List of Roman wars and battles

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The following is a List of Roman wars and battles[1] fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.

8th century BC[edit]

The city of Rome in 753 BC

7th century BC[edit]

6th century BC[edit]

508 BC Siege by Etruscans (forces in blue) of Rome (forces in red).

5th century BC[edit]

4th century BC[edit]

3rd century BC[edit]

Roman conquest of Italy through the Latin War (red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and Punic Wars (green).
Expansion of Rome by 200 BC

2nd century BC[edit]

1st century BC[edit]

Expansion of Rome from 200 BC (green) to 100 BC (orange).
Roman holdings in the East (red), clients (pink), and other nations.
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests.

1st century[edit]

The Roman Empire under Augustus: The Republic in 31 BC (yellow) and Augustus's conquests (shades of green). Client states are in pink.

2nd century[edit]

The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117) The Empire is in red and dependencies are in pink.[2]

3rd century[edit]

The Empires of Gaul (green), Rome (red), and Palmyra (yellow) in 271.

See Crisis of the Third Century

4th century[edit]

The Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, with the territory of Constantius (yellow), Maximian (green), Galerius (pink), and Diocletian (purple)
The Roman Empire in 337, showing the Empire under Constantine (shaded purple) and other Roman dependencies (light purple).

The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of Constantine I, then, after his death, the progressive Christianization of the empire, and wars with Sassanid Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars.

5th century[edit]

Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territory

The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to Goths, Vandals, Alans, Huns, Franks and other peoples.

6th century[edit]

The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (its vassals in pink)

The Eastern Roman emperor Justinian launched an ambitious reconquest of Italy, North Africa and parts of Spain. However, new invasors like the Avars, Lombards and Slavs, alongside the First plague pandemic and various volcanic winters ended his ambition of recuperate the West and consolidate the reconquest.

7th century and beyond[edit]

By 650 (pictured) the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) empire had lost all its southern provinces, except the Exarchate of Africa, to the Rashidun Caliphate. At the same time the Slavs invaded and settled in the Balkans. The losses continued in the next century

The Eastern Roman empire adopted the Greek language as official language under emperor Heraclius in 610. The Eastern empire shrunk to Greece and Anatolia, because of Persian, Avar and finally Arab invasions.

For the wars of the Eastern Roman Empire(Byzantine Empire) until 1453, see: List of Byzantine wars


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Jones, Jim. "ROMAN HISTORY TIMELINE". West Chester University of Pennsylvania, 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  2. ^ Bennett, J. Trajan: Optimus Princeps. 1997. Fig. 1


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