List of Roman emperors

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Emperor Augustus served as the first Roman emperor. His Principate ended republican rule in Rome and began Pax Romana.

The Roman emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military, dating from the granting of the title of Augustus to Gaius Caesar Octavianus by the Roman Senate in 27 BCE. Augustus maintained a façade of republican rule, rejecting monarchical titles[1] but calling himself princeps senatus (first man of the senate)[1] and princeps civitatis (first citizen of the state). The title of Augustus was conferred on his successors to the imperial position. The style of government instituted by Augustus is called the Principate and continued until reforms by Diocletian. The modern word 'emperor' derives from the title imperator, which was granted by an army to a successful general; during the initial phase of the empire, it still had to be earned by the princeps.

The territory under command of the emperor had developed under the period of the Roman Republic as it invaded and occupied most of Europe and portions of northern Africa and western Asia. Under the republic, regions of the empire were ruled by provincial governors answerable to and authorised by the Senate and People of Rome. During the republic, the chief magistrates of Rome were two consuls elected each year; consuls continued to be elected in the imperial period, but their authority was subservient to that of the emperor, and the election was controlled by the emperor.

In the late 3rd century, after the Crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian formalised and embellished the recent manner of imperial rule, establishing the so-called Dominate period of the Roman Empire. This was characterised by the explicit increase of authority in the person of the Emperor, and the use of the style Dominus Noster ("Our Lord"). The rise of powerful Barbarian tribes along the borders of the empire and the challenge they posed to defense of far-flung borders and unstable imperial succession led Diocletian to divide the administration geographically of the Empire in 286 with a co-Augustus. In 330, Constantine the Great established a second capital in Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. For most of the period until 480, there was more than one recognised senior emperor, with the division usually based in geographic terms. This division was consistently in place after the death of Theodosius I in 395, which historians have dated as the division between the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.[2] However, Henry Moss observed, "Yet it is important to remember that in the eyes of contemporaries the Empire was still one and indivisible. It is false to the ideas of this time to speak of 'the Eastern and Western Empire'; the two halves of Empire were thought of as 'the Eastern, or Western parts' (partes orientis vel occidentis.)"[3] The fall of the Western Roman Empire, and so the end of a separate list of emperors below, is variously dated from the de facto date of 476 when Romulus Augustulus was deposed by Odoacer who became King of Italy, or the de jure date of 480, on the death of Julius Nepos, when Eastern Emperor Zeno removed recognition of a separate Western court. In the period that followed, the Empire is usually treated by historians as the Byzantine Empire governed by the Byzantine Emperors, although this designation is not used universally, and continues to be a subject of specialist debate today.[4]

The line of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI Palaiologos during the fall of Constantinople in 1453, when the remaining territories were captured by the Ottoman Empire.[5]


The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors, and who appear in published regnal lists.[6][7][8] The word 'legitimate' is used by most authors, but usually without clear definition, perhaps not surprisingly, since the emperorship was itself rather vaguely defined legally. In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people." A person could be proclaimed as emperor by their troops or by "the mob" in the street, but in theory needed to be confirmed by the Senate. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation. Furthermore, a sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants. By the medieval (or "Byzantine") period, the very definition of the Senate became vague as well, adding to the complication.[9]

Lists of legitimate emperors are therefore partly influenced by the subjective views of those compiling them, and also partly by historical convention. Many of the 'legitimate' emperors listed here acceded to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position. Historically[by whom?], the following criteria have been used to derive emperor lists:

  • Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point, is a 'legitimate emperor'(1).
  • Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor (1), and who succeeded to rule in his own right, is a legitimate emperor (2).
  • Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs, the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor (3), at least during the Principate.

So for instance, Aurelian, though acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed monarch between 270–275 AD, and thus was a legitimate emperor. Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of (the legitimate emperor) Valerian. Claudius Gothicus, though acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperors, all claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger nor Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included. There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right (typically the child of an emperor); these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the 'senior' emperor.

Emperors after 395[edit]

After 395, the list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor.

The situation in the West is more complex. Throughout the final years of the Western Empire (395–480) the Eastern emperor was considered the senior emperor, and a Western emperor was only legitimate if recognized as such by the Eastern emperor. Furthermore, after 455 the Western emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes no claimant at all. For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after 455 are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire;[10] some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not. For instance, Romulus Augustulus was technically a usurper who ruled only the Italian peninsula and was never legally recognized. However, he was traditionally considered the "last Roman Emperor" by 18th and 19th century western scholars and his overthrow by Odoacer used as the marking point between historical epochs, and as such he is usually included in regnal lists. However, modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in 480. Since the question of what constitutes an emperor can be ambiguous, and dating the "fall of the Western Empire" arbitrary, this list includes details of both figures.

The Principate[edit]

(27 BC – 68 AD) Julio-Claudian dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Augustus of Rome.jpg Augustus
September 23, 63 BC, Rome, Italia Great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar; became de facto emperor as a result of the 'first settlement' between himself and the Roman Senate. January 16, 27 BC – August 19, 14 AD 40 years, 7 months and 3 days August 19, 14 AD (aged 75)
Natural causes
Tiberius NyCarlsberg01.jpg Tiberius
November 16, 42 BC, Rome Natural son of Livia Drusilla, Augustus' third wife, by a previous marriage; stepbrother and third husband of Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus; adopted by Augustus as his son and heir. September 18, 14 AD – March 16, 37 AD 22 years, 5 months and 27 days March 16, 37 AD (aged 77)
Probably natural causes, possibly assassinated by Caligula or praetorian prefect Naevius Sutorius Macro
Caligula - MET - 14.37.jpg Caligula
August 31, 12 AD, Antium, Italia Great-nephew and adoptive grandson of Tiberius; natural son of Germanicus; great-grandson of Augustus. March 18, 37 AD – January 24, 41 AD 3 years, 10 months and 6 days January 24, 41 AD (aged 28)
Assassinated in a conspiracy involving senators and Praetorian Guards.
Claudius crop.jpg Claudius
August 1, 10 BC, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis Uncle of Caligula; brother of Germanicus; nephew of Tiberius; great-nephew and step-grandson of Augustus; proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard. January 25/26, 41 AD – October 13, 54 AD 13 years, 8 months and 18/19 days October 13, 54 AD (aged 63)
Probably poisoned by his wife Agrippina the Younger, in favour of her son Nero, possibly natural causes.
Nero 1.JPG Nero
December 15, 37 AD, Antium, Italia Great-nephew, stepson, son-in-law and adopted son of Claudius; nephew of Caligula; great-great-nephew of Tiberius; grandson of Germanicus; great-great-grandson of Augustus October 13, 54 AD – June 9, 68 AD 13 years, 7 months and 27 days June 9, 68 AD (aged 30)
Committed suicide after being declared a public enemy by the Senate.

(68–96) Flavian dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Stockholm - Antikengalerie 4 - Büste Kaiser Galba.jpg Galba
December 24, 3 BC, Near Terrancilium, Italia Seized power after Nero's suicide, with support of the Spanish legions June 8, 68 AD – January 15, 69 AD 7 months and 7 days January 15, 69 AD (aged 70)
Murdered by Praetorian Guard in coup led by Otho
Oth001.jpg Otho
April 28, 32 AD, Ferentinum, Italia Appointed by Praetorian Guard January 15, 69 AD – April 16, 69 AD 3 months and 1 day (91 days) April 16, 69 AD (aged 36)
Committed suicide after losing Battle of Bedriacum to Vitellius
Pseudo-Vitellius Louvre MR684.jpg Vitellius
September 24, 15 AD, Rome Seized power with support of German Legions (in opposition to Galba/Otho) April 17, 69 AD – December 20, 69 AD 8 months and 3 days December 20, 69 AD (aged 54)
Murdered by Vespasian's troops
Vespasianus01 pushkin edit.png Vespasian
November 17, 9 AD, Falacrine, Italia Seized power with the support of the eastern Legions (in opposition to Marcillinus) December 21, 69 AD – June 24, 79 AD 9 years, 6 months and 3 days June 24, 79 AD (aged 69)
Natural causes
Titus of Rome.jpg Titus
December 30, 39 AD, Rome Son of Vespasian June 24, 79 AD – September 13, 81 AD 2 years, 2 months and 20 days September 13, 81 AD (aged 41)
Natural causes (fever)
Domiziano da collezione albani, fine del I sec. dc. 02.JPG Domitian
October 24, 51 AD, Rome Son of Vespasian September 14, 81 AD – September 18, 96 AD 15 years and 4 days September 18, 96 AD (aged 44)
Assassinated by court officials

(96–192) Nerva–Antonine dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Nerva Tivoli Massimo.jpg Nerva
November 8, 30 AD, Narni, Italia Appointed by the Senate September 18, 96 AD – January 27, 98 AD 1 year, 4 months and 9 days January 27, 98 AD (aged 67)
Natural causes
Traianus Glyptothek Munich 336.jpg Trajan
September 18, 53 AD, Italica, Hispania Baetica Adopted son and heir of Nerva January 28, 98 AD – August 7, 117 AD 19 years, 6 months and 10 days August 7, 117 AD (aged 63)
Natural causes
Bust Hadrian Musei Capitolini MC817.jpg Hadrian
January 24, 76 AD, Italica, Hispania Baetica (or Rome) Adopted son and heir of Trajan August 11, 117 AD – July 10, 138 AD 20 years, 10 months and 30 days July 10, 138 AD (aged 62)
Natural causes
Antoninus Pius Glyptothek Munich 337.jpg Antoninus Pius
September 19, 86 AD, Near Lanuvium, Italia Adopted son and heir of Hadrian July 10, 138 AD – March 7, 161 AD 22 years, 6 months and 28 days March 7, 161 AD (aged 74)
Natural causes
Lucius Verus - MET - L.2007.26.jpg Lucius Verus
December 15, 130 AD, Rome Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius and son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius; Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until his death March 7, 161 AD – ? March 169 AD 8 years March 169 AD (aged 39)
Natural causes (Plague)
Marcus Aurelius Glyptothek Munich.jpg Marcus Aurelius
April 26, 121 AD, Rome Adopted son, son-in-law and heir of Antoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Lucius Verus until 169 AD March 7, 161 AD – March 17, 180 AD 19 years and 10 days March 17, 180 AD (aged 58)
Natural causes
Commodus Musei Capitolini MC1120.jpg Commodus
August 31, 161 AD, Lanuvium, Italia Natural son of Marcus Aurelius; joint emperor from 177 AD 177 AD – December 31, 192 AD 3 years as joint emperor,
12 as sole emperor
December 31, 192 AD (aged 31)

Assassinated in palace, strangled in his bath

(193–235) Severan dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Alba Iulia National Museum of the Union 2011 - Possible Statue of Roman Emperor Pertinax Close Up, Apulum.JPG Pertinax
August 1, 126 AD, Alba, Italia Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard January 1, 193 AD – March 28, 193 AD 2 months and 27 days (86 days) March 28, 193 AD (aged 66)
Murdered by Praetorian Guard
Didius Julianus (cropped) - Residenz Museum - Munich.jpg
Didius Julianus
133 or 137 AD, Milan, Italia Won auction held by the Praetorian Guard for the position of emperor March 28, 193 AD – June 1, 193 AD 2 months and 4 days (65 days) June 1, 193 AD (aged 56 or 60)
Executed on orders of the Senate
Septimius Severus busto-Musei Capitolini.jpg Septimius Severus
April 11, 145 AD, Leptis Magna, Libya Seized power with support of Pannonian legions[a] April 9, 193 AD – February 4, 211 AD 17 years, 9 months and 26 days February 4, 211 AD (aged 65)
Natural causes
Caracalla03 pushkin.jpg Caracalla
April 4, 188 AD, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus from 198 AD; with Severus and Geta from 209 AD until February 211 AD; co-emperor with Geta until December 211 AD 198 AD – April 8, 217 AD 13 years as joint emperor
10 months with Geta
6 years as sole emperor
April 8, 217 AD (aged 29)
Murdered by a soldier as part of a conspiracy involving Macrinus
Publius Septimius Geta Louvre Ma1076.jpg Geta
March 7, 189 AD, Rome Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus and Caracalla from 209 AD until February 211 AD; co-emperor with Caracalla until December 211 AD 209 AD – December 26, 211 AD 2 years as joint emperor
10 months with Caracalla
December 19, 211 AD (aged 22)
Murdered on the orders of Caracalla
Bust of Macrinus - Palazzo Nuovo - Musei Capitolini - Rome 2016.jpg Macrinus

c. 165 AD, Caesarea, Mauretania Praetorian Prefect to Caracalla, probably conspired to have Caracalla murdered and proclaimed himself emperor after Caracalla's death; made his son Diadumenian co-emperor in May 218 AD April 11, 217 AD – June 8, 218 AD 1 year, 1 month and 28 days June 8, 218 AD (aged 53)
Both executed in favour of Elagabalus
Bust of Elagabalus - Palazzo Nuovo - Musei Capitolini - Rome 2016 (2).jpg Elagabalus
c. 203 AD, Emesa, Syria Grandnephew of Septimius Severus, first cousin once removed and alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla; proclaimed emperor by Syrian legions June 8, 218 AD – March 11, 222 AD 3 years, 9 months and 3 days March 11, 222 AD (aged 18)
Murdered by Praetorian Guard
Alexander severus.jpg Severus Alexander
c. 207 AD, Arca Caesarea, Syria Grandnephew of Septimius Severus, cousin and adoptive heir of Elagabalus March 13, 222 AD – March 18, 235 AD 13 years and 5 days March 18, 235 AD (aged 28)
Murdered by the army

(235–285) Gordian dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Maximinus Thrax Musei Capitolini MC473.jpg Maximinus Thrax
c. 173 AD, Thrace or Moesia Proclaimed emperor by German legions after the murder of Severus Alexander March 20, 235 AD – June 238 AD 3 years, 3 months June 238 AD (aged 65)
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
Gordian I Musei Capitolini MC475.jpg Gordian I
c. 159 AD, Phrygia? Proclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revolt against Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and in opposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimised by the accession of Gordian III March 22, 238 AD – April 12, 238 AD 21 days April 238 AD (aged 79)
Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II.
Busto maschile, 230 dc, collez. albani.JPG
Gordian II
c. 192 AD, ? Proclaimed emperor, alongside father Gordian I, in opposition to Maximinus by act of the Senate. March 22, 238 AD – April 12, 238 AD 21 days April 238 AD (aged 46)
Killed during the Battle of Carthage, fighting a pro-Maximinus army
Pupienus Musei Capitolini MC477.jpg Pupienus
c. 178 AD, ? Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Balbinus. April 22, 238 AD – July 29, 238 AD 3 months and 7 days July 29, 238 AD (aged 68 or 73)
Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard
Balbinus Hermitage.jpg Balbinus
? Proclaimed joint emperor with Pupienus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Pupienus and Gordian III April 22, 238 AD – July 29, 238 AD 3 months and 7 days July 29, 238 AD (aged 60)
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
Bust Gordianus III Louvre Ma1063.jpg Gordian III
January 20, 225 AD, Rome Proclaimed emperor by supporters of Gordian I and II, then by the Senate; joint emperor with Pupienus and Balbinus until July 238 AD; grandson and nephew of Gordian I and II, respectively April 22, 238 AD – February 11, 244 AD 5 years, 9 months and 20 days February 11, 244 AD (aged 19)
Unknown; possibly murdered on orders of Philip I
Bust of emperor Philippus Arabus - Hermitage Museum.jpg Philip the Arab

with Philip II


c. 204 AD, Shahba, Syria Praetorian Prefect to Gordian III, took power after his death; made his son Philip II co-emperor in summer 247 AD February 244 AD – September/October 249 AD 5 years September/October 249 AD (aged 45)
Killed in the Battle of Verona by Decius
Emperor Traianus Decius (Mary Harrsch).jpg Decius

with Herennius Etruscus


c. 201 AD, Budalia, Pannonia Inferior Governor under Philip the Arab; proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions then defeating and killing Philip in the Battle of Verona; made his son Herennius Etruscus co-emperor in early 251 AD September/ October 249 AD – June 251 AD 2 years June 251 AD (aged 50)
Both killed in the Battle of Abrittus fighting against the Goths
Grande Ludovisi sarcophagus 03.JPG
Sirmium Son of Decius, accepted as heir by the Senate June 251 AD – late 251 AD 4–5 months September/October 251 AD (aged 21)
Natural causes (plague)
Бюст рим.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus

with Volusianus


206 AD, Italia Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Decius's death (and in opposition to Hostilian); made his son Volusianus co-emperor in late 251 AD. June 251 AD – August 253 AD 2 years August 253 AD (aged 47)
Assassinated by their own troops, in favour of Aemilian
Aemilian1.jpg Aemilian
c. 207 or 213 AD Africa Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after defeating the Goths; accepted as emperor after death of Gallus August 253 AD – October 253 AD 2 months September/October 253 AD (aged 40 or 46)
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Valerian
Aureus Valerian-RIC 0034 (obverse).jpg
c. 195 AD Governor of Noricum and Raetia, proclaimed emperor by Rhine legions after death of Gallus; accepted as emperor after death of Aemilian October 253 AD – 260 AD 7 years After 260 AD (aged at least 65)
Captured in Battle of Edessa against Persians, died in captivity
Gallienus.jpg Gallienus

with Saloninus


218 AD Son of Valerian, made co-emperor in 253 AD; his son Saloninus is very briefly co-emperor in c. July 260 before assassination by Postumus. October 253 AD – September 268 AD 15 years September 268 AD (aged 50)
Murdered at Aquileia by his own commanders.
Santa Giulia 4.jpg Claudius II
May 10, 210 AD, Sirmium Victorious general at Battle of Naissus, seized power after Gallienus's death September 268 AD – January 270 AD 1 year, 4 months January 270 AD (aged 60)
Natural causes (plague)
Aureus Quintillus (obverse).jpg
c.210 AD, Sirmium Brother of Claudius II, seized power after his death January 270 AD – September(?) 270 AD Unknown 270 AD (aged around 60)
Unclear; possibly suicide or murder
AURELIANUS RIC V 15 (Rome) and 182 (Siscia)-765588 (obverse).jpg
September 9, 214 AD/215 AD, Sirmium Proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Claudius II's death, in opposition to Quintillus September(?) 270 AD – September 275 AD 5 years September 275 AD (aged 60-61)
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
EmpereurTacite.jpg Tacitus
c. 200, Interamna Nahars, Italia Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian, after a short interregnum September 25, 275 AD – June 276 AD 9 months June 276 AD (aged 76)
Natural causes (possibly assassinated)
Aureus Florianus Ticinum (obverse).jpg
? Brother of Tacitus, elected by the army in the west to replace him June 276 AD – September? 276 AD 3 months September? 276 AD (aged ?)
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Probus
Probus Musei Capitolini MC493.jpg Probus
232 AD, Sirmium Governor of the eastern provinces, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions in opposition to Florian September? 276 AD – September/ October 282 AD 6 years September/ October 282 AD (aged 50)
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Carus
Antoninianus of Carus.jpg Carus
c. 230 AD, Narbo, Gallia Narbonensis Praetorian Prefect to Probus; seized power either before or after Probus was murdered; made his son Carinus co-emperor in early 283 AD September/ October 282 AD – late July/ early August 283 AD 10–11 months Late July/August 283 AD (aged 61)
Probably natural causes (Possibly killed by lightning)
? Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Carinus Late July/early August 283 AD – 284 AD? 1 year 284 AD (aged ?)
Unclear; possibly assassinated
Montemartini - Carino cropped (cropped).JPG
? Son of Carus, ruled shortly with him and then with his brother Numerian Early 283 AD – 285 AD 2 years 285 AD (aged ?)
Probably died in battle against Diocletian

The Dominate[edit]

(284–364) Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty[edit]

Note: To maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by sharing it between individuals were tried after 285. The "Tetrarchy" proclaimed by Diocletian in 293 split the empire into two halves each to be ruled separately by two emperors, a senior "Augustus", and a junior "Caesar".

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Istanbul - Museo archeol. - Diocleziano (284-305 d.C.) - Foto G. Dall'Orto 28-5-2006.jpg Diocletian


then, after 286


c. December 22, 244 AD, Salona Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, and in opposition to Carinus; adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286 AD November 20, 284 AD – May 1, 305 AD 20 years, 5 months and 11 days 3 December 311 AD (aged 67)
Abdicated; died of natural causes in Aspalatos
Toulouse - Musée Saint-Raymond - Maximien Hercule1.jpg Maximian


c. 250 AD, near Sirmium, Pannonia Adopted as senior co-emperor ('Augustus') in the west by Diocletian in 286 AD April 1, 286 AD – May 1, 305 AD 19 years and 1 month 310 AD (aged 60)
Abdicated with Diocletian; twice tried to regain throne with, and then from Maxentius; captured by Constantine I and committed suicide at his behest
Romuliana Galerius head.jpg Galerius


c. 250 AD, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Diocletian in 293 AD. Also son-in-law of Diocletian. May 1, 305 AD – May 311 AD 6 years 311 AD (aged 61)
Natural causes
Const.chlorus01 pushkin.jpg Constantius Chlorus


March 31, c. 250 AD, Dardania, Moesia Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Maximian in 293 AD May 1, 305 AD – July 25, 306 AD 1 year, 2 months and 24 days 306 AD (aged 56)
Natural causes
SEVERUS II RIC VI 76b-2590375 (obverse).jpg
Valerius Severus


? Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Constantius Chlorus in 305 AD; succeeded as Augustus in 306; opposed by Maxentius and Constantine I Summer 306 AD – March/ April 307 AD 1 year September 16, 307 AD (aged ?)
Captured by Maxentius and forced to commit suicide (or murdered)
Rome-Capitole-StatueConstantin.jpg Constantine the Great


then, after 324


February 27, c. 272 AD, Naissus, Moesia Superior Son of Constantius I Chlorus, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops; accepted as Caesar (west) by Galerius in 306 AD; promoted to Augustus (west) in 307 AD by Maximian after death of Severus II; refused relegation to Caesar in 309 AD July 25, 306 AD – May 22, 337 AD 30 years, 9 months and 27 days May 22, 337 AD (aged 65)
Natural causes
Maxentius02 pushkin.jpg Maxentius


c. 278 AD Son of Maximian, seized power in 306 after death of Constantius I Chlorus, in opposition to Severus and Constantine I; made Caesar (west) by Maximian in 307 AD after the death of Severus October 28, 306 AD – October 28, 312 AD 6 years October 28, 312 AD (aged 34)
Died at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against Constantine I
Aureus of Licinius.png Licinius I


with Valerius Valens


and Martinian


c. 250 AD, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior Son-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, appointed Augustus in the west by Galerius in 308 AD, in opposition to Maxentius; became Augustus in the east in 311 AD after the death of Galerius (shared with Maximinus II); defeated Maximinus in civil war to become sole eastern Augustus in 313 AD; appointed Valerius Valens in 317 AD, and Sextus Martinian in 324 AD as western Augustus, in opposition to Constantine, both being executed within weeks. November 11, 308 AD – September 18, 324 AD 15 years, 10 months and 7 days 325 AD (aged 61/62)
Defeated in civil war against Constantine I in 324 AD and captured; executed on the orders of Constantine the next year
Daza01 pushkin.jpg Maximinus II


November 20, c. 270 AD, Dacia Aureliana Nephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305 AD; succeeded as Augustus (shared with Licinius I) in 311 AD May 1, 311 AD – July/August 313 AD 2 years July/August 313 AD (aged 42)
Defeated in civil war against Licinius; probably committed suicide thereafter
Campidoglio, Roma - Costantino II cesare dettaglio.jpg Constantine II


316 AD, Arelate, Gallia Narbonensis Son of Constantine I; appointed Caesar in 317 AD, succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantius II and Constans I May 22, 337 AD – 340 AD 3 years 340 AD (aged 24)
Died in battle against Constans I
Bust of Constantius II (Mary Harrsch).jpg Constantius II


then, after 356


August 7, 317 AD, Sirmium, Pannonia Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constans I; sole emperor from 350 AD May 22, 337 AD – November 3, 361 AD 24 years, 5 months and 12 days 361 AD (aged 44)
Natural causes
Emperor Constans Louvre Ma1021.jpg Constans


then, after 340


c. 323 AD Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constantius II May 22, 337 AD – 350 AD 13 years 350 AD (aged 27)
Assassinated on the orders of the usurper Magnentius
Solidus Vetranio (obverse).jpg


?, Moesia General of Constans, proclaimed Caesar against Magnentius and temporarily accepted as Augustus of the west by Constantius II. March 1, 350 AD – December 25, 350 AD 9 months and 24 days c. 356 AD (aged ?)
As a private citizen, after abdication.
1902 - Archaeological Museum, Athens - 4th century bust - Photo by Giovanni Dall'Orto, Nov. 11 2009.jpg


then, after 361


331 AD/332 AD, Constantinople, Thracia Cousin of Constantius II; made Caesar of the west in 355 AD; proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 360; sole emperor after the death of Constantius February 360 AD – June 26, 363 AD 3 years June 26, 363 AD (aged 31/32)
Mortally wounded in battle
Jovian1.jpg Jovian


331 AD, Singidunum, Moesia General of Julian's army; proclaimed emperor by the troops on Julian's death June 26, 363 AD – February 17, 364 AD 7 months and 22 days February 17, 364 AD (aged 33)
Natural causes (suffocated on fumes)

(364–392) Valentinian dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Valentiniano I (emperador).jpg Valentinian I




321 AD, Cibalae, Pannonia Elected to replace Jovian by the army February 26, 364 AD – November 17, 375 AD 11 years, 8 months and 22 days November 17, 375 AD (aged 54)
Natural causes
Valens Honorius Musei Capitolini MC494.jpg Valens


328 AD, Cibalae, Pannonia Brother of Valentinian I, appointed co-augustus (for the east) by him March 28, 364 AD – August 9, 378 AD 14 years, 4 months and 12 days August 9, 378 AD (aged 50)
Killed in Battle of Adrianople against the Goths
Gratian Solidus.jpg Gratian


April 18/May 23, 359 AD, Sirmium, Pannonia Son of Valentinian I, appointed 'junior' Augustus by him in 367, became 'senior' augustus (for the west) after Valentinian's death. August 4, 367 AD – August 25, 383 AD 16 years and 21 days August 25, 383 AD (aged 24)
Murdered by rebellious army faction
Statue of emperor Valentinian II detail.JPG Valentinian II


371 AD, Milan, Italia Son of Valentinian I, proclaimed emperor by Pannonian army after Valentinian's death; accepted as co-Augustus for the west by Gratian November 17, 375 AD – May 15, 392 AD 16 years, 5 months and 28 days May 15, 392 AD (aged 21)
Unclear; possibly murdered or committed suicide

Western Emperors[edit]

(392–455) Theodosian dynasty[edit]

Note: Theodosius I was the last person to rule both halves of the Roman Empire, splitting it between his sons Arcadius and Honorius on his death.

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Theodosius I
January 11, 347 AD, Cauca, Hispania Son-in-law of Valentinian I, appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian after the death of Valens; became sole 'senior' Augustus after death of Valentinian II January 1, 379 AD – January 17, 395 AD 16 years and 16 days January 17, 395 AD (aged 48)
Natural causes
Solidus Magnus Maximus-constantinople Dep 38-7 (cropped).jpg Magnus Maximus


with Flavius Victor


c. 335 AD, Hispania Usurper in the West; legitimized along with his son Victor by Theodosius I as emperors of Britannia and Gaul. 383/384 AD – August 28, 388 AD 4/5 years August 28, 388 AD (aged 53)
Executed by Theodosius I in Aquileia after the Battle of the Save; Victor killed by Arbogast
Consular diptych Probus 406 (cropped).jpg Honorius
September 9, 384 AD Son of Theodosius I; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the west by Theodosius in 393 (after the death of Valentinian II); became 'senior' Augustus for the west after his father's death January 23, 393 AD – August 15, 423 AD 30 years, 6 months and 23 days August 15, 423 AD (aged 38)
Natural causes
Constantine III Solidus Lyon RIC 1507 (obverse).jpg
Constantine III


with Constans II


? Usurper who declared himself emperor in the west in 407, recognized as co-emperor by Honorius in 409. Elevated his son Constans II to co-emperor in 409, who was not recognized by Honorius. 407/409 AD - August or September 411 AD 2 years August or September 411 AD (aged ?)
Executed by Constantius III
Solidus Constantius III-RIC 1325 (obverse).jpg
Constantius III
?, Naissus, Moesia Superior Married to Theodosius I's daughter Galla Placidia, elevated to co-Augustus for the west by Honorius February 8, 421 AD – September 2, 421 AD 6 months and 25 days September 2, 421 AD (aged ?)
Natural causes
John Solidus Ravenna RIC 1901 (obverse).jpg


? A senior civil servant under Honorius, proclaimed emperor by Castinus; not recognized by the Eastern Empire August 27, 423 AD – May 425 AD 2 years June or July 425 AD (aged ?)
Defeated in battle by Theodosius II and Valentinian III, captured and executed
Valentinian III Solidus 425 691788 (obverse).jpg
Valentinian III
July 2, 419 AD, Ravenna, Italia Son of Constantius III, appointed Caesar for the west by Theodosius II after the death of Honorius, in opposition to the regime of Joannes; became Augustus for the west after the defeat of Joannes October 23, 424 AD – March 16, 455 AD 30 years, 4 months and 21 days March 16, 455 AD (aged 35)
Assassinated, possibly at the behest of Petronius Maximus

(455–476) Last emperors of the Western Empire[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Solidus Petronius Maximus-RIC 2201 (obverse).jpg
Petronius Maximus
c. 396 AD Son-in-law of Theodosius II, proclaimed himself emperor with the support of the army, after the death of Valentinian III. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. He appointed his son Palladius as caesar. March 17, 455 AD – May 31, 455 AD 2 months and 14 days May 31, 455 AD (aged 58/59)
Murdered, probably stoned to death by the Roman mob
Solidus Avitus Arles (obverse).jpg
c. 385 AD Magister militum under Petronius Maximus, proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic II after Petronius's death July 9, 455 AD – October 17, 456 AD 1 year, 3 months and 8 days after 17 October 456 AD (aged 71)
Deposed by his Magister militum, Ricimer; became bishop of Placentia; murdered at some point afterwards
Impero d'occidente, maggioriano, solido in oro (arles), 457-461.png
November 420 AD Proclaimed emperor by his troops. Recognized by the Eastern Empire at the behest of Ricimer. April 457 AD – August 2, 461 AD 4 years August 7, 461 AD (aged 40)
Deposed and beheaded on the orders of Ricimer.
Libius Severus solidus 612158 (obverse).jpg
Libius Severus
?, Lucania, Italia Appointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. November 461 AD – August 465 AD 4 years August 465 AD (aged 45)
Probably poisoned by Ricimer
Anthemius.jpg Anthemius
c. 420 AD Son-in-law of Marcian, appointed emperor by Leo I, with the consent of Ricimer. April 12, 467 AD – July 11, 472 AD 5 years, 2 months and 29 days July 11, 472 AD (aged 52)
Executed by Ricimer or Gundobad (Ricimer's nephew).
Tremissis Olybrius (obverse).jpg
c. 420 AD Son-in-law of Valentinian III; appointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. July 11, 472 AD – November 2, 472 AD 3 months and 22 days November 2, 472 AD (aged 41)
Natural causes
Solidus Glycerius Ravenna (obverse).jpg
? Appointed emperor by Gundobad (Ricimer's successor). Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. March 473 AD – June 474 AD 1 year after 480 AD (aged ?)
Deposed by Julius Nepos, became Bishop of Salona, time and manner of death unknown
Julius Nepos Tremissis.jpg Julius Nepos
c. 430 AD Nephew-in-law of the eastern emperor Leo I (and nephew of Marcellinus) appointed emperor in opposition to Glycerius June 474 AD – August 28, 475 AD (in Italy); – spring 480 AD (in Gaul and Dalmatia) 1 year/6 years 480 AD (aged 50)
Deposed in Italy by Orestes, ruled in balance of Western Empire until assassination in 480. Maintained as figurehead in Italy by Odoacer to his death in 480.
RomulusAugustus.jpg Romulus Augustulus
c. 460 AD[b] Appointed by his father, Orestes. Not recognized by Eastern Emperor Zeno. October 31, 475 AD – September 4, 476 AD (in Italy) 10 months and 4 days Unknown.
Regarded as emperor more from historical convention than accuracy. His rule never extended beyond portions of the Italian peninsula and was not recognized by Eastern Emperor Zeno. Deposed by Odoacer, who then ruled in the name of Julius Nepos until the latter's death in 480, which formally ended the separate Western Empire; most likely lived out his life in obscurity on a private villa.

Note: The classical Roman Empire is usually said to have ended with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, with its continuation in the East referred to by modern scholars as the Byzantine Empire"

Eastern Emperors[edit]

(379–457) Theodosian dynasty[edit]

Note: Theodosius I was the last person to rule both halves of the Roman Empire, dividing the administration between his sons Arcadius and Honorius on his death.

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Theodosius I
January 11, 347 AD, Cauca, Hispania Son-in-law of Valentinian I, appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian after the death of Valens; became sole 'senior' Augustus after death of Valentinian II January 19, 379 AD – January 17, 395 AD 16 years and 16 days January 17, 395 AD (aged 48)
Natural causes
Arcadius Istanbul Museum.PNG Arcadius
c. 377 AD, Hispania Son of Theodosius I; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east by Theodosius in 383; became 'senior' Augustus for the east after his father's death January 383 AD – May 1, 408 AD 25 years May 1, 408 AD (aged 31)
Natural causes
Theodosius II Louvre Ma1036.jpg Theodosius II
April 10, 401 AD, Constantinople Son of Arcadius; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east by Arcadius in 402; became 'senior' Augustus for the east after his father's death January 402 AD – July 28, 450 AD 48 years July 28, 450 AD (aged 49)
Injuries suffered during a hunting accident
396, Thrace or Illyria Nominated as successor (and husband) by Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II Summer 450 AD – January 457 AD 7 years January 457 AD (aged 65)

(457–518) Leonid dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Leo I Louvre Ma1012.jpg Leo I the Thracian
(Λέων Αʹ ὁ Θρᾷξ)
c. 400, Dacia Chosen by the army 7 February 457 – 18 January 474 17 years 18 January 474 (aged 73)
Leo (474)-coin.jpg Leo II
(Λέων Β)
c. 467, Constantinople Grandson of Leo I 18 January – 17 November 474 9 months 17 November 474 (aged 7)
Cause unknown, possibly poisoned
Zeno.png Zeno
c. 425, Isauria 17 November 474 – 9 April 491 17 years 9 April 491 (aged 66)
Dysentery or epilepsy
Basiliscus.jpg Basiliscus
Seized throne 9 January 475 – August 476 1 year, 7 months 476/477
Anastasius I (emperor).jpg Anastasius I
c. 430, Dyrrhachium Son-in-law of Leo I 11 April 491 – 9 July 518 27 years 9 July 518 (aged 87)
Natural causes

(518–602) Justinian dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
JustinI.jpg Justin I
c. 450 at Bederiana (Justiniana Prima), Dardania Elected by army July 518 – 1 August 527 9 years 1 August 527 (aged 77)
Natural causes
Mosaic of Justinianus I - Basilica San Vitale (Ravenna).jpg Justinian I
(Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός)
c. 482 at Tauresium (Taor), Dardania Nephew of Justin I 1 August 527 – 13/14 November 565 38 years 13/14 November 565 (aged 83)
Natural causes
Justin II.jpg Justin II
(Φλάβιος Ἰουστῖνος ὁ νεώτερος)
c. 520 Nephew of Justinian I 14 November 565 – 5 October 578 13 years 5 October 578 (aged 58)
Natural causes, after insanity
Tiberius II.jpg Tiberius II Constantine
c. 535 Adopted son of Justin II, regent from 574 5 October 578 – 14 August 582 3 years, 10 months 14 August 582 (aged 62)
Natural causes
Emperor Maurice.jpg Maurice
(Φλάβιος Μαυρίκιος Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος)
539 at Arabissus, Cappadocia Son-in-law of Tiberius II 14 August 582 – 22 November 602 20 years 27 November 602 (aged 63)
Phocas (emperor).jpg Phocas
Seized throne 23 November 602 –
4 October 610
8 years 5 October 610

(610–695) Heraclian dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Tremissis of Heraclius.jpg Heraclius
c. 575, Cappadocia Revolt 5 October 610 – 11 February 641 30 years 11 February, 641 (aged 65 or 66)
Natural causes
Solidus Heraclius Constantine (cropped).jpg Constantine III
(Κωνσταντῖνος Γʹ)
Formally: "Heraclius New Constantine"
(Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος)
3 May 612, Constantinople Son of Heraclius 11 February – 24/26 May 641 3 months 24/26 May 641 (aged 28)
Solidus Heraclonas (obverse).jpg Heraklonas
Formally: "Constantine Heraclius"
(Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος)
3 May 626, Constantinople Son of Heraclius 11 February 641 – September 641 7 months 641 (aged 15)
Tremissis of Constans II Pogonatus.jpg Constans II
(Κῶνστας Βʹ)
Formally: "Constantine the Bearded"
(Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος)
7 November 630 Son of Constantine III. Heraklonas deposed as emperor. September 641 – 15 September 668 27 years 15 September 668 (aged 37)
Solidus of Constantine IV.jpg Constantine IV
(Κωνσταντῖνος Δʹ ὁ Πωγωνάτος)
652, Constantinople Son of Constans II 15 September 668 – 14 September 685 17 years 14 September 685 (aged 33)
Solidus-Justinian II-reverse.JPG Justinian II
(Ἰουστινιανὸς Βʹ ὁ Ῥινότμητος)
668 or 669, Constantinople Son of Constantine IV 14 September 685–695 10 years (1st reign) 11 December 711 (aged 42)
Killed by the army

(695–717) Twenty Years' Anarchy[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Solidus of Leontius.jpg Leontios
Isauria 695–698 Revolt 3 years Executed in February 706
Solidus of Tiberius Apsimar.jpg Tiberios III
(Τιβέριος Γʹ Ἀψίμαρος)
Pamphylia 698–705 Revolt 7 years Executed in February 706
Solidus-Justinian II-reverse.JPG Justinian II
(Ἰουστινιανὸς Βʹ ὁ Ῥινότμητος)
668 or 669, Constantinople Returned on the throne with Bulgar support. Named son Tiberius as co-emperor in 706. August 705 – December 711 6 years (2nd reign) Killed by military revolt
Solidus of Philippicus Bardanes.jpg Philippikos Bardanes
(Φιλιππικὸς Βαρδάνης)
Pergamon Revolt December 711 – 3 June 713 1 year, 6 months 713
Solidus of Anastasius II.jpg Anastasios II
(Ἀναστάσιος Βʹ)
Bureaucrat and secretary under Philippikos, he was raised to the purple by the soldiers June 713 – November 715 2 years, 5 months 718, during attempt to regain the throne
Theodosios III. front side of a solidus.jpg Theodosius III
(Θεοδόσιος Γʹ)
Chosen by troops May 715 – 25 March 717 2 years Unknown. Became a monk

(717–802) Isaurian dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Solidus of Leo III the Isaurian.jpg Leo III the Isaurian
(Λέων Γʹ ὁ Ἴσαυρος)
25 March 717 –
18 June 741
Born c. 685 in Germanikeia, Commagene, he became a general. Rose in rebellion and secured the throne in spring 717. Repelled the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople and initiated the Byzantine Iconoclasm.
Solidus of Constantine V Copronymus.jpg Constantine V
(Κωνσταντῖνος Εʹ ὁ Κοπρώνυμος)
18 June 741 –
14 September 775
Born in July 718, the only son of Leo III. Co-emperor since 720, he succeeded upon his father's death. After overcoming the usurpation of Artabasdos, he continued his father's iconoclastic policies and won several victories against the Arabs and the Bulgars. He is given the surname "the Dung-named" by hostile later chroniclers.
Solidus Artabasdos (obverse).jpg Artabasdos
June 741/742 –
2 November 743
General and son-in-law of Leo III, Count of the Opsician Theme. Led a revolt that secured Constantinople, but was defeated and deposed by Constantine V, who blinded and tonsured him.
Leo iv constantine vi coin (cropped).jpg Leo IV the Khazar
(Λέων Δʹ ὁ Χάζαρος)
14 September 775 –
8 September 780
Born on 25 January 750 as the eldest son of Constantine V. Co-emperor since 751, he succeeded upon his father's death.
INC-3040-r Солид. Константин VI и Ирина. 793—979 гг. (реверс).png Constantine VI
(Κωνσταντῖνος ΣΤʹ)
8 September 780 –
August 797
Born in 771, the only child of Leo IV. Co-emperor in 776, sole emperor upon Leo's death in 780, until 790 under the regency of his mother, Irene of Athens. He was overthrown on Irene's orders, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying of his wounds shortly after.
INC-3040-a Солид. Константин VI и Ирина. 793—979 гг. (аверс).png Irene of Athens
(Εἰρήνη ἡ Αθηναία)
August 797 –
31 October 802
Born c. 752 in Athens, she married Leo IV. Regent for her son Constantine VI in 780–790, she overthrew him in 797 and became empress-regnant. Deposed in a palace coup in 802, she was exiled and died on 9 August 803.

(802–813) Nikephorian dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Nicephorus I Logothetes.jpg Nikephoros I
(Νικηφόρος Αʹ ὁ Λογοθέτης)
31 October 802 –
26 July 811
General Logothete (finance minister) under Irene, led initially successful campaigns against the Bulgars but was killed at the Battle of Pliska.
Solidus-Stauracius.jpg Staurakios
26 July 811 –
2 October 811
Only son of Nikephoros I, crowned co-emperor in December 803. Succeeded on his father's death; however, he had been heavily wounded at Pliska and left paralyzed. He was forced to resign, and retired to a monastery where he died soon after.
Michael I Rangabe.jpg Michael I Rangabe
(Μιχαὴλ Αʹ Ῥαγγαβέ)
2 October 811 –
22 June 813
Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, he succeeded Staurakios on his abdication. Resigned after the revolt under Leo the Armenian and retired to a monastery, where he died on 11 January 844. Reigned with eldest son Theophylact as co-emperor.
Name Reign Comments
Solidus of Leo V the Armenian.jpg Leo V the Armenian
(Λέων Εʹ ὁ Ἀρμένιος)
11 July 813 –
25 December 820
General of Armenian origin, born c. 775. He rebelled against Michael I and became emperor. Appointed his son Symbatios co-emperor under the name of Constantine on Christmas 813. Revived Byzantine Iconoclasm. Murdered by a conspiracy led by Michael the Amorian.

(820–867) Amorian dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Solidus of Michael II the Amorian.jpg Michael II
(Μιχαὴλ Βʹ ὁ ἐξ Ἀμορίου)
25 December 820 –
2 October 829
Born in 770 at Amorium, he became an army officer. A friend of Leo V, he was raised to high office but led the conspiracy that murdered him. Survived the rebellion of Thomas the Slav, lost Crete to the Arabs and faced the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily, reinforced iconoclasm.
Solidus of Theophilus.jpg Theophilos
2 October 829 –
20 January 842
Born in 813, as the only son of Michael II. Co-emperor since 821, he succeeded on his father's death.
Michael iii.jpg Michael III
(Μιχαὴλ Γʹ ὁ Μέθυσος)
20 January 842 –
23 September 867
Born on 19 January 840, he succeeded on Theophilos' death. Under the regency of his mother Theodora until 856, and under the effective control of his uncle Bardas in 862–866. Ended iconoclasm. Murdered by Basil the Macedonian. A pleasure-loving ruler, he was nicknamed "the Drunkard" by later, pro-Basil chroniclers .

(867–1056) Macedonian dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Solidus-Basil I.jpg Basil I the Macedonian
(Βασίλειος Αʹ ὁ Μακεδών)
867 –
2 August 886
Born in the Theme of Macedonia ca. 811, he rose in prominence through palace service, becoming a favourite of Michael III. He overthrew Michael and established the Macedonian dynasty. He led successful wars in the East against the Arabs and the Paulicians, and recovered southern Italy for the Empire.
Detail of the Imperial Gate mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Leo VI the Wise (cropped).jpg Leo VI the Wise
(Λέων ΣΤʹ ὁ Σοφός)
886 –
11 May 912
Born on 19 September 866, likely either son of Basil I or Michael III, Leo was known for his erudition. His reign saw a height in Saracen (Muslim) naval raids, culminating in the Sack of Thessalonica, and was marked by unsuccessful wars against the Bulgarians under Simeon I. He was the last emperor to hold the Consulate.
Alexander of Constantinople.jpg Alexander
11 May 912 –
6 June 913
Son of Basil I, Alexander was born in 870 and raised to co-emperor in 879. Sidelined by Leo VI, Alexander dismissed his brother's principal aides on his accession. He died of exhaustion after a polo game.
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus.jpg Constantine VII
(Κωνσταντῖνος Ζʹ ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
6 June 913 –
9 November 959
The son of Leo VI, he was born on 17/18 May 905 and raised to co-emperor on 15 May 908. His early reign was dominated by successive regencies, first by his mother, Zoe Karbonopsina, and Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos, and from 919 by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who wedded his daughter to Constantine and was crowned senior emperor in 920. Constantine was sidelined during the Lekapenos regime, but asserted his control by deposing Romanos's sons in early 945. His reign was marked by struggles with Sayf al-Dawla in the East and an unsuccessful campaign against Crete, and pro-aristocratic policies that saw a partial reversal of Lekapenos' legislation against the dynatoi. He is notable for his promotion of the "Macedonian Renaissance", sponsoring encyclopaedic works and histories. He was a prolific writer himself, best remembered for the manuals on statecraft (De administrando imperio) and ceremonies (De ceremoniis) he compiled for his son, Romanos II.[11]
Romanus I with Christopher, solidus (reverse).jpg Romanos I Lekapenos
(Ῥωμανὸς Αʹ Λεκαπηνός)
17 December 920 –
16 December 944
An admiral of lowly origin, Romanos rose to power as a protector of the young Constantine VII against the general Leo Phokas the Elder. After becoming the emperor's father-in-law, he successively assumed higher offices until he crowned himself senior emperor. His reign was marked by the end of warfare with Bulgaria and the great conquests of John Kourkouas in the East. Romanos promoted his sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as co-emperors over Constantine VII, but was himself overthrown by the latter two and confined to an island as a monk. He died there on 15 June 948.
Romanos II solidus.jpg Romanos II
(Ῥωμανὸς Βʹ ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
9 November 959 –
15 March 963
The only surviving son of Constantine VII, he was born on 15 March 938 and succeeded his father on the latter's death. He ruled until his own death, although the government was led mostly by the eunuch Joseph Bringas. His reign was marked by successful warfare in the East against Sayf al-Dawla and the recovery of Crete by general Nikephoros Phokas.
Nikiphoros Phokas (cropped).jpg Nikephoros II Phokas
(Νικηφόρος Βʹ Φωκᾶς)
16 August 963 –
11 December 969
The most successful general of his generation, Nikephoros II was born ca. 912 to the powerful Phokas clan. After the death of Romanos II, he rose to the throne with the support of the army and people as regent for the young emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII, marrying the empress-dowager Theophano. Throughout his reign he led campaigns in the East, conquering much of Syria. He was murdered by his nephew and one-time associate John Tzimiskes.
Histamenon nomisma-John I-sb1776 (cropped).jpg John I Tzimiskes
(Ἰωάννης Αʹ Κουρκούας ὁ Τσιμισκής)
11 December 969 –
10 January 976
Nephew of Nikephoros Phokas, Tzimiskes was born ca. 925. A successful general, he fell out with his uncle and led a conspiracy of disgruntled generals who murdered him. Tzimiskes succeeded Nikephoros as emperor and regent for the young sons of Romanos II. As ruler, Tzimiskes crushed the Rus' in Bulgaria and ended the Bulgarian tsardom before going on to campaign in the East, where he died.
Basilios II.jpg Basil II
(Βασίλειος Βʹ ὁ Βουλγαροκτόνος)
10 January 976 –
15 December 1025
Eldest son of Romanos II, Basil was born in 958. The first decade of his reign was marked by rivalry with the powerful Basil Lekapenos, an unsuccessful war against Bulgaria, and rebellions by generals in Asia Minor. Basil solidified his position through a marriage alliance with Vladimir I of Kiev, and after suppressing the revolts, he embarked on his conquest of Bulgaria. Bulgaria was finally subdued in 1018 after over 20 years of war, interrupted only by sporadic warfare in Syria against the Fatimids. Basil also expanded Byzantine control over most of Armenia. His reign is widely considered as the apogee of medieval Byzantium.
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776 (reverse).jpg Constantine VIII
(Κωνσταντῖνος Ηʹ ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
15 December 1025 –
15 November 1028
The second son of Romanos II, Constantine was born in 960 and raised to co-emperor in March 962. During the rule of Basil II, he spent his time in idle pleasure. During his short reign he was an indifferent ruler, easily influenced by his courtiers and suspicious of plots to depose him, especially among the military aristocracy, many of whom were blinded and exiled. On his deathbed, he chose Romanos Argyros as husband for his daughter Zoe.[12]
Zoe mosaic Hagia Sophia.jpg Zoe Porphyrogenita
(Ζωὴ ἡ Πορφυρογέννητος)
15 November 1028 –
June 1050
The daughter of Constantine VIII, she succeeded on her father's death, as the only surviving member of the Macedonian dynasty, along with her sister Theodora. Her three husbands, Romanos III (1028–1034), Michael IV (1034–1041) and Constantine IX (1042–1050) ruled alongside her.
Romanus III.jpg Romanos III Argyros
(Ῥωμανὸς Γʹ Ἀργυρός)
15 November 1028 –
11 April 1034
Born in 968, the elderly aristocrat Romanos was chosen by Constantine VIII on his deathbed as Zoe's husband and succeeded on the throne after Constantine's death a few days later.
Michael IV histamenon (reverse).jpg Michael IV the Paphlagonian
(Μιχαὴλ Δʹ ὁ Παφλαγών)
11 April 1034 –
10 December 1041
Born in 1010, he became a lover of Zoe even while Romanos III was alive, and succeeded him upon his death as her husband and emperor. Aided by his older brother, the eunuch John the Orphanotrophos, his reign was moderately successful against internal rebellions, but his attempt to recover Sicily failed. He died after a long illness.
Histamenon nomisma-Micael V-sb1776 (cropped).jpg Michael V Kalaphates
(Μιχαὴλ Εʹ ὁ Καλαφάτης)
10 December 1041 –
20 April 1042
Born in 1015, he was the nephew and adopted son of Michael IV. During his reign he tried to sideline Zoe, but a popular revolt forced him to restore her as empress on 19 April 1042, along with her sister Theodora. He was deposed the next day, blinded, castrated and tonsured, dying on 24 August 1042.
Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838 (reverse).jpg Theodora Porphyrogenita
(Θεοδώρα ἡ Πορφυρογέννητος)
19 April 1042 –
after 31 August 1056
The younger sister of Zoe, born in 984, she was raised as co-ruler on 19 April 1042. After Zoe married her third husband, Constantine IX, in June 1042, Theodora was again sidelined. After Zoe died in 1050 and Constantine in 1055, Theodora assumed full governance of the Empire and reigned until her death. She nominated Michael VI as her successor.
Emperor Constantine IX.jpg Constantine IX Monomachos
(Κωνσταντῖνος Θʹ Μονομάχος)
11 June 1042 –
7/8 or 11 January 1055
Born ca. 1000 of noble origin, he had an undistinguished life but was exiled to Lesbos by Michael IV, returning when he was chosen as Zoe's third husband. Constantine supported the mercantile classes and favoured the company of intellectuals, thereby alienating the military aristocracy. A pleasure-loving ruler, he lived an extravagant life with his favourite mistresses and endowed a number of monasteries, chiefly the Nea Moni of Chios and the Mangana Monastery. His reign was marked by invasions by the Pechenegs in the Balkans and the Seljuk Turks in the East, the revolts of George Maniakes and Leo Tornikios, and the Great Schism between the patriarchates of Rome and Constantinople.[13]
Name Reign Comments
Michael VI tetarteron (reverse).jpg Michael VI Bringas
(Μιχαὴλ ΣΤʹ Βρίγγας, ὁ Στρατιωτικός, ὁ Γέρων)
September 1056 –
31 August 1057
A court bureaucrat and military logothete (hence his first sobriquet). Deposed by military revolt under Isaac Komnenos, he retired to a monastery where he died in 1059.
Name Reign Comments
Histamenon nomisma-Isaac I-sb1776 (reverse).jpg Isaac I Komnenos
(Ἰσαάκιος Αʹ Κομνηνός)
5 June 1057 –
22 November 1059
Born c. 1005. A successful general, he rose in revolt leading the eastern armies and was declared Emperor; he was recognized after the abdication of Michael VI on 31 August 1057. He resigned in 1059 and died c. 1061.

(1059–1081) Doukid dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Costantino X - histamenon - Sear 1847v (reverse).jpg Constantine X Doukas
(Κωνσταντῖνος Ιʹ Δούκας)
24 November 1059 –
22 May 1067
Born in 1006, he became a general and close ally of Isaac Komnenos, and succeeded him as emperor on his abdication. Named his sons Michael, Andronikos and Konstantios as co-emperors
NomismaMikaelVIIDoukas.jpg Michael VII Doukas
(Μιχαὴλ Ζʹ Δούκας)
22 May 1067 –
24 March 1078
Born in 1050 as the eldest son of Constantine X. Co-emperor since 1059, he succeeded on his father's death. Due to his minority he was under the regency of his mother, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, in 1067–1068, and relegated to junior emperor under her second husband Romanos IV Diogenes in 1068–1071. Senior emperor in 1071–1078, he named his son Constantine co-emperor alongside his brothers. He abdicated before the revolt of Nikephoros Botaneiates, retired to a monastery and died c. 1090.
Romanus IV histamenon with co-rulers (cropped).jpg Romanos IV Diogenes
(Ῥωμανὸς Δʹ Διογένης)
1 January 1068 –
24 October 1071
Born in 1032, a successful general he married empress-dowager Eudokia Makrembolitissa and became senior emperor as guardian of her sons by Constantine X. Deposed by the Doukas partisans after the Battle of Manzikert, blinded in June 1072 and exiled. He died soon after.
Nikephorus III.jpg Nikephoros III Botaneiates
(Νικηφόρος Γʹ Βοτανειάτης)
31 March 1078 –
4 April 1081
Born in 1001, he was the strategos of the Anatolic Theme. He rebelled against Michael VII and was welcomed into the capital. He weathered several revolts, but was overthrown by the Komnenos clan. He retired to a monastery where he died on 10 December of the same year (1081).

(1081–1185) Komnenid dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Alexios I Komnenos.jpg Alexios I Komnenos
(Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός)
4 April 1081 –
15 August 1118
Born in 1056, a nephew of Isaac I Komnenos. A distinguished general, he overthrew Nikephoros III. His reign was dominated by wars against the Normans and the Seljuk Turks, as well as the arrival of the First Crusade and the establishment of independent Crusader states. He retained Constantine Doukas as co-emperor until 1087 and named his eldest son John co-emperor in 1092.
Jean II Comnene.jpg John II Komnenos
(Ἰωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός)
15 August 1118 –
8 April 1143
Born on 13 September 1087 as the eldest son of Alexios I. Co-emperor since 1092, he succeeded upon his father's death. His reign was focused on wars with the Turks. A popular and frugal ruler, he was known as "John the Good". Named his eldest son Alexios co-emperor in 1122, but he died before him.
Manuel I Comnenus.jpg Manuel I Komnenos
(Μανουὴλ Αʹ Κομνηνός)
1143 –
24 September 1180
Born on 28 November 1118 as the third and youngest son of John II, he was chosen as emperor over his elder brother Isaac by his father on his deathbed. An energetic ruler, he launched campaigns against the Turks, humbled Hungary, achieved supremacy over the Crusader states, and tried unsuccessfully to recover Italy. His extravagance and constant campaigning, however, depleted the Empire's resources.
Alexios II - komnenos.jpg Alexios II Komnenos
(Ἀλέξιος B' Κομνηνός)
24 September 1180 –
October 1183
Born on 14 September 1169 as the only son of Manuel I. In 1180–1182 under the regency of his mother, Maria of Antioch. She was overthrown by Andronikos I Komnenos, who became co-emperor and finally had Alexios II deposed and killed.
ByzantineBillonTrachy.jpg Andronikos I Komnenos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνός)
1183 –
11 September 1185
Born c. 1118, a nephew of John II by his brother Isaac. A general, he was imprisoned for conspiring against John II, but escaped and spent 15 years in exile in various courts in eastern Europe and the Middle East. He seized the regency from Maria of Antioch in 1182 and subsequently the throne from his nephew Alexios II. An unpopular ruler, he was overthrown and lynched in a popular uprising.

(1185–1204) Angelid dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Isaac II Angelos.jpg Isaac II Angelos
(Ἰσαάκιος Βʹ Ἄγγελος)
1185–1195 Born in September 1156, Isaac came to the throne at the head of a popular revolt against Andronikos I. His reign was marked by revolts and wars in the Balkans, especially against a resurgent Bulgaria. He was deposed, blinded and imprisoned by his elder brother, Alexios III.
Alexios III.jpg Alexios III Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Γʹ Ἄγγελος)
1195 –
17/18 July 1203
Born in 1153, Alexios was the elder brother of Isaac II. His reign was marked by misgovernment and the increasing autonomy of provincial magnates. He was deposed by the Fourth Crusade and fled Constantinople, roaming Greece and Asia Minor, searching for support to regain his throne. He died in Nicaean captivity in 1211.
Isaac II Angelos.jpg Isaac II Angelos
(Ἰσαάκιος Βʹ Ἄγγελος)

(second reign)

18 July 1203 –
27/28 January 1204
Restored to his throne by the Crusaders, actual rule fell to his son Alexios IV. Due to their failure to deal with the Crusaders' demands, he was deposed by Alexios V Doukas in January 1204 and died on 28 January 1204, perhaps of poison.
Alexius4.jpg Alexios IV Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Δʹ Ἄγγελος)
1 August 1203 –
27/28 January 1204
Born in 1182, the son of Isaac II. He enlisted the Fourth Crusade to return his father to the throne, and reigned alongside his restored father. Due to their failure to deal with the Crusaders' demands, he was deposed by Alexios V Doukas in January 1204, and was strangled on 8 February.
Alexius V (cropped).JPG Alexios V Doukas
(Ἀλέξιος Εʹ Δούκας ὁ Μούρτζουφλος)
5 February 1204 –
13 April 1204
Born in 1140, the son-in-law of Alexios III and a prominent aristocrat, he deposed Isaac II and Alexios IV in a palace coup. He tried to repel the Crusaders, but they captured Constantinople forcing him to flee. He joined the exiled Alexios III, but was later blinded by the latter. Captured by the Crusaders, he was executed in December 1205.

(1204–1261) Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea)[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Theodore I Laskaris miniature.jpg Theodore I Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Αʹ Λάσκαρις)
December 1221/1222
Born c. 1174, he rose to prominence as a son-in-law of Alexios III. His brother Constantine Laskaris was elected emperor by the citizens of Constantinople on the day the city fell to the Crusaders; he later fled to Nicaea, where Theodore organized the Greek resistance to the Latins. Proclaimed emperor after Constantine's death in 1205, Theodore was crowned only in 1208. He managed to stop the Latin advance in Asia and to repel Seljuk attacks, establishing the Empire of Nicaea as the strongest of the Greek successor states.
John III Doukas Vatatzes.jpg John III Doukas Vatatzes
(Ἰωάννης Γʹ Δούκας Βατάτζης)
15 December 1221/1222–
3 November 1254
Born c. 1192, he became the son-in-law and successor of Theodore I in 1212. A capable ruler and soldier, he expanded his state in Bithynia, Thrace and Macedonia at the expense of the Latin Empire, Bulgaria and the rival Greek state of Epirus.
Theodore II Laskaris miniature.jpg Theodore II Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Βʹ Λάσκαρις)
3 November 1254–
18 August 1258
Born in 1221/1222 as the only son of John III, he succeeded on his father's death. His reign was marked by his hostility towards the major houses of the aristocracy, and by his victory against Bulgaria and the subsequent expansion into and Albania.
John IV Laskaris miniature.jpg John IV Laskaris
(Ἰωάννης Δʹ Λάσκαρις)
18 August 1258–
25 December 1261
Born on 25 December 1250 as the only son of Theodore II, he succeeded on his father's death. Due to his minority, the regency was exercised at first by George Mouzalon until his assassination, and then by Michael Palaiologos, who within months was crowned senior emperor. After the recovery of Constantinople in August 1261, Palaiologos sidelined John IV completely, had him blinded and imprisoned. John IV died c. 1305.

(1261–1453) Palaiologan dynasty[edit]

Name Reign Comments
Michael VIII Palaiologos (head).jpg Michael VIII Palaiologos
(Μιχαὴλ Ηʹ Παλαιολόγος)
1 January 1259–
11 December 1282
Born in 1223, great-grandson of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage. Senior emperor alongside John IV in 1259, sole emperor since 25 December 1261.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (head).jpg Andronikos II Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος)
11 December 1282–
24 May 1328
Son of Michael VIII, he was born on 25 March 1259. Named co-emperor in September 1261, crowned in 1272, he succeeded as sole emperor on Michael's death. Favouring monks and intellectuals, he neglected the army, and his reign saw the collapse of the Byzantine position in Asia Minor. He named his son Michael IX co-emperor. In a protracted civil war, he was first forced to recognize his grandson Andronikos III as co-emperor and was then deposed outright. He died on 13 February 1332.
Andronikos III Palaiologos.jpg Andronikos III Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Γʹ Παλαιολόγος)
24 May 1328–
15 June 1341
Son of Michael IX, he was born on 25 March 1297 and named co-emperor in 1316. Rival emperor since July 1321, he deposed his grandfather Andronikos II in 1328 and ruled as sole emperor until his death. Supported by John Kantakouzenos, his reign saw defeats against the Ottoman emirate but successes in Europe, where Epirus and Thessaly were recovered.
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Εʹ Παλαιολόγος)
15 June 1341–
12 August 1376
Only son of Andronikos III, he had not been crowned co-emperor or declared heir at his father's death, a fact which led to the outbreak of a destructive civil war between his regents and his father's closest aide, John VI Kantakouzenos, who was crowned co-emperor. The conflict ended in 1347 with Kantakouzenos recognized as senior emperor, but he was deposed by John V in 1354, during another civil war. Matthew Kantakouzenos, raised by John VI to co-emperor, was also deposed in 1357. John V appealed to the West for aid against the Ottomans, but in 1371 he was forced to recognize Ottoman suzerainty. He was deposed in 1376 by his son Andronikos IV.
Johannes VI. Cantacuzenos (cropped).jpg John VI Kantakouzenos
(Ἰωάννης ΣΤʹ Καντακουζηνός)
8 February 1347–
4 December 1354
A maternal relative of the Palaiologoi, he was declared co-emperor on 26 October 1341, and was recognized as senior emperor for ten years after the end of the civil war on 8 February 1347. Deposed by John V in 1354, he became a monk, dying on 15 June 1383.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos.jpg Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Δʹ Παλαιολόγος)
12 August 1376–
1 July 1379
Son of John V and grandson of John VI, he was born on 2 April 1348 and raised to co-emperor c. 1352. He deposed his father on 12 August 1376 and ruled until overthrown in turn in 1379. He was again recognized as co-emperor in 1381 and given Selymbria as an appanage, dying there on 28 June 1385.
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Εʹ Παλαιολόγος)
1 July 1379–
14 April 1390
Restored to senior emperor, he was reconciled with Andronikos IV in 1381, re-appointing him co-emperor. He was overthrown again in 1390 by his grandson, John VII.
John VII Palaiologos.gif John VII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Ζʹ Παλαιολόγος)
14 April 1390–
17 September 1390
Son of Andronikos IV, he was born in 1370, and named co-emperor under his father in 1377–79. He usurped the throne from his grandfather John V for five months in 1390, but with Ottoman mediation he was reconciled with John V and his uncle, Manuel II. He held Constantinople against the Ottomans in 1399–1402, and was then given Thessalonica as an appanage, which he governed until his death on 22 September 1408. His son Andronikos V Palaiologos ruled alongside him as co-emperor.
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Εʹ Παλαιολόγος)
17 September 1390–
16 February 1391
Restored to senior emperor, he ruled until his death in February 1391.
Manuel II Paleologus (cropped).jpg Manuel II Palaiologos
(Μανουὴλ Βʹ Παλαιολόγος)
16 February 1391–
21 July 1425
Second son of John V, he was born on 27 June 1350. Raised to co-emperor in 1373, he became senior emperor on John V's death and ruled until his death. He journeyed to the West European courts seeking aid against the Turks, and was able to use the Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Ankara to regain some territories and throw off his vassalage to them.
Palaio.jpg John VIII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος)
21 July 1425–
31 October 1448
Eldest surviving son of Manuel II, he was born on 18 December 1392. Raised to co-emperor c. 1416, he succeeded his father on his death. Seeking aid against the resurgent Ottomans, he ratified the Union of the Churches in 1439. He was the last Eastern emperor to visit Rome in 1423.
Constantine XI Palaiologos miniature.jpg Constantine XI Palaiologos
(Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑʹ Παλαιολόγος)
6 January 1449–
29 May 1453
The fourth son of Manuel II, he was born on 8 February 1405. As Despot of the Morea since 1428, he distinguished himself in campaigns that annexed the Principality of Achaea and brought the Duchy of Athens under temporary Byzantine suzerainty, but was unable to repel Turkish attacks under Turahan Bey. As the eldest surviving brother, he succeeded John VIII after the latter's death. Facing the designs of the new Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II, on Constantinople, Constantine acknowledged the Union of the Churches and made repeated appeals for help to the West, but in vain. Refusing to surrender the city, he was killed during the final Ottoman attack on 29 May 1453.[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The other claimants for the throne in the Year of the Five Emperors were Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, supported by the Syrian and British legions respectively. Although not completely defeated until 197 AD, they were not formally accepted by the senate and were therefore not technically reigning emperors.
  2. ^ Romulus Agustulus biographic details.



  1. ^ a b Rubicon. Holland, T. Abacus, 978-0349115634
  2. ^ Chester G. Starr, A History of the Ancient World, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 1974. pp. 670–678.
  3. ^ Mos, Henry St.L. B., The Birth of the Middle Ages 395-814, Clarendon Press, London (1935); reprint by Folio Society, London (1998); p. 17
  4. ^ Herrin, Judith (2011-03-12). "The Glories of Byzantium". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  5. ^ Asimov, [title?], p. 198.
  6. ^ Lee, pp. 163–164.
  7. ^ Goldsworthy, pp. 425–440
  8. ^ Breeze & Dobson, pp. 251–255
  9. ^ Moss, Henry, The Birth of the Middle Ages Clarendon Press (London) 1935; Folio Society reprint (London) 1998; pp. 24-28, 281-284.
  10. ^ "Roman Emperors After Theodosius I". Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  11. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander; Cutler, Anthony (1991). "Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos". In Kazhdan, Alexander P. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 502–503. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
  12. ^ Brand, Charles M.; Cutler, Anthony (1991). "Constantine VIII". In Kazhdan, Alexander P. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 503–504. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
  13. ^ Brand, Charles M.; Cutler, Anthony (1991). "Constantine IX Monomachos". In Kazhdan, Alexander P. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 504. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
  14. ^ Talbot, Alice-Mary (1991). "Constantine XI Palaiologos". In Kazhdan, Alexander P. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 505. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.


Ancient sources
  • Tacitus, The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin Classics, Michael Grant Publications Ltd, 1971, Reprinted 1985, ISBN 0-14-044060-7
Modern sources
  • David J. Breeze, Brian Dobson Hadrian's Wall 4th Edition, Penguin, 2000, ISBN 0-14-027182-1
  • Clive Carpenter, The Guinness Book of Kings Rulers and Statesmen, Guinness Superlatives Ltd, 1978, ISBN 0-900424-46-X
  • Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West, Phoenix, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7538-2692-8
  • Min Lee (editor), Larousse Pockect Guide Kings and Queens, Larousse, 1995 ISBN 0-7523-0032-6
  • Martha Ross, Rulers and Governments of the World, Vol.1 Earliest Times to 1491, Bowker, 1978, ISBN 0-85935-021-5
  • Chris Scarre, Brandon Shaw, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, Thames & Hudson, 1995, Reprinted 2001, ISBN 0-500-05077-5
  • R. F. Tapsell, Monarchs Rulers Dynasties and Kingdoms of The World, Thames & Hudson, 1981, Reprinted 1987, ISBN 0-500-27337-5

External links[edit]