List of renminbi exchange rates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of Renminbi exchange rates)
Jump to: navigation, search

The renminbi (RMB, also known as Chinese yuan; ISO code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.[1] Although it is not a freely convertible currency, and has an official exchange rate, the CNY plays an important role in the world economy and international trade. This page lists past and present CNY exchange rates with other major currencies, in both nominal and purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Background[edit]

After taking control of economic policy in 1978, Deng Xiaoping opened up China to foreign trade and investment, permitting a large influx of foreign capital and sparking rapid economic growth. In 2010, China's annual level of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) reached a record US$106 billion.[2] As of 2013, China is the world's second-largest economy, with an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$8.25 trillion and a total international trade value of US$3.64 trillion.[3][4] Since the mid-1990s, the official CNY exchange rate has been adopted by numerous international financial and governmental organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the United Nations (UN). The perceived undervaluing of the CNY by the Chinese government has led to tensions between China and other major economies.[5][6]

nominal exchange rates[edit]

List of nominal exchange rates[edit]

Graph showing the official exchange rate of 1 CNY to the US dollar since 1981.
Official historical average exchange rates of Renminbi
for major foreign currencies by year
[7]
(1 foreign currency unit to 100 Chinese yuan)
Year USD JPY (100) HKD Euro
2015 622.84
2014 614.28 5.8196 79.220 816.51
2013 619.32 6.3323 79.845 822.19
2012 631.25 7.9037 81.376 810.67
2011 645.88 8.1050 82.968 900.11
2010 676.95 7.7279 87.130 897.25
2009 683.10 7.2986 88.123 952.70
2008 694.51 6.7427 89.190 1,022.27
2007 760.40 6.4632 97.459 1,041.75
2006 797.18 6.8570 102.620 1,001.90
2005 819.17 7.4484 105.300 1,019.53
2004 827.68 7.6552 106.230 1,029.00
2003 827.70 7.1466 106.240 936.13
2002 827.70 6.6237 106.070 800.58
2001 827.70 6.8075 106.080
2000 827.84 7.6864 106.180
1999 827.83 7.2932 106.660
1998 827.91 6.3488 106.880
1997 828.98 6.8600 107.090
1996 831.42 7.6352 107.510
1995 835.10 8.9225 107.960
1994 861.87 8.4370 111.530
1993 576.20 5.2020 74.410
1992 551.46 4.3608 71.240
1991 532.33 3.9602 68.450
1990 478.32 3.3233 61.390
1989 376.51 2.7360 48.280
1988 372.21 2.9082 47.700
1987 372.21 2.5799 47.740
1986 345.28 2.0694 44.220
1985 293.66 1.2457 37.570
1984 232.70 0.9780 29.710
1983 197.57 0.8318 27.360
1982 189.25 0.7607 31.150
1981 170.50 0.7735 30.410

List of World Bank nominal exchange rates[edit]

World Bank annual average middle exchange rate for US dollar to Chinese yuan[8]
( 1 US dollar to Chinese yuan )
Year US dollar Year US dollar Year US dollar Year US dollar
2019 2004 8.2768 1989 4.9400 1974 1.9612
2018 2003 8.2770 1988 4.8600 1973 1.9894
2017 2002 8.2770 1987 4.4600 1972 2.2451
2016 2001 8.2771 1986 3.4500 1971 2.4618
2015 2000 8.2784 1985 2.9400 1970 2.4618
2014 1999 8.2783 1984 2.8000 1969 2.4618
2013 1998 8.2791 1983 2.6100 1968 2.4618
2012 6.3123 1997 8.2898 1982 2.6200 1967 2.4618
2011 6.4615 1996 8.3142 1981 2.5200 1966 2.4618
2010 6.7703 1995 8.3507 1980 2.4000 1965 2.4618
2009 6.8300 1994 8.6187 1979 2.3000 1964 2.4618
2008 6.9451 1993 8.0213 1978 2.4600 1963 2.4618
2007 7.6075 1992 6.3700 1977 1.8578 1962 2.4618
2006 7.9734 1991 5.7400 1976 1.9414 1961 2.4618
2005 8.1943 1990 5.2300 1975 1.8598 1960 2.4618

List of IMF nominal exchange rates[edit]

International Monetary Fund annual average middle exchange rate for US dollar to Chinese yuan[9]
( 1 US dollar to Chinese yuan )
Year US dollar Year US dollar Year US dollar Year US dollar
2019 2009 6.8310 1999 8.2783 1989 3.7651
2018 2008 6.9480 1998 8.2790 1988 3.7221
2017 2007 7.6071 1997 8.2898 1987 3.7221
2016 2006 7.9735 1996 8.3142 1986 3.4528
2015 2005 8.1942 1995 8.3514 1985 2.9367
2014 2004 8.2768 1994 8.6187 1984 2.3200
2013 6.15 2003 8.2770 1993 5.7620 1983 1.9757
2012 6.3124 2002 8.2769 1992 5.5146 1982 1.8925
2011 6.4614 2001 8.2771 1991 5.3234 1981 1.7045
2010 6.7704 2000 8.2784 1990 4.7832 1980 1.4984

List of purchasing power parity exchange rates[edit]

Purchasing power parity (PPP) figures vary based on inflation and the revision of census figures in different periods. The following is a list of CNY exchange rates based on PPP, estimated according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook (WEO) database from 2006–present. The exchange rate shown is Intl$. 1 to Chinese yuan (CNY).

List of CNY–$Intl. PPP exchange rates by periods (IMF WEO data)[10]
Data period Apr.2012 Sept.2011 Apr.2011 Oct.2010 Oct.2009 Oct.2008 Oct.2007 Sept.2006
2012 4.2382 4.1314 4.0825 3.9749 3.7210 3.9959
2011 4.1731 4.0492 4.0662 3.9366 3.7113 3.9415
2010 3.9643 3.9327 3.9460 3.8620 3.7139 3.8823
2009 3.7603 3.7593 3.7638 3.7638 3.7241 3.7930
2008 3.8231 3.8224 3.8210 3.8217 3.7932 3.6936 2.1728
2007 3.6264 3.6245 3.6220 3.6226 3.6141 3.5471 2.1272 1.9641
2006 3.4668 3.4661 3.4652 3.4655 3.4603 3.4617 2.0781 1.9427
2005 3.4476 3.4476 3.4476 3.4476 3.4476 3.4476 2.0767 1.9452
2004 3.4032 3.4032 3.4032 3.4032 3.4032 3.4032 2.0579 1.9141
2003 3.2667 3.2667 3.2667 3.2667 3.2667 3.2667 1.9802 1.8374
2002 3.2512 3.2505 3.2521 3.2551 3.2522 3.2513 1.9709 1.8270
2001 3.2842 3.2839 3.2855 3.2886 3.2858 3.2888 1.9936 1.8481
2000 3.2908 3.2902 3.2922 3.2950 3.2926 3.3000 2.0004 1.8544
1999 3.2951 3.2935 3.2955 3.2983 3.2960 3.3038 2.0027 1.8565
1998 3.3867 3.3844 3.3865 3.3893 3.3870 3.3942 2.0575 1.8991
1997 3.4556 3.4522 3.4544 3.4573 3.4549 3.4615 2.0983 1.9372
1996 3.4641 3.4607 3.4630 3.4659 3.4635 3.4667 2.1014 1.9401
1995 3.3169 3.3133 3.3156 3.3184 3.3159 3.3188 2.0118 1.8573
1994 2.9778 2.9747 2.9759 2.9784 2.9770 2.9777 1.8050 1.6664
1993 2.5206 2.5184 2.5194 2.5215 2.5202 2.5214 1.5284 1.4111
1992 2.2372 2.2359 2.2368 2.2387 2.2377 2.2408 1.3439 1.2353
1991 2.1167 2.1147 2.1155 2.1173 2.1164 2.1179 1.2742 1.1712
1990 2.0508 2.0493 2.0503 2.0520 2.0509 2.0514 1.2356 1.1357
1989 2.0132 2.0110 2.0118 2.0135 2.0132 2.0131 1.2143 1.1162
1988 1.9254 1.9233 1.9240 1.9257 1.9248 1.9254 1.1582 1.0646
1987 1.7768 1.7749 1.7756 1.7771 1.7758 1.7764 1.0683 0.9819
1986 1.7387 1.7368 1.7375 1.7390 1.7373 1.7354 1.0445 0.9601
1985 1.6966 1.6947 1.6954 1.6969 1.6961 1.6933 1.0206 0.9381
1984 1.5861 1.5844 1.5850 1.5863 1.5853 1.5833 0.9548 0.8776
1983 1.5683 1.5665 1.5672 1.5685 1.5671 1.5654 0.9444 0.8681
1982 1.6141 1.6124 1.6130 1.6144 1.6128 1.6112 0.9714 0.8929
1981 1.0073 1.0062 1.0066 1.0074 1.7478 1.7474 1.0535 0.9684
1980 1.2251 1.2238 1.2243 1.2253 1.8695 1.8602 1.1216 1.0354

References[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which use the Hong Kong dollar and Macanese pataca, respectively.
  2. ^ 19 Jan 2011 p.ambre (19 January 2011). "China scores number one on FDI penetration, 16% rise in 2010". Stockmarketdigital.com. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  3. ^ 2011 China trade data. GTIG.com. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  4. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database: China". International Monetary Fund. October 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "Obama should call China a currency manipulator: Romney aide". Reuters. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  6. ^ "US says China not a currency manipulator". BBC. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Exchange rates of 1981-1984: see China Statistical Yearbook 2001 / 17-2 Average Exchange Rate of RMB Yuan against Main Convertible Currencies (Middle Rate) ; exchange rates of 1985-2014: see China Statistical Yearbook 2015 / Financial Intermediation / 19-8 Reference Exchange Rate of Renminbi (Period Average) ; exchange rate of 2015: see Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2015 National Economic and Social Development
  8. ^ World Bank annual average nominal exchange rates are from wORLD bANK/WDI DATA
  9. ^ IMF annual average nominal exchange rates are from International Monetary Fund/WEO DATA
  10. ^ CNY PPP is estimated according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook database.

External links[edit]