List of Romanian words of possible pre-Roman origin

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The Eastern Romance languages developed from the Proto-Romanian language, which in turn developed from the Vulgar Latin spoken in a region of the Balkans which has not yet been exactly determined, but is generally agreed to have been a region north of the Jireček Line.

The Jireček Line

That there was language contact between Latin or Vulgar Latin speakers and speakers of indigenous Paleo-Balkan languages in the area is a certainty; however, it is not known which Paleo-Balkan language or languages comprise the substratal influence in the Eastern Romance languages.

The substratal elements in the languages are mostly lexical items. Around 300 words are considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. Linguistic research in recent years has increased the body of Eastern Romance words that may be considered indigenous.

In addition to vocabulary items, some other features of Eastern Romance, such as phonological features and elements of grammar (see Balkan sprachbund) may also be from Paleo-Balkan languages.

Lexical items[edit]

Older Romanian etymological dictionaries tended to assume a borrowing in many cases, usually from a Slavic language or from Hungarian, but etymological analysis may show that, in many cases, the direction of borrowing was from Romanian to the neighboring languages. The current Dicționar explicativ (DEX) published by the Romanian Academy continues to list many words as borrowings, though the work of other linguists (Sorin Olteanu, Sorin Paliga, Ivan Duridanov, et al.) may indicate that a number of these are in fact indigenous, from local Indo-European languages.

Though the substratum status of many Romanian words is not much disputed, their status as Dacian words is controversial, some more than others. There are no significant surviving written examples of the Dacian language, so it is difficult to verify in most cases whether a given Romanian word is actually from Dacian or not. Many of the pre-Roman lexical items of Romanian have Albanian parallels, and if they are in fact substratum words cognates with the Albanian ones, and not loanwords from Albanian, it indicates that the substrate language of Romanian may have been on the same Indo-European branch as Albanian.

The Bulgarian Thracologist Vladimir Georgiev developed the theory that the Romanian language has a "Daco-Moesian" language as its substrate, a hypothecised language that accordig to him had a number of features which distinguished it from the Thracian language spoken further south, across the Haemus range.

According to Romanian historian Ion I. Russu [ro], there are supposedly over 160 Romanian words of Dacian origin, representing, together with derivates, 10% of the basic Romanian vocabulary.[1]

Below is a list of Romanian words believed by early scholars to be of Dacian origin, which have also been attributed to other origins. The list does not include the Dacian plant names collected by Dioscorides and Pseudo-Apuleius, since these words were not retained in Romanian.

Word / Name English Sources Notes – Alternative etymologies
abeș really, for sure! Hasdeu, Vraciu, Paliga dialectal Banat; a+beș < IE *bhend(s)- 'to bind', cf. Albanian besë[2] 'word of honor; faith', besabesë 'on my honor!'
Abud Abud, village in Mureș County Paliga[2] related to Thracian Aba, Abantes, Abro-lebas. Cf. Romanian Abrud, abur, Pre-Indo-European ultimately from *AB- 'elevated, prominent'
abur(e) steam, vapour Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu,


Aromanian abur(ã); cf. Albanian avull Proto-Albanian *abulā 'steam, vapour'; cf. Romanian boare. Ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *AB- 'prominence, elevation'
aburca 'to climb up' Paliga[3] Prefix ab (see above) + urca: ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *OR- / *UR- 'big, huge, giant' related with Greek ouranizo 'to go up, to climb' derived from Ouranos 'sky'.
ad-, at- Paliga[4] Pre-Indo-European, spread across whole Europe. Inherited via Thracian.
adaru I make; I set up, I set an ornament Paliga[4] Aromanian; from Indo-European *der-, dra- 'to work'; cf. Greek δράω, Lithuanian daraù, Latvian darît 'to make'
adulmeca 'to sniff, to smell' Paliga probably *ad-ul-m-ec-a. Substatum root -ulm- related to olm 'smell'; derivative suffix -ec also indigenous. Similar construction to adămană, ademeni. The Thracian root must be *olm-, *ulm- 'smell, to smell; to sniff; to track an animal for hunt' or dul-, dol- 'dog', see dulău, dolcă.[4]
ag- archaic 'to get to a thorn' Paliga Cf. agănău, agăța. Related to Thracian names Aga-thyr-soi, Aeg-issus (Tulcea). agăța is seemingly derived from the same root.[4]
Agaua Agaua village, Brăila county Paliga related to Agnita, Agăș, Agriș/agriș, cf. Agay, Provence, and Aigai, Greece. See ag-.[4]
agănău a kind of folk dance Paliga related to root ag-.[4]
Agăș Agăș, Bacău county, Bihor county Paliga Today extinct. The village in Bihor is near a hill called Acățel which can be used to reject an etymology from agas 'crossroad, branched out'. Cf. Thracian Aegissus; the spelling -ss- might stand for an original š in Thracian. Also place names Egeria, Egirca, Egeta, Aegeta and in Hungary Ágasvár seems related, in which case it could be Pre-Magyar.[4]
aghiuță devil Hasdeu from Greek ágios (άγιος) 'holy' + -uță.[5][6]
Agnita Agnita, Serbia Paliga cf. Thracian, Ancient Greek Aegitna, Aigaios[7]
amurg, -uri 'sunset' Paliga related to the name of the Greek island Amorgós, and amorgís, -ídos textile plant (Chantraine). Probably from Preie. *AM-, *AN-
andrea knitting needle Russu Muntenian/Transylvanian undrea; from Andrea, Undrea 'December', from Greek Andréas 'St. Andrew's Day' (Nov. 30th); from the tradition of knitting socks on St. Andrew's Day. Similar to Alb. shëndreu 'November', after Shën Ndreu 'St. Andrew'.
argea loom Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu plural argele; from Greek argaleiós; also Albanian dial. argali 'small, wooden loom' (< Gk)
baligă dung, manure (used mostly for cow dung) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian baligã, Megleno-Romanian balig, Istro-Romanian bålege; from Old Albanian baljëgë (modern bajgë, dial. balgë, balëg, balëgë); also Serbo-Croatian bȁlega (< Alb)
baltă pool, puddle Russu (Alb.) Aromanian baltã, Megleno-Romanian baltă, Istro-Romanian bote; from Albanian baltë 'swamp'.
barză stork (Ciconia ciconia) Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu, Olteanu Oltenia bardăș, bardoș 'stork', Transylvanian/Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian bardzu 'white'; feminine of barz 'whitish (of birds)', from Albanian bardhë 'white', bardhosh, bardhash 'whitish'
bălaur, balaur dragon, monster Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu from Serbo-Croatian blȁvor (variants blavur, blaor) 'scheltopusik', from Albanian bullar (var. buljar, bollar).[8]
băga to insert, thrust Russu Aromanian bagu 'to put', Megleno-Romanian bagari; from Byzantine Greek bázo (βάζω) 'to put in or on, set down'
băl, bălan, bălaș fair-haired, blond (person); white-haired (animal) Hasdeu from Albanian bal(ë) 'white-haired; starred forehead', balosh, balash 'white-marked, piebald; dappled; hoary, white-haired'
bâr call to a sheep Vraciu from Albanian berr 'sheep or goat; small livestock'; cf. Czech beran 'ram', Polish/Ukrainian/Russian baran (< Romanian); Canavese berro 'ram', Piemontese bero 'id.' (< Alb)
brad fir (Abies) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Olteanu Aromanian brad; from Proto-Albanian *brada (modern bredh).
brânză cheese Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu Aromanian brãndzã, Megleno-Romanian brǫnză; from Albanian brëndës 'intestines; rennet bag (made of stomach)', identical to rânză (< rrëndës) (see below); Romanian lent Transylvanian German Pränz, Slovak/Polish bryndza, which gave Austrian Brimsen.[9][10]
brâu belt, waist Russu (Alb.) dialectal brân, colloquial brână, Aromanian brãnu, Megleno-Romanian brǫn, Istro-Romanian brĕne; from Old Albanian *bren (modern brez 'belt; waist', mbrej 'to buckle'); replaced Transylvanian/Bucovina balț 'loop, eye(let), ring (of iron)' (cf. Aromanian balțu), from Latin balteus 'belt'.
brusture burdock (Arctium lappa) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian broshtur, brushturã; from Albanian brushtull 'heather'
bucura to be glad Russu (Alb.) also bucuros 'glad'; from Albanian bukuroj 'to beautify', bukurosh 'beautiful', both from bukur 'nice, lovely'[a]
bunget dense, dark forest Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu from Albanian bung[5] 'chestnut oak' + Romanian -et 'grove'.
burtă belly, stomach Russu dialectal borț 'pregnant woman's belly'
buză lip; edge Russu (Alb.) Aromanian budzã "lip; brim"; from Albanian buzë "lip; edge"
Buzău Buzău, Buzău county Paliga[2] Attested in antiquity as Μουσεος
cață shepherd's rod, crook Russu also descăța "to unhook"; See acăța above.
căpușă sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus) Russu (Alb.) from Albanian këpushë[5] 'tick', derivative of kap 'to grip, snatch'
căpută toe (of shoe); low boot Russu (Alb.) from Albanian këputë "sole (of shoe)", këpucë "shoe"; unrelated to Slavic kopyto "hoof" > Romanian copită
cătun hamlet Russu (Alb.) from Albanian katund (dial. katun, kotun) 'village; herdsmen community; widely spread-out village"[11]
cioară crow Sala, Hasdeu, Vraciu Aromanian cioarã, Megleno-Romanian čoară; from Old Albanian *corrë (mod. sorrë)[5]
ciut hornless, poll; one-horned Russu (Alb.) dialectal șut; from Slavic; cf. Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian šut; also Albanian shyt 'hornless' (connected to "sutë" (a doe, female deer) (an Albanism in the other Balkan languages)
curma to stop abruptly, interrupt Russu (Alb.) older curmez, from Byzantine Greek kormázein (κορμάζω); cf. Albanian kurmua
curpăn vine, twining stem Russu (Alb.) from Albanian kurpën, kurpër 'clematis', from kurp 'traveller's joy, old man's beard (Clematis vitalba)'; related to below.
cursă trap, snare Russu (Alb.), Olteanu from Albanian kurth(ë), contraction of dial. kurpth, diminutive of kurp; related to above.
custură blade, knife edge, knife Russu variants custure, cusutură, cuțitură, from cuțit "knife' + suffix -tură
daș ram (male sheep) Russu (Alb.) from Albanian dash
doină lamenting folksong Hasdeu, Vraciu Transylvanian daină; from Lithuanian dainà 'folksong' (cf. Latvian daĩn̨a), derivative of Proto-Baltic *deî- (cf. Latvian diêt, dìet 'to dance, hop; sing')
droaie crowd, multitude; a lot Russu back-formation from the plural droi, from Albanian droe, droje[5] 'fear'; same sense development in Rom. groază 'horror' > o groază de 'a lot of'.
Dunăre The Danube river Paliga[12] Dac. *Dan-ar- cf. NFl Aar, Aare, NL Aarhus, O. Dan. aar 'a river'
fărâmă crumb, morsel, bit Russu (Alb.) variant sfărâmă, Aromanian sãrmã; from Albanian thërrime, from ther 'to stab, slaughter, snip'
gard fence Russu (Alb.) Istro-Romanian gård "wattle gate to a pen"; from Albanian gardh; unrelated to Slavic gradŭ > Alb gradë
gata ready, done Russu (Alb.) from Albanian gat(i) "ready", from gatuaj 'to ready, prepare; cook', from Slavic *gotovati;[13] cf. Serbo-Croatian gotov "ready", Polish gotowy.
gălbează liver rot (fasciolosis), sheep pox Russu (Alb.) variant călbează; from Albanian gëlbazë, këlbazë, klëbacë 'sheep pox', itself from the Albanian word "kalb" (to rot, to go bad) with a diminutive suffixe -zë, commonly seen in disease names.
ghimpe thorn Russu (Alb.) from Albanian gjemb (dialectal Tosk gjëmp, Arvanite gljimp, Gheg glëmp)
ghionoaie woodpecker Sala, Russu (Alb.) dialectal ghionoi, ghin, Aromanian ǵionu 'tawny owl'; from Albanian gjon 'scops owl', from Gjon 'John'; Albanian also has qukapik 'woodpecker' (< qukë 'owl' + pik 'woodpecker')
ghiuj gaffer, old fogey Hasdeu, Vraciu Aromanian ghiush; from Albanian gjysh "grandfather"
gordin kind of grapes used in winemaking Hasdeu variants gordean, g(o)ardină, gorgan, gordan; from Russian gordina "currant"
grapă harrow Russu (Alb.) from Albanian grep (var. grap) 'hook'.
gresie sandstone, whetstone Russu (Alb.) Aromanian greasã; from Albanian gërresë (var. grresë) 'rasp, scraper; drawing knife', from gërryej 'to scrape, scour'
grumaz neck Russu (Alb.), NODEX Aromanian grumadz, gurmadz; from Albanian gurmaz 'gaping maw, wide-open jaws; esophagus' (variants gurmac, grumas, gërmaz), itself from kurm 'trunk (of the body), torso' (> Romanian dial. curm 'short rope', curmei 'vine shoot')
grunz lump, clod Russu (Alb.) variants (s)grunț, Aromanian grundã (plural grundz) 'lump', grundzã 'bran'; from Albanian krunde 'coarse bran; sawdust' (var. grundë), derivative of kruaj 'to scratch'
gudura to fawn, cajole Russu from Albanian gudulis 'to tickle; pleasure'; unrelated to Romanian gâdila 'to tickle' (see above).
iazmă (Banat) ugly and evil apparition, ghost Hasdeu western aiazmă, eastern agheazmă; from Greek agíasma (αγίασμα) 'holy water; sacred spring'.
întrema to recover after illness or fatigue Russu variants întrăma, (Moldavia, Bucovina) întrarma, back-formation from destrăma 'unweave, unravel, break up'.
leagăn cradle, swing Russu variants leangăn, leagănă; Istro-Romanian leagăr; back-formation of legăna "to rock, swing" (cf. Aromanian leagãnu "to swing", Megleno-Romanian legăn), from Byzantine Greek liknon "cradle"; likewise Albanian lëkund "to swing"
mal lakeside shore, riverbank; coast Sala, Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu from Albanian mal "mountain"[14]
maldac, măldac a small load (of wood, hay, etc.) Hasdeu from Greek mandákis
mazăre pea (Pisum sativum) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu, Olteanu Aromanian madzãre; also Romanian măzăriche 'vetch', Aromanian mãdziriclje; from Albanian modhull(ë) 'yellow vetchling', diminutive of modhë 'rye-grass, brome'
mânz foal, colt Russu (Alb.) Aromanian mãndzu, Megleno-Romanian mǫndz; from Old Albanian manz (modern Tosk mëz, Gheg mâz). Also mânzat 'steer', from OAlb. *manzat (mod. Tosk mëzat, Gheg mâzat 'yearling calf; bullock').[b][c]
măgură hill, knoll Sala, Russu (Alb.) dialectal Romanian măgulă, Aromanian mãgulã; from Albanian magulë, a metathesis of gamulë; likewise Serbo-Croatian gòmila ~ mògila 'heap'.
mire bridegroom Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu from Albanian mirë[5] 'good'; replaced Old Romanian măritu (still used in Muntenia).
moș old man Russu (Alb.) back-formed from moașă 'midwife' (cf. Aromanian moashe, Megleno-Romanian moașă 'old woman'), from Albanian moshë 'age', moshëm 'old, aged'; replaced Old Romanian auș (still in Oltenia), from Latin avus.
mozoc large shepherd dog Hasdeu variant mosoc
mugure bud Russu (Alb.) from Albanian mugull "bud, sprout"
Mureș Mureș river Paliga[19] Ancient Maris, from IE *māro, *māno 'wet' and related to Romanian a mura 'to pickle'
murg dark-bay horse Sala, Russu (Alb.) Aromanian murgu, Megleno-Romanian murg; also amurg 'twilight, dusk'; from Albanian murg "dark".
mușat handsome Russu Aromanian musheat, Megleno-Romanian/Istro-Romanian mușat; clipped form of *frumușat, from frumos
noian multitude, heap; (arch.) abyss, immense sea Sala, Russu from Albanian ujanë "ocean", from ujë "water"
păstaie pod, capsule, hull Russu (Alb.) Aromanian pãstãlje; from Vulgar Latin pistālia, from pistāre "to pound"; or from Albanian bishtajë "pod, hull; string bean"
pârâu (pl. pâraie) brook, creek Russu (Alb.) dial. (North) pârău, Megleno-Romanian păroi; from Albanian përrua ( përroi) 'torrent, rushing stream', from Bulgarian poroj (порой) 'torrent', from *po-rojĭ (cf. Macedonian roj (рој) 'swarm', Polish zdrój 'spring, waters').
păstra to keep up Russu older păstrez; Aromanian spãstrescu, Megleno-Romanian păstres; from Greek pastrevo (παστρεύω) 'to clean, cleanse', from Byzantine Greek spastréuō; cf. Bulgarian pastrja (< Greek)[9]
Proca name of person Paliga[20] related to Dac. NL Napoca
pupăză hoopoe Sala Aromanian pupãzã, Megleno-Romanian pupează; from Albanian pupëz(ë), diminutive of pupë, itself possibly from Latin upupa[21]
pururi always, forever Russu (Alb.) variant purure, pururea; from d(e-a) pure(a)
rânză abomasum (rennet stomach) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu Aromanian arãndzã 'rennet'; from Albanian rrëndës 'rennet'.
sâmbure kernel; pip, core Russu (Alb.), NODEX, Olteanu dialectal simbure, sumbure, Aromanian sãmbure, sumbur; from Albanian sumbull "push button; bud"
scăpăra to strike fire; sparkle, lighten Russu (Alb.) Aromanian ascãpirare, Megleno-Romanian scăpirari; from Albanian shkrep "to strike fire", shkrepës "flint"
scrum ashes Russu (Alb.) older scrumb; from Albanian shkrumb; also Bulgarian скрум (< Romanian)
searbăd insipid Russu (Alb.), Olteanu older sarbăd, Aromanian sarbit; from Albanian tharbët "sour" (standard thartë, dialectal tharptë)
spânz purple hellebore Russu (Alb.) variants spânț, spunz, Aromanian spingiu; from Albanian shpendër (variants shpindër, spindër, spinër)[22]
steregie soot caked in a chimney; scum; dross, waste; wine tartar Russu variants stirigie, stirighie, etc.; from variants tereghie, tirghie, etc. "wine tartar", from Greek trugiá, blended with Serbo-Croatian striješ (Chakavian striš) "wine tartar"[23]
sterp barren, infertile Russu (Alb.) eastern stărp, Aromanian sterpu; from Byzantine Greek stérifos (στέριφος; mod. stérfos (στέρφος)); cf. Albanian shterpë, Slovene stirpa, Venetian sterpa (all < Gk).
strepede cheese maggot (larva of the cheese fly, cheese skipper; Piophila casei) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian streapit "cheese mite", Megleno-Romanian strepij; from Albanian shtrep "maggot, larva"
strungă sheepfold; narrow passage, canyon Russu (Alb.), NODEX from Albanian shtrungë 'milking enclosure', from shtroj 'to spread'
sugruma to strangle, to burke Russu from sub "under" + grumaz "throat" (see above).
șir row, line Hasdeu, Russu also șiră "spine"; from Greek sirá (σειρά) 'line, row; cord, rope'
șopârlă wall lizard (Lacerta muralis) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu variant șopirlă, Aromanian ciupilar (recent jabilu, șapic, japie); from Albanian zhapi (plural zhapinj) 'lizard' (var. xhapi, xhzpik).
traistă bag Hasdeu older taistră, tainstră, traistră, Bassarabia/Maramarus straistă, Transylvanian straiță; cf. Albanian trastë, trajstë, strajcë.
țap he-goat; buck Russu (Alb.) from Albanian cjap (var. cap, cqap, sqap).
țarc pen, fold Russu (Alb.), Olteanu from Albanian thark (var. cark) 'enclosure (esp. for milking)'.
țumburuș small, round knob, nub Olteanu older țâmburuș; from Albanian thumbull 'button; pin'; nearly identical to sâmbure (< sumbull) (see above).
urca to mount, ascend; increase Russu, Paliga[24] Either from Vulgar Latin *oricāre,[5] frequentative of orior "to rise" or ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *OR- / *UR- 'big, huge, giant' related with Greek ouranizo 'to go up, to climb' derived from Ouranos 'sky'.
urdă ricotta Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu from dialectal Albanian urdhë (standard udhos, dialectal urdhos)
vatră hearth, fireplace; home Hasdeu, Russu (Alb). from Albanian vatër;[d] also Serbian vatra "fire" (< Alb)[25]
vătui yearling kid (goat); hare Russu (Alb.) older vătuiu, Aromanian vitulju, Megleno-Romanian vitul'u; from Byzantine Greek *vitoúlion (*βιτούλιον; modern Lefkada vitũli (βιτοῦλι));[26] also Albanian ftujë (Cham ftulë, Arbëresh vëtulë) 'female kid' (< ByzGk)
viezure badger Sala, Russu (Alb.), Olteanu older viedzure, Aromanian yedzurã, yedzãre; from Albanian vjedhull, from vjedh "to steal"
zară buttermilk Russu from *dzară, from Albanian dhallë; also Aromanian dhalã (recent loan; < Alb)
zburda sport, frolic, frisk about Russu variant sburda; from Byzantine Greek spyrthizein 'to frolic, lark (of animals)'
zer whey Russu, Olteanu older zăr, Aromanian dzãr, Moldavian/Banat/ dzăr masculine back-formation from zară (see above).
zgardă dog collar Russu (Alb.) from Albanian shkardhë[5] 'dog chain; (dial.) wicker gate in fence', from sh- + gardhë 'fence'.
  • The Notes column contains information found in various dictionaries. "Not in current use" indicates words not found in dictionaries of contemporary Romanian.
  • The Sources column indicates the linguist(s) or the works who suggested including the words in the list:
  • "Sala": Marius Sala, De la latină la română (1998) [2]
  • "Hasdeu": Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae, 1894.[better source needed]
  • "Russu": Ion I. Russu [ro], Limba traco-dacilor, Editura Științifică, 1967. The words that have been identified by I. I. Russu to have cognates in Albanian are marked with (Alb.).
  • "Vraciu": Ariton Vraciu, Limba daco-geților, Timișoara: Editura Facla, 1980.
  • "NODEX": Noul dicționar explicativ al limbii române [The New Dictionary of the Romanian Language], Litera Internațional, 2002. In this dictionary substratum words are labeled cuvînt autohton "native word".
  • "Olteanu": Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal".[27]
  • "Ciorănescu": Alexandru Ciorănescu, Diccionario etimológico rumano, Tenerife: Universidad de la Laguna, 1958–1966.
  • Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006.

Other languages[edit]

There are also some Romanian substratum words in languages other than Romanian, these examples having entered via Romanian (Vlach) dialects. An example is vatră (home or hearth) which is found in Albanian, Serbo-Croatian, Carpathian highlander dialects of Polish and Ukrainian and other neighboring languages, though with modified meaning. Another one is Bryndza, a type of cheese made in Eastern Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic (Moravian Wallachia), Slovakia and Ukraine, the word being derived from the Romanian word for cheese (brânză).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See also: E Bukura e Dheut ('The Beauty of the Earth'), Albanian mythological character.
  2. ^ The Messapic word menza ('foal') and Gaulish manduos ('foal') are also considered cognates.[15][16][17]
  3. ^ An obscure deity called Jove or Juppiter Menzanas is attested in relation to the Messapians of Sallentini.[18]
  4. ^ See also: Nëna e Vatrës, Albanian goddess of the hearth fire.


  1. ^ Lucian Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, Reaktion Books, ISBN 1861891032, p.57
  2. ^ a b c d Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 60.
  3. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 27.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h I. Coteanu et al., eds. Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, 2nd edn. (Bucharest: Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan" / Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1996; reprint 1998).
  6. ^ Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică din București, Dicționarul limbii române moderne (Editura Academiei, 1958).
  7. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 29.
  8. ^ Draucean, Adela Ileana (2008). "The Names of Romanian Fairy-Tale Characters in the Works of the Junimist Classics". In: Studii și cercetări de onomastică și lexicologie, II (1-2), p. 28. ISSN 2247-7330
  9. ^ a b Alexandru Ciorănescu, Diccionario etimológico rumano (Tenerife: Universidad de la Laguna, 1958–1966).
  10. ^ Lazăr Șăineanu, Dicționar universal al limbii române (Craiova: Scrisul Românesc, 1896).
  11. ^ Bardhyl Demiraj, Albanische Etymologien (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1997), 214–5.
  12. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 269
  13. ^ Vladimir Orel, Albanian Etymological Dictionary (Leiden: Brill, 1998), 111.
  14. ^ Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (p. 145 [1])
  15. ^ Pisani, Vittore (1976). "Gli Illiri in Italia". Iliria (in Italian). 5: 69. doi:10.3406/iliri.1976.1213.
  16. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998). Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Brill. p. 260, 265. ISBN 978-90-04-11024-3.
  17. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental (in French). Errance. p. 215. ISBN 9782877723695.
  18. ^ Francisco Marcos-Marin. "Etymology and Semantics: Theoretical Considerations apropos of an Analysis of the Etymological Problem of Spanish mañero, mañeria." In: Historical Semantics—Historical Word-Formation. de Gruyter, 1985. p. 381.
  19. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 140
  20. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 161
  21. ^ Orel, AED, p. 350.
  22. ^ Roger Bernard, "VI. Bulgare карп 'ellébore', стрáтур 'amarante'", Revue des études slaves 23 (1947): 161.
  23. ^ Olga Mladenova, Grapes and Wine in the Balkans: An Ethno-Linguistic Study (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998), 547.
  24. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 200.
  25. ^ Schuster-Šewc, Heinz (1979). "Zur Etymologie und Wortgeschichte von südslawisch vatra 'Feuer, Herd'". Stuf - Language Typology and Universals. 32 (1–6). doi:10.1524/stuf.1979.32.16.699. S2CID 163444239.
  26. ^ Guillaume Bonnet, Les mots latins de l'albanais (Paris-Montreal: L'Harmattan, 1998), 369.
  27. ^ (in English and Romanian) Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal" Archived 2009-04-15 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading[edit]

  • Dominte, Constantin. "Le mot régional daco-roumain 'tirş': une hypothèse étymologique concernant le substrat du rumain, en rapport avec le grec ancien". In: Balkan Studies Vol 27, No 2 (1986): 253-261.
  • (in Romanian) Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu. Columna lui Traian, 1876.
  • (in Romanian) Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu. Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae: Dicționarul limbei istorice și poporane a românilor, 3 vols. Bucharest: Socec şi Teclu, 1887–1895 (reprint ed. Grigore Brâncuș, Bucharest: Minerva, 1972–1976).
  • (in Romanian) Ion. I. Russu. Limba traco-dacilor, 2nd edn. Bucharest: Editura Științifică, 1967 (1st edn. Acad. Rep. pop. Romîne 1959; reprint Dacica 2009).
  • (in Romanian) Ion. I. Russu. Elemente autohtone în limba română: Substratul comun româno-albanez. Bucharest: Editura Academiei RSR, 1970 (reprint Dacica 2013).
  • (in Romanian) Ion. I. Russu. Etnogeneza românilor. Bucharest: Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică, 1981.
  • (in Romanian) Ariton Vraciu. Limba daco-geților. Timișoara: Editura Facla, 1980.
  • (in Spanish) Alexandru Ciorănescu. Diccionario etimológico rumano. 3 vols. La Laguna, Tenerife: Biblioteca Filológica, Universidad de la Laguna, 1958–1966 (reprint: Madrid: Gredos, 1966).
    • Romanian translation: Dicționar etimologic român. Translated by Tudora Șandru Mehedinți & Magdalena Popescu Marin. Bucharest: Saeculum, 2001 (in part available online at DEX online).
  • (in Romanian) George Pruteanu. "Limba traco-dacilor", transcript of a TV show broadcast March 25 and 26, 1996, on PRO TV; the transcript is followed by a "List of words considered by specialists as most probably belonging to the Dacian language".
  • (in Romanian) DEX online: a collection of Romanian dictionaries
  • Albanian <-> English Dictionary