiang[edit]

  • Maigaiti (麥蓋提; 麦盖提; Màigàití) is a close friend of Yang Yuncong in Saiwai Qixia Zhuan.
  • Manlingna (曼鈴娜; 曼铃娜; Mànlíngnà) is Maigaiti's wife.
  • Yishida (伊士達; 伊士达; Yīshìdá) is a close friend of Yang Yuncong in Saiwai Qixia Zhuan. He attempts to stop Menglu from persuading the tribal people to surrender to the Qing government. Menglu attacks him and he dies from his injuries later. He passes the guardian sword of the Heaven Dragon Sect (previously obtained by Yang Yuncong) to Ling Weifeng, who passes it to Xin Longzi later.
  • Menglu (孟祿; 孟禄; Mènglù) is the chief of the Kada'er (喀達爾) tribe. In Saiwai Qixia Zhuan, he once accused Yang Yuncong of being a spy when Yang started a romance with Nalan Minghui. He allies with the Qing government and attempts to persuade the tribes in Xinjiang to submit to Qing. His plan is disrupted by his daughter and Hukeji.
  • Mengmanlisi (孟曼麗絲; 孟曼丽丝; Mèngmànlìsī) is Menglu's daughter. She is aware that her father is betraying their people's trust by helping the Qing government. She disrupts his plan with the help of Hukeji, who is in love with her.
  • Hukeji (呼克濟; 呼克济; Hūkèjì) is the young chief of the Kazakh tribe. With help from Ling Weifeng and Xin Longzi, he succeeds in stopping Menglu from persuading the people to submit to the Qing government.
  • Mengshan (孟山; Mèngshān) is Menglu's son.

Five Dragons Gang[edit]

  • Ge Zhonglong (葛中龍; 葛中龙; Gě Zhōnglóng) was a deceased martial artist from Yunnan. He taught each of his five apprentices one of his five martial arts specialties. The five apprentices later founded the Five Dragons Gang (五龍幫).
  • Zhang Yihu (張一虎; 张一虎; Zhāng Yīhǔ) specialises in the 'Iron Gravel Palm' (鐵沙掌). He is captured by Fu Qingzhu and commits suicide.
  • Li Erbao (李二豹; Lǐ Èrbào) specialises in using the three-section staff. He is killed by Gui Zhongming.
  • Zhao Sanqi (趙三麒; 赵三麒; Zhào Sānqí) specialises in the 'Earth Kick' (地堂腿). He is killed by Fu Qingzhu.
  • Qian Silin (錢四麟; 钱四麟; Qián Sìlín) specialises in the 'Five Elements Fist' (五行拳). He is killed by Gui Zhongming.
  • Tang Wuxiong (唐五熊; Táng Wǔxíong) specialises in anqi. He is killed by Fu Qingzhu.

Three Feudatories[edit]

Wu Sangui forces[edit]

  • Wu Sangui (吳三桂; 吴三桂; Wú Sānguì) is a general in charge of Yunnan and Sichuan. He was granted the title of "Prince Who Pacifies the West" (平西王) by the Qing government. He plots a rebellion against the Qing Empire later.
  • Zhang Tianmeng (張天蒙; 张天蒙; Zhāng Tiānméng) is Wu Sangui's subordinate. He steals the śarīras when Chu Zhaonan attempts to rob them from him. He is injured by Ling Weifeng and recuperates in a cave after escaping. He encounters Han Zhibang and is killed by Han in the ensuing fight.
  • Fan Zheng (范錚; 范铮; Fàn Zhēng) is one of the three best warriors serving under Wu Sangui (the other two are Chu Zhaonan and Zhang Tianmeng). He is skilled in using the 'Sky Touching Swordplay' (摩雲劍). He is defeated by a bare-handed Ling Weifeng in a duel.
  • Bao Zhu (保柱; Bǎo Zhù) is a general serving under Wu Sangui.
  • Wu Shifan (吳世璠; 吴世璠; Wú Shìfān) is Wu Sangui's grandson and successor.

Shang Kexi forces[edit]

  • Shang Kexi (尚可喜; Shàng Kéxǐ) is a general in charge of Guangdong. He was granted the title of "Prince Who Pacifies the South" (平南王) by the Qing government.
  • Shang Zhixin (尚之信; Shàng Zhīxìn) is Shang Kexi's son.
  • Jin Ya (金崖; Jīn Yá) is Shang Kexi's envoy to Wu Sangui.

Geng Zhongming forces[edit]

  • Geng Zhongming (耿仲明; Gěng Zhòngmíng) is a general in charge of Fujian. He was granted the title of "Prince Who Guards the South" (靖南王) by the Qing government.
  • Geng Jingzhong (耿精忠; Gěng Jīngzhōng) is Geng Zhongming's grandson.


  • Shi Zhenfei (石振飛; 石振飞; Shí Zhènfēi) is the elderly master of an escort agency and a close ally of the Heaven and Earth Society. Despite his age, he has a strong inner energy foundation, and is still capable of performing swordplay swiftly and accurately.
  • Shang Yunting (尚雲亭; 尚云亭; Shàng Yúntíng) is the leader of the Iron Fan Sect (鐵扇幫). He was initially reluctant to accept Hao Feifeng as his apprentice, but fell for Hao's feminine charms and eventually agreed. He is defeated by Meng Wuwei and Shi Zhenfei, and driven away from Jiangnan. He arrives in northwestern China and allies with Chu Zhaonan to counter the rebels, injuring Wu Yuanying in an unprovoked attack. He is defeated and captured by Fu Qingzhu and commits suicide in humiliation.
  • The "Three Devils" (三魔; Sān Mó):
    • Hao Feifeng (郝飛鳳; 郝飞凤; Hǎo Fēifèng) is a jianghu lowlife and bandit. He behaves in a feminine manner and is seen as a transsexual by his contemporaries. He and his companions attempt to seize the women escorted by Meng Jian. He uses an iron hand fan in combat. He follows his master to Xinjiang after their defeat by Meng Wuwei and Shi Zhenfei. He is captured after attempting to attack the Wu family, and is slain by Wu Qiongyao.
    • Sha Wuding (沙無定; 沙无定; Shā Wúdìng) is killed by Gui Zhongming.
    • Liu Daxiong (柳大雄; Lǐu Dàxíong)
  • The "Three Sang Devils" (桑家三妖; Sāng Jiā Sān Yāo) are three villains who used to terrorise the Mount Heaven region, but were defeated and driven away by Lian Nichang. They return to Mount Heaven to seek vengeance several years later. They are defeated and slain by Ling Weifeng eventually. The three are:
    • Sangqian (桑乾; Sāngqián)
    • Sanghu (桑弧; Sānghú)
    • Sangren (桑仁; Sāngrén)
  • Mao Xiang (冒襄; Mào Xiāng) is referred to as "Mao Pijiang" (冒辟疆; Mào Pìjiāng) in the novel. He was a famous scholar and patron of the arts, and a close friend of Fu Qingzhu. He died from anguish and frustration after losing his wife.
  • Dong Xiaowan (董小宛; Dǒng Xiáowǎn) was a courtesan who married Mao Xiang because of their common interest in the arts. She was forcefully separated from her husband and brought to the palace to be the Shunzhi Emperor's concubine. The Shunzhi Emperor treated her well but the nobles despised her because she was a Han Chinese. She was killed on the empress dowager's orders.
  • Wu Meicun (吳梅村; 吴梅村; Wú Méicūn) was a poet and scholar favoured by the Shunzhi Emperor. He was secretly murdered on the Kangxi Emperor's orders after writing a poem hinting that the Shunzhi Emperor is still alive on Mount Wutai.
  • Gu Liangfen (顧梁汾; 顾梁汾; Gù Liángfén) was a close friend of Nalan Rongruo. When Wu Hancha was sent into exile, he wrote the Jinlüqu (金縷曲) to Nalan Rongruo, hinting that he needed Nalan's help to save Wu. Mao Wanlian sang the song to Nalan Rongruo when she needed his help in saving Ling Weifeng from Chu Zhaonan's clutches.
  • Wu Hancha (吳漢槎; 吴汉槎; Wú Hànchā) was a close friend of Nalan Rongruo. He was sent into exile but was saved from his fate by Nalan Rongruo.

See also[edit]