List of Roman laws
This is a partial list of Roman laws. A Roman law (Latin: lex) is usually named for the sponsoring legislator and designated by the adjectival form of his gens name (nomen gentilicum), in the feminine form because the noun lex (plural leges) is of feminine grammatical gender. When a law is the initiative of the two consuls, it is given the name of both, with the nomen of the senior consul first. Sometimes a law is further specified by a short phrase describing the content of the law, to distinguish that law from others sponsored by members of the same gens.
|Name||Date||Passed by||Magistracy held||Description|
|Lex Regia||759–509 BC||Kings of Rome||Laws enacted by the Roman kings before the Republic.|
|Lex Valeria||509, 449, & 300 BC||P. Valerius Publicola||Consul||Granted every Roman citizen legal right to appeal against a capital sentence, defined and confirmed the right of appeal (provocatio).|
|Lex Sacrata||494 BC||law after first secession of the plebeians that either affirmed the sacrosanctity of the tribunes or established the plebeians as a sworn confederacy against patricians.|
|Lex Publilia||471 BC||Volero Publilius||Tribune of the plebs||Transferred the election of the tribunes of the plebs to the comitia tributa.|
|Lex Icilia de Aventino publicando||456 BC||L. Icilius||Tribune of the plebs||Gave land to plebeians.|
|Lex Aternia Tarpeia||454 BC||A. Aternius Varus & S. Tarpeius Montanus Capitolinus||Consuls||Allowed magistrates to fine citizens, but set maximum fines.|
|Lex Menenia Sestia||452 BC||T. Menenius Lanatus & P. Sestius Capitolinus Vaticanus||Consuls||Scale for fines, 1 ox = 12 sheep = 100 lb. of bronze.|
|Lex Valeria Horatia||449 BC||L. Valerius Potitus & M. Horatius Barbatus||Consuls||Three laws: (1) Lex Valeria Horatia de plebiscitis: established that the resolutions passed by the Plebeian Council were binding on all. (2) Lex Valeria Horatia de provocatione: granted the right to appeal to the People of any decision of magistrates. (3) Lex Valeria Horatia de tribunicia potestate: restored the potestas tribunicia, the powers of the plebeian tribunes.|
|Lex Trebonia||448 BC||L. Trebonius||Tribune of the plebs||Forbade the cooptation of additional tribunes of the plebs to fill vacant positions.|
|Lex Canuleia||445 BC||C. Canuleius||Tribune of the plebs||Allowed patricians and plebeians to intermarry.|
|Lex Aemilia de censoribus||434 BC||Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus||Dictator||Reduced the terms of censors to a year and a half.|
|Lex Papiria Julia||430 BC||L. Papirius Crassus & L. Julius Iulus||Consuls||Made payment of fines in bronze mandatory.|
|lex Licinia Sextia||367 BC||C. Licinius Stolo & L. Sextius Lateranus||Tribunes of the plebs||Four laws: (1) Lex de consule altero ex plebe et de praetore ex patribus creando: resumed the consulship and opened it to plebeians, and created the praetorship, reserved to patricians. (2) Lex de aere alieno: provided that the interest already paid on debts should be deducted from the principal and that the payment of the rest of the principal should be in three equal annual instalments. (3) Lex de modo agrorum: restricted individual ownership of public land in excess of 500 iugeras (300 acres) and forbade the grazing of more than 100 cattle on public land. (4) Lex de Decemviri Sacris Faciundis: created the Decemviri sacris faciundis, a college of ten priests, of whom five had to be plebeians.|
|Lex Genucia||342 BC||L. Genucius||Tribune of the plebs||Three laws: (1) Abolished interest on loans. (2) Required the election of at least one plebeian consul each year. (3) Prohibited a magistrate from holding two magistracies in the same year, or the same magistracy for the next ten years (until 332).|
|Lex Publilia||339 BC||Q. Publilius Philo||Consul and dictator||Three laws: (1) Reserved one censorship to plebeians. (2) Made plebiscites binding on all citizens (including patricians). (3) Stated that the Senate had to give its prior approval (the Auctoritas patrum) to plebiscites before becoming binding on all citizens (the lex Valeria Horatia of 449 had placed this approval after plebiscites).|
|Lex Poetelia Papiria||326 BC||C. Poetelius Libo & L. Papirius Cursor||Consuls||Abolished the contractual form of Nexum, or debt bondage.|
|Lex Ovinia||312 BC (before)||Ovinius||Tribune of the plebs||Transferred the right to appoint Senators from the consuls to the censors.|
|Lex Atilia Marcia||311 BC||L. Atilius & C. Marcius Rutilus Censorinus||Tribunes of the plebs||Empowered the people to elect sixteen military tribunes for each of four legions.|
|Lex Ogulnia||300 BC||Cn. & Q. Ogulnius||Tribune of the plebs||Created four plebeian pontiffs and five plebeian augurs.|
|Lex Hortensia||287 BC||Q. Hortensius||Dictator||Plebiscites approved by the Assembly of the People gain the status of law.|
|Lex Aquilia de damno||286 BC (possibly)||Aquilius||Tribune of the plebs||Provided compensation to the owners of property injured by someone's fault.|
|Lex Maenia||279 BC||Maenius||Tribune of the plebs||Carried the principle of lex Pubilia to elections (approval of Senate moved before the elections, not after)..|
|Lex Hieronica||240 BC||Hiero II||King of Sicily||Taxation of Sicily (the legislation of Hiero II was included in Roman law).|
|Lex Claudia de nave senatoris||218 BC||Q. Claudius||Tribune of the plebs||Prohibited senators from participating in overseas trade, obsolete by the time of Cicero.|
|Lex Minucia||216 BC||M. Minucius||Tribune of the plebs||Appointment of three finance commissioners.|
|Lex Oppia||215 BC||C. Oppius||Tribune of the plebs||Limited female adornment.|
|Lex Cincia de donis et muneribus||204 BC||M. Cincius Alimentus||Tribune of the plebs||Tort reform concerning the payment of lawyers.|
|Lex de Porcia capita civium||199 BC||P. Porcius Laeca||Tribune of the plebs||Gave right of appeal (provocatio) in capital cases.|
|Lex Porcia de tergo civium||195 BC||Cato the Elder||Consul||Extended the right to provocatio against flogging.|
|Lex Acilia de intercalando||191 BC||M. Acilius Glabrio||Consul||Adjustment of the calendar.|
|Lex Porcia||185 BC||L. Porcius Licinus||Consul||Provided for a very severe sanction (possibly death) against magistrates who refused to grant provocatio.|
|Lex Baebia de Praetoribus||181 BC||M. Baebius Tamphilus||Consul||Set number of praetors to alternate, but was never observed.|
|Lex Cornelia et Baebia de Ambitu||181 BC||P. Cornelius Cethegus & M. Baebius Tamphilus||Consuls||Against electoral bribery.|
|Lex Villia Annalis||180 BC||L. Villius Annalis||Tribune of the plebs||Established minimum ages for the cursus honorum offices; determined an interval of two years between offices.|
|Lex Claudia de sociis||177 BC||C. Claudius Pulcher||Consul||Limited immigration of Latin allies to Rome.|
|Lex Voconia||169 BC||Q. Voconius Saxa||Tribune of the plebs||Disallowed women from being the main heir to a dead man's estate, including cases where there were no male relatives alive.|
|Lex Papiria de dedicationibus||166—155 BC||Papirius||Tribune of the plebs||Forbade consecration of real property without approval of the popular assembly.|
|Lex Vallia de manus iniectione||160 BC (circa?)||(Gaius) Vallius||Tribune of the plebs||Modification or extension of
|Lex Aelia et Fufia||150 BC (circa?)||Aelius & Fufius||Tribunes of the plebs?||Two laws probably regulating auspices.|
|Lex Atinia de tribunis plebis in senatum legendis||149 BC||Atinius||Tribune of the plebs||Allowed Plebeian Tribunes to be automatically enrolled in the senate upon election.|
|Lex Atinia de usucapione||149 BC||Atinius||Tribune of the plebs||Dealing with ownership.|
|Lex Calpurnia de repetundis||149 BC||L. Calpurnius Piso||Tribune of the plebs||Established a permanent extortion court.|
|Lex Scantinia||149 BC (circa)||M. Scantius or Scantinius||Tribune of the plebs||Regulating some aspects of homosexual behaviour among citizens, primarily protecting freeborn male minors.|
|Lex provincia||146 BC||Set of laws designed to regulate and organize the administration of Roman provinces.|
|Lex Gabinia tabellaria||139 BC||A. Gabinius||Tribune of the plebs||Introduced secret votes in election for magistrate offices.|
|Lex Cassia tabellaria||137 BC||L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla||Tribune of the plebs||Introduced secret votes in court jury decisions.|
|Lex Sempronia agraria||133 BC||Ti. Sempronius Gracchus||Tribune of the plebs||Set of laws that redistributed land among the poor; repealed after his assassination.|
|Lex Aufeia||123 BC||Aufeius||Tribune of the plebs||Settlement of Asia.|
|Lex Acilia repetundarum||122 BC||M. Acilius Glabrio (& C. Sempronius Gracchus)||Tribunes of the plebs||Repetundae procedures for jurors in courts overseeing senatorial class to prevent corruption abroad.|
|Lex Rubria||122 BC||C. Rubrius||Tribune of the plebs||Authorised a colony on the ruins of Carthage.|
|Lex Aebutia de formulis||120–63 BC (circa)||Aebutius||Tribune of the plebs (?)||Authorized praetor's discretion to be introduced into the court of the praetor urbanus, praetor able to remodel private law of Rome.|
|Lex Aebutia de magistratibus extraordinariis||120–63 BC (circa)||Aebutius||Tribune of the plebs?||Proposer of extraordinary magistracy cannot hold it.|
|Lex Servilia Caepio||106 BC||Q. Servilius Caepio||Consul||Some control of the court de rebus repentundis was handed back to senators from the equites.|
|Lex Cassia de senatu||104 BC||L. Cassius Longinus||Tribune of the plebs||Required any senator to be expelled from the senate if they had been convicted of a crime, or if their power (imperium) had been revoked while serving as a magistrate.|
|Lex Domitia de sacerdotis||104 BC||Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus||Tribune of the plebs||Established the election of the pontifex maximus and the members of the college of priests (chosen by cooptation before).|
|Lex Appuleia agraria||103–100 BC||Saturninus||Tribune of the plebs||Made provision for public lands taken in Cisalpine Gaul from the Cimbri to be allocated to poor citizens.|
|Lex Appuleia de maiestate||103–100 BC||Saturninus||Tribune of the plebs||Established an equestrian court to try maiestas.|
|Lex Servilia Glaucia de Repetundis||101 BC||C. Servilius Glaucia||Tribune of the plebs||Made juries in property court composed by equites only.|
|Lex Caecilia Didia||98 BC||Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos & T. Didius||Consuls||Required laws to proposed at least three market days before any vote. Also forbade omnibus bills, which are bills with a large amount of unrelated material.|
|Lex Licinia Mucia||95 BC||L. Licinius Crassus & Q. Mucius Scaevola||Consuls||Removed Latin and Italian allies from Rome's citizen-rolls.|
|Lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis et Sociis Danda||90 BC||Lucius Julius Caesar||Consul||Offered citizenship to all Italians who had not raised arms against Rome in the Social War.|
|Lex Plautia Judiciaria||89 BC||M. Plautius Silvanus||Tribune of the plebs||Chose jurors from other classes, not just the Equites.|
|Lex Plautia Papiria||89 BC||C. Papirius Carbo & M. Plautius Silvanus||Tribunes of the plebs||Granted citizenship to Roman allies.|
|Lex Pompeia de Transpadanis||89 BC||Cn. Pompeius Strabo||Consul||Granted Latin Right to the populations of Cisalpine Gaul.|
|Lex Valeria||82 BC||Lucius Valerius Flaccus||Interrex||Appointed Sulla dictator.|
|lex Cornelia de hostibus rei publicae||81 BC||Sulla||Dictator||Retroactively legalised Sulla's proscription.|
|Lex Cornelia annalis||81 BC||Sulla||Dictator||Reordered the cursus honorum, superseded the lex Villia Annalis of 180 BC.|
|Lex Cornelia de maiestate||81 BC||Sulla||Dictator||Treason law passed by Sulla to regulate the activities of pro-magistrates in their provinces, especially unapproved war and unauthorised travel.|
|Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis||81 BC||Sulla||Dictator||Dealing with injuries and deaths obtained by magic.|
|Lex Aurelia de tribunicia potestate||75 BC||C. Aurelius Cotta||Consul||Former tribunes of the plebs can hold further magistracies (this right had been removed by Sulla).|
|Lex Cassia Terentia frumentaria||73 BC||C. Cassius Longinus & M. Terentius Varro Lucullus||Consuls||Required the distribution of wheat among the poor citizens.|
|Lex Terentia Cassia||73 BC||M. Terentius Varro Lucullus & C. Cassius Longinus||Consuls||Safeguarded Rome's grain supply and distributed grain at reduced rates.|
|Lex Gellia Cornelia||72 BC||L. Gellius Publicola & Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus||Consuls||Authorised Pompey to confer Roman citizenship to his clientela and Spaniards.|
|Lex Aurelia iudiciaria||70 BC||L. Aurelius Cotta||Praetor||Juries should be chosen from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii.|
|Lex Plautia de reditu lepidanorum||70 BC||Plautius||Tribune of the plebs||Granted a pardon to Lepidus' former associates.|
|Lex Antia sumptuaria||68 BC||C. Antius Restio||Tribune of the plebs||Forbade magistrates from attending banquets.|
|Lex Antonia de Termessibus||68 BC||C. Antonius Hybrida||Tribune of the plebs||Alliance with Termessus.|
|Lex Acilia Calpurnia||67 BC||C. Calpurnius Piso & M. Acilius Glabrio||Consuls||Permanent exclusion from office in cases of electoral corruption.|
|Lex Gabinia de piratis persequendis||67 BC||A. Gabinius||Tribune of the plebs||Granted special powers to Pompey in the Mediterranean to fight against pirates|
|Lex Roscia theatralis||67 BC||L. Roscius Otho||Tribune of the plebs||Allocated a place in Roman theaters to the equestrian order.|
|Lex Manilia||66 BC||C. Manilius||Tribune of the plebs||Pompey's actions against Mithridates.|
|Lex Papia de peregrinis||65 BC||C. Papius||Tribune of the plebs||Challenged false claims of citizenship and deported foreigners from Rome.|
|Lex Ampia||63 BC||T. Ampius Balbus||Tribune of the plebs||Allowed Pompey to wear the crown of bay at the Ludi Circenses.|
|Lex Tullia||63 BC||Cicero||Consul||Regulated election fraud (see ambitus).|
|Lex Junia Licinia||62 BC||D. Junius Silanus & L. Licinius Murena||Consuls||A reinforcement law passed to back up the earlier lex Caecilia Didia law of 98 BC.|
|Lex Aufidia de ambitu||61 BC||M. Aufidius Lurco||Tribune of the plebs||If a candidate promised money to a tribe and did not pay it, he should be unpunished; but if he did pay the money, he should further pay to each tribe (annually?) 3000 sesterces as long as he lived.|
|Lex Pupia||61 BC||M. Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus||Consul||Senate could not meet on Comitiales Dies.|
|Lex Caecilia de vectigalibus||60 BC||Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior||Praetor||Released lands and harbors in Italy from the payment of taxes.|
|Lex Iulia de repetundis||59 BC||Julius Caesar||Consul||Regarding extortion in the provinces.|
|Lex Vatinia||59 BC||P. Vatinius||Tribune of the plebs||Gave Julius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and of Illyricum for five years.|
|Leges Clodiae||58 BC||P. Clodius Pulcher||Tribune of the plebs||Seven laws: (1) Lex Clodia de Auspiciis: repealed the leges Aeliae et Fufiae. (2) Lex Clodia de Censoribus: prescribed certain rules for the Roman Censors in exercising their functions as inspectors of public morals. (3) Lex Clodia de Civibus Romanis Interemptis: threatened punishment for anyone who offered fire and water to those who had executed Roman citizens without a trial. (4) Lex Clodia Frumentaria: required the distribution of grain to Rome's poor citizens for free. (5) Lex Clodia de Sodalitatibus: declared that certain clubs of a "semi-political nature" (i.e. armed gangs) were lawful. (6) Lex Clodia de Libertinorum Suffragiis: attempted to extend freedmen's (i.e. ex-slaves') voting rights. (7) Lex Clodia de Rege Ptolemaeo et de exsulibus Byzantinis: pertained to several of Rome's eastern provinces and vassal states.|
|Lex Licinia Pompeia||55 BC||Pompey and Crassus||Consuls||Caesar's proconsulship in both the Gauls was extended for another 5 years.|
|Lex Trebonia||55 BC||C. Trebonius||Tribune of the plebs||Granted a five year proconsulship: in Syria to Crassus, in Spain to Pompey.|
|Lex Caecilia de censoria||52 BC||Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio||Consul||Repealed the lex Clodia de Censoribus passed by the tribune of the plebs Clodius in 58 BC, which had regulated the Censors.|
|Lex Pompeia de ambitu||52 BC||Pompey||Consul||Expediting trials for electoral corruption, and allowing those convicted to escape punishment by successfully prosecuting others.|
|Lex Antonia de proscriptorum liberis||49 BC||Mark Antony||Tribune of the plebs||Law removing penalties on the descendants of people proscribed by Sulla, notably access to magistracies.|
|Lex Roscia||49 BC||L. Roscius Fabatus||Praetor||Caesar proposed full Latin Rights on the people of Transalpine Gaul.|
|Lex Iulia municipalis||45 BC||Julius Caesar||Dictator and consul||Set regulations for the Italian municipalities.|
|Leges Antoniae||44 BC||Mark Antony||Consul||Nine laws passed by Mark Antony after the death of Julius Caesar: (1) lex Antonia de dictatura in perpetuum tollenda: abolished the dictatorship (2) lex Antonia de actis Caesaris confirmandis: confirmed Caesar's deeds (3) lex antonia de coloniis in agros deducentis: settled veterans (4) lex Antonia agraria: granted lands to Antony's supporters (5) lex Antonia de provinciis consularibus: gave a 5-year proconsulship to the consuls (6) lex Antonia de permutatione provinciarum: gave provincial command of the two Gaul to Antony (7) lex antonia de mense quintili: renamed the month of July (8) lex Antonia de quinto die ludorum romanorum rotondi: added a 5th day to the Ludi Romani (9) lex Antonia iudiciaria: altered the composition of juries.|
|Lex Cassia||44 BC||L. Cassius Longinus||Tribune of the plebs||Allowed Julius Caesar to add new individuals to the patrician (aristocratic) class.|
|Lex de permutatione provinciae||44 BC||Mark Antony||Consul||Gave himself a five-year command in Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul in lieu of Macedon. Also gave authorization to transfer Caesar's legions from Macedon to the new provinces.|
|Lex Ursonensis||44 BC||Mark Antony||Consul||Foundation charter of the Caesarean colonia Iulia Genetiva.|
|Lex Titia||43 BC||P. Titius||Tribune of the plebs||Gave Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus full powers to defeat the assassins of Julius Caesar; legalised the second triumvirate.|
|Lex Petronia||32 BC (before)||Petronius||Tribune of the plebs||Regulated appointments of municipal prefects.|
|Lex Iulia de Ambitu||18 BC||Augustus||Emperor||Penalised bribery when acquiring political offices.|
|Lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus||18 BC||Augustus||Emperor||Marrying-age celibates and young widows that would not marry were barred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games.|
|Lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis||17 BC||Augustus||Emperor||Made conjugal unfaithfulness a public as well as a private offence, with banishment a possible penalty.|
|Lex Fufia Caninia||2 BC||C. Fufius Geminus & L. Caninius Gallus||Consuls||Limited manumissions.|
|Lex Aelia Sentia||4 AD||Sex. Aelius Catus & C. Sentius Saturninus||Consuls||Manumissions of slaves.|
|Lex Iulia de vicesima hereditatum||5 AD||Augustus||Emperor||Instituted a 5 percent tax on testamentary inheritances, exempting close relatives.|
|Lex Valeria Cornelia||5 AD||L. Valerius Messalla Volesus & Cn. Cornelius Cinna Magnus||Consuls||Regarding voting in the Comitia Centuriata.|
|Lex Papia Poppaea||9 AD||M. Papius Mutilus & Q. Poppaeus Secundus||Consuls||Regarding marriage.|
|Lex Junia Norbana||19 AD||M. Junius Silanus Torquatus & L. Norbanus Balbus||Consuls||Regarding status of freedmen.|
|Lex Visellia||24 CE||Regulated the activities of freedmen|
|Lex de Imperio Vespasiani ||69 AD||Unknown||Consuls?||Conferred powers, privileges and exemptions on the emperor Vespasian.|
|Lex Manciana||69–96 AD||Dealt with imperial and private cases in North Africa, regulated relations between cultivators and the proprietors.|
|Lex Hadriana||117–138 AD||Hadrian||Emperor||Enabled permanent tenants to develop land, it was an extension of the lex Manciana.|
|Lex citationis||426 AD||Valentinian III||Emperor||During court proceedings, only five Roman lawyers could be cited.|
Post-Roman law codes based on Roman legislation
- lex Romana Burgundionum – one of the law tables for Romans after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
- lex Romana Visigothorum (AD 506) – one of the law tables for Romans after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
- lex agraria – A law regulating distribution of public lands
- lex annalis – A law regarding qualifications for magistracies, such as age or experience
- lex ambitus – A law involving electoral bribery and corruption; see ambitus
- lex curiata – Any law passed by the comitia curiata. These included Roman adoptions, particularly so-called "testamentary adoptions" (famously in 59 BC when the patrician Clodius Pulcher was adopted into a plebeian gens in order to run for the office of tribune of the plebs) and the lex curiata de imperio which granted imperium to senior Roman magistrates under the Republic, likely also ratifying the choice of a new king during the monarchy. It was the traditional basis for the later lex de Imperio allowing imperial succession.
- lex frumentaria – A law regulating the price of grain
- lex sumptuaria – A law regulating the use of luxury items and public manifestations of wealth
- Constitution of the Roman Republic – Set the separation of powers and checks and balances of the Roman Republic
- Acceptilatio – spoken statement of debt or obligation release
- Constitutio Antoniniana – granted citizenship to the Empire's freemen
- Corpus Iuris Civilis – codification by emperor Justinian
- Stipulatio – basic oral contract
- Twelve Tables – The first set of Roman laws published by the Decemviri in 451 BC, which would be the starting point of the elaborate Roman constitution. The twelve tables covered issues of civil, criminal and military law. Every Roman that went to school was supposed to know them by heart.
- ^ a b Cornell, Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 7-2, p. 337. Cornell explains that Livy confused the contents of the Lex Licinia Sextia of 366 with the Lex Genucia of 342.
- ^ Livy, vii. 42.
- ^ Brennan, The Praetorship, pp. 65-67, where he shows that the ten year rule was only temporary at this time.
- ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 193, 237.
- ^ W. Jeffrey Tatum, "The lex Papiria de Dedicationibus", in Classical Philology, Vol. 88, No. 4. (October 1993), pp. 319–328. The traditional date of 304 BC is incorrect.
- ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 452, 453.
- ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 458, 459.
- ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 459, 460 (note 3).
- ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 517, 519 (note 4).
- ^ a b Broughton, vol. II, p. 468.
- ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 571, 572.
- ^ Hinard, Proscriptions, pp. 74–76.
- ^ Syme, "Ten Tribunes", p. 59.
- ^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 138, 141 (note 8).
- ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 167.
- ^ Hinard, Rome, la dernière république, p. 190 (note 72).
- ^ Manuwald, Cicero, Philippics 3–9, pp. 13, 14, 574–578, 586, 796, 1000, 1001.
- ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 472.
- ^ Brunt, P. A. (1977). "Lex de Imperio Vespasiani". The Journal of Roman Studies. 67: 95–116. doi:10.2307/299922.
- Brennan, T. Corey, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic, Oxford University Press, 2000.
- François Hinard, Les proscriptions de la Rome républicaine, Rome, Ecole française de Rome, 1985. ISBN 2728300941
- ——, Rome, la dernière république, Recueil d'articles de François Hinard, textes réunis et présentés par Estelle Bertrand, Ausonius, Pessac, 2011. ISBN 9782356130426
- Gesine Manuwald, Cicero, Philippics 3–9, Volume 1: Introduction, Text and Translation, References and Indexes, Berlin/New York, De Gruyter, 2007. ISBN 9783110193251
- Ronald Syme, "Ten Tribunes", The Journal of Roman Studies, 1963, Vol. 53, Parts 1 and 2 (1963), pp. 55–60.
- Walbank, F. W., et al., The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. VII, part 2, The Rise of Rome to 220 BC, Cambridge University Press (1989).