List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions

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2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens 1912 eruption of Novarupta Yellowstone Caldera AD 79 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius 1902 eruption of Santa María 1280 eruption of Quilotoa 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Yellowstone Caldera 1783 eruption of Laki 1477 eruption of Bárðarbunga 1650 eruption of Kolumbo Volcanic activity at Santorini Toba catastrophe theory Kuril Islands Baekdu Mountain Kikai Caldera 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo Long Island (Papua New Guinea) 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora 1883 eruption of Krakatoa 2010 eruptions of Mount Merapi Billy Mitchell (volcano) Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcano Crater Lake
Clickable imagemap of notable volcanic eruptions. The apparent volume of each bubble is linearly proportional to the volume of tephra ejected, colour-coded by time of eruption as in the legend. Pink lines denote convergent boundaries, blue lines denote divergent boundaries and yellow spots denote hotspots.

This article is a list of volcanic eruptions of approximately magnitude 6 or more on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) or equivalent sulfur dioxide emission during the Holocene, and Pleistocene eruptions of the Decade Volcanoes (Avachinsky-Koryaksky, Kamchatka; Colima, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; Mount Etna, Sicily; Galeras, Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Mount Merapi, Central Java; Mount Nyiragongo, East African Rift; Mount Rainier, Washington; Sakurajima, Kagoshima Prefecture; Santamaria/ Santiaguito, Central America Volcanic Arc; Santorini, Cyclades; Taal Volcano, Luzon Volcanic Arc; Teide, Canary Islands; Ulawun, New Britain; Mount Unzen, Nagasaki Prefecture; Mount Vesuvius, Naples); Campania, Italy; South Aegean Volcanic Arc; Laguna de Bay, Luzon Volcanic Arc; Mount Pinatubo, Luzon Volcanic Arc; Toba, Sunda Arc; Mount Meager, Garibaldi Volcanic Belt; Yellowstone hotspot, Wyoming; and Taupo Volcanic Zone, greater than VEI 4.

The eruptions in the Holocene on the link: Holocene Volcanoes in Kamchatka were not added yet, but they are listed on the Peter L. Ward's supplemental table.[1] Some of the eruptions are not listed on the Global Volcanism Program timetable as well, at least not as VEI 6. The timetables of Global Volcanism Program;[2] Bristlecone pine tree-rings (Pinus longaeva, Pinus aristata, Pinus ponderosa, Pinus edulis, Pseudotsuga menziesii);[3] the 4 ka Yamal Peninsula Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) chronology;[4] the 7 ka Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) chronology from Finnish Lapland;[5][6] GISP2 ice core;[7][8] GRIP ice core;[9] Dye 3 ice core;[9] Bipolar comparison;[10] Antarctic ice core (Bunder and Cole-Dai, 2003);[11] Antarctic ice core (Cole-Dai et al., 1997);[12] Crête ice core, in central Greenland,[13] benthic foraminifera in deep sea sediment cores (Lisiecki, Raymo 2005),[14] do not agree with each other sometimes. The 536–547 AD dust-veil event might be an impact event.[3][15]

Holocene eruptions[edit]

The Holocene epoch begins 11,700 years BP,[16] (10 000 14C years ago)

Since 2000 AD[edit]

Name and area Date VEI Products Notes
Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Southern Chile 2011 5 Largest eruption of the 21st century

1000-2000 AD[edit]

1809–10 ice core event
Name and area Date VEI Products Notes
Pinatubo, island of Luzon, Philippines 1991, Jun 15 6 6 to 16 km3 (1.4 to 3.8 cu mi) of tephra [2] an estimated 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide were emitted[17]
Mt. St. Helens, Washington state, USA 1980, May 18 5 1 to 1.1 km3 (0.2 to 0.3 cu mi) of tephra
Novarupta, Alaska Peninsula 1912, Jun 6 6 13 to 15 km3 (3.1 to 3.6 cu mi) of lava[18][19][20]
Santa Maria, Guatemala 1902, Oct 24 6 20 km3 (4.8 cu mi) of tephra[21]
Mount Tarawera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 1886, Jun 10 5 2 km3 (0.48 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Krakatoa, Indonesia 1883, August 26–27 6 21 km3 (5.0 cu mi) of tephra[22]
Mount Tambora, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia 1815, Apr 10 7 150 km3 (36 cu mi) of tephra [2] an estimated 10-120 million tons of sulfur dioxide were emitted, produced the "Year Without a Summer"[23]
1808 ice core event Unknown eruption near equator, magnitude roughly half Tambora Emission of sulfur dioxide around the amount of the 1815 Tambora eruption (ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland).[24]
1808 Major eruptions in Urzelina, Azores (Urzelina eruption, fissure vent), Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kamchatka Peninsula,[25] and Taal Volcano, Philippines.[26]
Note: Thompson Island, northeast of Bouvet Island, South Atlantic Ocean, disappeared in the 19th century, if it ever existed.[27]
Grímsvötn, Northeastern Iceland 1783–1784 6
Laki 1783–1784 6 14 cubic kilometres of lava an estimated 120 million tons of sulfur dioxide were emitted, produced a Volcanic winter, 1783, on the North Hemisphere.[28]
Long Island (Papua New Guinea), northeast of New Guinea 1660 ±20 6 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Kolumbo, Santorini, Greece 1650, Sep 27 6 60 km3 (14.4 cu mi) of tephra[29]
Huaynaputina, Peru 1600, Feb 19 6 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi) of tephra[30]
Billy Mitchell, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea 1580 ±20 6 14 km3 (3.4 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Bárðarbunga, Northeastern Iceland 1477 6 10 km3 (2.4 cu mi) of tephra[2]
1452–53 ice core event, New Hebrides arc, Vanuatu.
Location is uncertain, may be Kuwae
36 to 96 km3 (8.6 to 23.0 cu mi) of tephra 175-700 million tons of sulfuric acid;[31][32][33] only pyroclastic flows are found at Kuwae
Mount Tarawera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 1310 ±12 5 5 km3 (1.2 cu mi) of tephra (Kaharoa eruption)[2]
Quilotoa, Ecuador 1280(?) 6 21 km3 (5.0 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Lombok Island, Indonesia 1257 40 km3 (dense-rock equivalent) of tephra 1257 Samalas eruption; Arctic and Antarctic ice cores provide compelling evidence to link the ice core sulfate spike of 1258/1259 A.D. to this volcano.[34][35][36]

1 to 1000 AD[edit]

Major volcanoes of Mexico
Name & area Date VEI Products Notes
Changbai Mountains (Changbaishan), Eastern China/ North Korea border,
also known as Tianchi eruption of the Baekdu Mountain
969 AD ±20 years[37] 7 76 to 116 km3 (18.2 to 27.8 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Eldgjá eruption, Laki system, Iceland 934-940 AD 4 Estimated 18 km3 (4.3 cu mi) of lava[38] Estimated 219 million tons of sulfur dioxide were emitted[39]
Ceboruco, Northwest of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 930 AD ±200 6 11 km3 (2.6 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Dakataua, Northern tip of the Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain, Papua New Guinea 800 AD ±50 6? 10 km3 (2.4 cu mi)? of tephra[2]
Pago, East of Kimbe, New Britain, Papua New Guinea: Witori Caldera 710 AD ±75 6 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Churchill, eastern Alaska 700 AD ±200 6 20 km3 (4.8 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Rabaul, Rabaul Caldera, New Britain 540 AD ±100 6 11 km3 (2.6 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Ilopango, El Salvador 450 AD ±30 6 71 km3 (17 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Ksudach, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 240 AD ±l00 6 20 to 26 km3 (4.8 to 6.2 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Hatepe eruption of Taupo Volcano, New Zealand 230 AD ±16 7 120 km3 (29 cu mi) of tephra[40]
Mount Vesuvius, Italy 79 AD Oct 24 (?) 5? 2.8 to 3.8 km3 (0.7 to 0.9 cu mi) of tephra[2][41][42] Pompeii eruption
Mount Churchill, eastern Alaska 60 AD ±200 6 25 km3 (6.0 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Ambrym, Vanuatu 50 AD ±100 6 6 to 8 km3 (1.4 to 1.9 cu mi) of tephra[2]

Before the Common Era (BC/BCE)[edit]

Name & area date VEI Products Notes
Apoyeque, Nicaragua 50 BC ±100 6 18 km3 (4.3 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Okmok, Okmok Caldera, Aleutian Islands 100 BC ±50 6 4 to 6 km3 (1.0 to 1.4 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand 250 BC ±75 6 more than 10 km3 (2.4 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Meager, Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, Canada 400 BC ±50 5
Mount Tongariro, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 550 BC ±200 5 1.2 km3 (0.29 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Pinatubo, island of Luzon, Philippines 1050 BC ±500 6 10 to 16 km3 (2.4 to 3.8 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Avachinsky, Kamchatka 1350 BC (?) 5 more than 1.2 km3 (0.29 cu mi) of tephra tephra layer IIAV3[2]
Pago, east of Kimbe, New Britain, Papua New Guinea: Witori Caldera 1370 BC ±100 6 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Taupo, New Zealand 1460 BC ±40 6 17 km3 (4.1 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Avachinsky, Kamchatka 1500 BC (?) 5 more than 3.6 km3 (0.86 cu mi) of tephra tephra layer AV1[2]
Santorini (Thera), Greece, Youngest Caldera: Minoan eruption 1610 BC ±14 years 7 99 km3 (24 cu mi) of tephra [2] Ended the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri and the Minoan age on Crete
Mount Aniakchak, Alaska Peninsula 1645 BC ±10 6 more than 50 km3 (12 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Veniaminof, Alaska Peninsula 1750 BC (?) 6 more than 50 km3 (12 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA 1860 BC (?) 6 15 km3 (3.6 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Hudson, Cerro, Southern Chile 1890 BC (?) 6 more than 10 km3 (2.4 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Black Peak, Alaska Peninsula 1900 BC ±150 6 10 to 50 km3 (2.4 to 12.0 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Long Island (Papua New Guinea), Northeast of New Guinea 2040 BC ± 100 6 more than 11 km3 (2.6 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Vesuvius, Italy 2420 BC ±40 5? 3.9 km3 (0.94 cu mi) of tephra Avellino eruption[2][41][42][43]
Avachinsky, Kamchatka 3200 BC ±150 5 more than 1.1 km3 (0.26 cu mi) of tephra tephra layer IAv20 AV3[2]
Pinatubo, island of Luzon, Philippines 3550 BC (?) 6 10 to 16 km3 (2.4 to 3.8 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Talisay (Taal) caldera (size: 15 x 20 km), island of Luzon, Philippines 3580 BC ±200 6 50 km3 (12 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Haroharo Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 3580 BC ±50 5 2.8 km3 (0.67 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Pago, New Britain 4000 BC ± 200 6? 10 km3 (2.4 cu mi)? of tephra[2]
Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua 4050 BC (?) 6 more than 13 km3 (3.1 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Avachinsky, Kamchatka 4340 BC ±75 5 more than 1.3 km3 (0.31 cu mi) of tephra tephra layer IAv12 AV4[2]
Kikai Caldera (size: 19 km), Ryukyu Islands, Japan: Akahoya eruption 4350 BC (?) 7 80 to 220 km3 (19.2 to 52.8 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Macauley Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand 4360 BC ±200 6 100 km3 (24 cu mi)? of tephra[2][44]
Mount Hudson, Cerro, Southern Chile 4750 BC (?) 6 18 km3 (4.3 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Aniakchak, Alaska Peninsula 5250 BC ±1000 6 10 to 50 km3 (2.4 to 12.0 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mashu, Hokkaido, Japan 5550 BC ±100 6 19 km3 (4.6 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Tao-Rusyr Caldera, Kuril Islands 5550 BC ±75 6 30 to 36 cubic kilometers (7.2 to 8.6 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mayor Island/Tuhua, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 5060 BC ±200 5 1.6 km3 (0.38 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Crater Lake (Mount Mazama), Oregon, USA 5677 BC ±150 7 150 km3 (36 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Khangar, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 5700 BC ± 16 6 14 to 16 km3 (3.4 to 3.8 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Crater Lake (Mount Mazama), Oregon, USA 5900 BC ± 50 6 8 to 28 km3 (1.9 to 6.7 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Avachinsky, Kamchatka 5980 BC ±100 5 more than 8 to 10 km3 (1.9 to 2.4 cu mi) of tephra tephra layer IAv1[2]
Menengai, East African Rift, Kenya 6050 BC (?) 6 70 km3 (17 cu mi)? of tephra[2]
Haroharo Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 6060 BC ±50 5 1.2 km3 (0.29 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Sakurajima, island of Kyūshū, Japan: Aira Caldera 6200 BC ±1000 6 12 km3 (2.9 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Kurile Caldera (size: 8 x 14 km), Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 6440 BC ± 25 years 7 140 to 180 km3 (33.6 to 43.2 cu mi) of tephra Ilinsky eruption[2]
Karymsky, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 6600 BC (?) 6 50 to 350 km3 (12.0 to 84.0 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Vesuvius, Italy 6940 BC ±100 5? 2.75 to 2.85 km3 (0.7 to 0.7 cu mi) of tephra Mercato eruption[2][41][42]
Fisher Caldera, Unimak Island, Aleutian Islands 7420 BC ±200 6 more than 50 km3 (12 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Pinatubo, island of Luzon, Philippines 7460 BC ±150 6?[2]
Lvinaya Past, Kuril Islands 7480 BC ±50 6 7 to 8 km3 (1.7 to 1.9 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Rotoma Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 7560 BC ±18 5 more than 5.6 km3 (1.3 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Taupo Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 8130 BC ±200 5 4.7 km3 (1.1 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Grímsvötn, Northeastern Iceland 8230 BC ±50 6 more than 15 km3 (3.6 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Ulleung, Korea 8750 BC (?) 6 more than 10 km3 (2.4 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Tongariro, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 9450 BC (?) 5 1.7 km3 (0.41 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Taupo Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 9460 BC ±200 5 1.4 km3 (0.34 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Mount Tongariro, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 9650 BC (?) 5 1.6 km3 (0.38 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Nevado de Toluca, State of Mexico, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 10.5 ka 6 14 km3 (3.4 cu mi) of tephra Upper Toluca Pumice[2][45]
GISP2 ice core event[1] 11.258 ka

Pleistocene eruptions[edit]

2.588 ± 0.005 million years BP, the Quaternary period and Pleistocene epoch begin.

Name and area Date VEI Products Notes
GISP2 ice core event[1] 12.657 ka
Eifel hotspot, Laacher See, Vulkan Eifel, Germany 12.900 ka 6 6 km3 (1.4 cu mi) of tephra.[46][47][48][49]
Mount Vesuvius, Italy 16 ka 5 Green Pumice[41][42]
Mount Vesuvius, Italy 18.3 ka 6 Basal Pumice[41][42]
Santorini (Thera), Greece: Cape Riva Caldera about 21 ka[2]
Aira Caldera, south of the island of Kyūshū, Japan about 22 ka 7 more than 400 km3 (96.0 cu mi) of tephra.[50]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Oruanui eruption, Taupo volcano, New Zealand around 24.5 ka 8 Approximately 1,170 km3 (280.7 cu mi) of tephra[51][52][53][54]
Laguna Caldera (size: 10 x 20 km), South-East of Manila, island of Luzon 27-29 ka[2]
Campi Flegrei, Naples, Italy 39.280 ka ± 0.11 [55] 200 cubic kilometres of lava Campanian Tuff [1]
Galeras, Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone, Colombian department of Nariño 40 ka 2 km3 (0.5 cu mi) of tephra
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Rotoiti Ignimbrite, North Island, New Zealand about 50 ka 7 about 240 km3 (57.6 cu mi) of tephra.[56]
Santorini (Thera), Greece: Skaros Caldera about 70 ka[2]
Lake Toba (size: 100 x 30 km), Sumatra, Indonesia 73 ka ±4 2,500 to 3,000 km3 (599.8 to 719.7 cu mi) of tephra probably 6,000 million tons of sulfur dioxide were emitted (Youngest Toba Tuff).[17][57][58][59][60]
Yellowstone hotspot: Yellowstone Caldera between 70 and 150 ka 1,000 km3 (239.9 cu mi) intracaldera rhyolitic lava flows.[2]
Galeras, Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone, Colombian department of Nariño 150 ka 2 km3 (0.5 cu mi) of tephra
Kos-Nisyros Caldera, Greece 161 ka 110 km3 (26 cu mi) Kos Plateau Tuff.[1]
Taal Caldera, island of Luzon, Philippines between 500 and 100 ka 25–30 km caldera formed by four explosive eruptions
Santorini (Thera), Greece: Southern Caldera about 180 ka[2]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Rotorua Caldera (size: 22 km wide), New Zealand 220 ka more than 340 km3 (81.6 cu mi) of tephra.[1]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Maroa Caldera (size: 16 x 25 km), New Zealand 230 ka 140 km3 (33.6 cu mi) of tephra.[1]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Reporoa Caldera (size: 10 x 15 km), New Zealand 230 ka 7 around 100 km3 (24.0 cu mi) of tephra[2]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Whakamaru Caldera (size: 30 x 40 km), North Island, New Zealand around 254 ka 8 1,200 to 2,000 km3 (288 to 480 cu mi) of tephra Whakamaru Ignimbrite/Mount Curl Tephra[61][62]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Matahina Ignimbrite, Haroharo Caldera, North Island, New Zealand 280 ka 7 about 120 km3 (28.8 cu mi) of tephra.[63]
Sabatini volcanic complex, Sabatini, Italy 374 ka more than 200 km3 (48 cu mi) Morphi tephra.[1]
Roccamonfina Caldera (size: 65 x 55 km), Roccamonfina, Italy 385 ka 100 to 125 km3 (24.0 to 30.0 cu mi) of tephra.[1]
Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia 501 ka ±5 Middle Toba Tuff[59]
Galeras, Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone, Colombian department of Nariño 560 ka 15 km3 (3.6 cu mi) of tephra
Yellowstone hotspot: Yellowstone Caldera (size: 45 x 85 km) 640 ka 8 more than 1,000 km3 (240 cu mi) of tephra Lava Creek Tuff[2]
Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia 840 ka ±30 Oldest Toba Tuff[59]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Mangakino Caldera, North Island, New Zealand 0.97 Ma more than 300 km3 (72.0 cu mi) Rocky Hill Ignimbrite[1]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Mangakino Caldera, North Island, New Zealand 1.01 Ma more than 300 km3 (72.0 cu mi) Unit E[1]
Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia 1.2 ±0.16 Ma Haranggoal Dacite Tuff[59]
Taupo Volcanic Zone, Mangakino Caldera, North Island, New Zealand 1.23 Ma more than 300 km3 (72.0 cu mi) Ongatit Ignimbrite[1][64]
Yellowstone hotspot: Henry's Fork Caldera (size: 16 km wide) 1.3 Ma 7 280 km3 (67.2 cu mi) Mesa Falls Tuff.[2]
Yellowstone hotspot: Island Park Caldera (size: 100 x 50 km) 2.1 Ma 8 2,450 km3 (588 cu mi) Huckleberry Ridge Tuff.[1][2]


List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions is located in Iceland
Iceland: volcanoes
Volcanism in Iceland
  • Iceland has four volcanic zones: Reykjanes (Mid-Atlantic Ridge),[65] West and North Volcanic Zones (RVZ, WVZ, NVZ) and the East Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The Mid-Iceland Belt (MIB) connects them across central Iceland. There are two intraplate belts too (Öræfajökull (ÖVB) and Snæfellsnes (SVB)).
    • Iceland's East Volcanic Zone: the central volcanoes of Vonarskard and Hágöngur belong to the same volcanic system; this also applies to Bárðarbunga and Hamarinn, and Grímsvötn and Þórðarhyrna.[66][67][68]
      • Laki is part of a volcanic system, centering on the Grímsvötn volcano (Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems, including Laki, extend from the central volcano).[2]
      • The Eldgjá canyon and the Katla volcano form another volcanic system. Although the Eldgjá canyon and the Laki fissure are very near from each other, lava from the Katla and the Hekla volcanic systems result in transitional alkalic basalts and lava from the central volcanoes result in tholeiitic basalts.
      • The central volcano of Bárðarbunga, the Veidivötn and Trollagigar fissures form one volcanic system, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajökull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. The subglacial Loki-Fögrufjöll volcanic system located SW of Bárðarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano (15 km southwest of Bárðarbunga); the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fögrufjöll ridge to the SW.[2]
  • New Zealand, North Island, Taupo Volcanic Zone:
  • Santorini, South Aegean Volcanic Arc. The southern Aegean is one of the most rapidly deforming regions of the Himalayan-Alpine mountain belt (Alpide belt).[72]
  • The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya lie within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano.[2]
  • There are two peaks in the Colima volcano complex: Nevado de Colima (4,330 m), which is older and inactive, lies 5 km north of the younger and very active 3,860 m Volcán de Colima (also called Volcán de Fuego de Colima).
  • The largely submarine Kuwae Caldera cuts the flank of the Late Pleistocene or Holocene Tavani Ruru volcano, the submarine volcano Karua lies near the northern rim of Kuwae Caldera.[2]
  • Bismarck volcanic arc, the Rabaul Caldera includes the sub-vent of Tavurvur and the sub-vent of Vulcan.
  • Bismarck volcanic arc, Pago volcano, New Britain, Papua New Guinea, is a young post-caldera cone within the Witori Caldera. The Buru Caldera cuts the SW flank of the Witori volcano.[2]
  • Sakurajima, Kyūshū, Japan, is a volcano of the Aira Caldera.
  • The Mount Unzen volcanic complex, East of Nagasaki, Japan, comprises three large stratovolcanoes with complex structures, Kinugasa on the North, Fugen-dake at the East-center, and Kusenbu on the South.


Each state/ country seem to have a slightly different approach, but there is an order:

  • Craton, and then Province as sections or regions of a craton.
  • First: volcanic arc, volcanic belt and volcanic zone.
  • Second: volcanic area, caldera cluster and caldera complex.
  • Third: volcanic field, volcanic system and volcanic center.
    • A volcanic field is a localized area of the Earth's crust that is prone to localized volcanic activity.
    • A volcanic group (aka a volcanic complex) is a collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms.
  • Neutral: volcanic cluster and volcanic locus.

In the Basin and Range Province the volcanic fields are nested. The McDermit volcanic field, is also named Orevada rift volcanic field. The Latir-Questa volcanic locus and the Taos Plateau volcanic field seem to be in a similar area. The Southwest Nevada volcanic field, the Crater Flat-Lunar Crater volcanic zone, the Central Nevada volcanic field, the Indian Peak volcanic field and the Marysvale volcanic field seem to have no transition between each other; the Ocate volcanic field is also known as the Mora volcanic field; and the Red Hill volcanic field is also known as Quemado volcanic field.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Supplementary Table to P.L. Ward, Thin Solid Films (2009) Major volcanic eruptions and provinces" (PDF). Teton Tectonics. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci Large Holocene Eruptions Archived February 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "largeeruptions" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^ a b Salzer, Matthew W.; Malcolm K. Hughes (2007). "Bristlecone pine tree rings and volcanic eruptions over the last 5000 yr" (PDF). Quaternary Research. 67: 57–68. Bibcode:2007QuRes..67...57S. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2006.07.004. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  4. ^ Hantemirov, Rashit M.; Shiyatov, Stepan G. (2002). "A continuous multimillennial ring-width chronology in Yamal, northwestern Siberia". The Holocene. 12 (6): 717–726. doi:10.1191/0959683602hl585rp. 
  5. ^ Eronen, Matti; Pentti Zetterberg; Keith R. Briffa; Markus Lindholm; Jouko Meriläinen; Mauri Timonen (2002). "The supra-long Scots pine tree-ring record for Finnish Lapland: Part 1, chronology construction and initial inferences". The Holocene. 12 (6): 673–680. doi:10.1191/0959683602hl580rp. 
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