List of Romanian words of possible Dacian origin

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According to the specialist Ion I. Russu [ro], there are supposedly over 160 Romanian words of Dacian origin, representing, together with derivates, 10% of the basic Romanian vocabulary.[1]

Below is a list of Romanian words believed by early scholars to be of Dacian origin, which have also been attributed to other origins. The list does not include the Dacian plant names collected by Dioscorides and Pseudo-Apuleius, since these words were not retained in Romanian.


  • The Notes column contains information found in various dictionaries. "Not in current use" indicates words not found in dictionaries of contemporary Romanian.
Word / Name English Sources Notes – Alternative etymologies
-a definite article of adverbs and demonstrative pronouns Paliga cf. Alb -a in e.g. rrall-a 'rarely', fsheht-a 'furtively' etc. The enclitical definite article exists in Romanian, Albanian, Bulgarian, Armenian, Basque and Etruscan, therefore a Pre-Indo-European heritage is possible.[2]
abeș really, for sure! Hasdeu, Vraciu, Paliga dialectal Banat; a+beș < IE *bhend(s)- 'to bind', cf. Albanian besë[3] 'word of honor; faith', besabesë 'on my honor!'
Abrud Abrud River Hasdeu older Obruth (12th century), from Latin Abruttus; a Slavic form, with a > o (Slavic) and o > a (Hungarian), and non-native preservation of -br- (vs. cibrum > Romanian ciur)
abțigui to get drunk; to beat someone gently; fig. to forge or illegally modify an original product Paliga[4] prefix ab- + root țic-, tig- 'small' cf. Romanian Țic, Țicu, Țega, țic, țînc 'small; a child'
Abud Abud, village in Mureș County Paliga[3] related to Thracian Aba, Abantes, Abro-lebas. Cf. Romanian Abrud, abur, Pre-Indo-European ultimately from *AB- 'elevated, prominent'
abur(e) steam, vapour Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu,


Aromanian abur(ã); cf. Albanian avull Proto-Albanian *abulā 'steam, vapour'; cf. Romanian boare. Ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *AB- 'prominence, elevation'
aburca 'to climb up' Paliga[5] Prefix ab (see above) + urca: ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *OR- / *UR- 'big, huge, giant' related with Greek ouranizo 'to go up, to climb' derived from Ouranos 'sky'.
Abuş Abuș, in Mureș County Paliga[5] Probably related to Abud, Abrud, abur(e)
-ac suffix of nouns and adjectives Paliga[5] seems indigenous in some substratum forms in -ac, e.g. Fel-eac, în-tun-ec-a (probably from a prototype *în-tumn-ec-a), mald-ac/măld-ac (cf. Spart-ac-us etc.), ber-c, mel-c, mel-eag, pel-eag-ă/pel-eg (cf. Pel-eş), Per-eg, pis-c, plis-c, prun-c, Semen-ic (cf. semeţ), ţar-c, miş-c-a, muş-c-a.
acăța, agăța to hang up, hook up; accost, seize Russu Aromanian cățari 'to snatch', Istro-Romanian (a)coț 'id.'; from Latin *ad + captiāre 'to snatch'; pt > t rare but attested; cf. Latin baptizare > boteza. Acăț "acacia" used in Transylvania.
ad-, at- Paliga[6] Pre-Indo-European, spread across whole Europe. Inherited via Thracian.
adaru I make; I set up, I set an ornament Paliga[6] Aromanian; from Indo-European *der-, dra- 'to work'; cf. Greek δράω, Lithuanian daraù, Latvian darît 'to make'
adămană gift, bribery Paliga[6] related to ademeni
Adea Adea, Arad county Paliga[6]
ademeni to tempt, lure; deceive Hasdeu


dial. adimeni; from older ademană '(old) gift, temptation; (Trans.) usury, interest', from Transylvanian adămană 'gift', from Hungarian adomány 'gift, grant'.,[7] Haşdeu also compared it to Phrygian adamein. Paliga finds it more likely that it is a local derivation from Latin ad + manus or adă/adu mâna 'give (me) your hand'. He considers the Transylvanian dialect form was possibly borrowed into Hungarian and not the reverse.
adia to breeze gently; to whisper, touch lightly Russu


older adiia, West Transylvanian aduĭ, aduĭa, Aromanian adil’u ‘to breathe’; Paliga thinks that the proposed Latin *adiliare is improbable.[8][6]
adulmeca 'to sniff, to smell' Paliga probably *ad-ul-m-ec-a. Substatum root -ulm- related to olm 'smell'; derivative suffix -ec also indigenous. Similar construction to adămană, ademeni. The Thracian root must be *olm-, *ulm- 'smell, to smell; to sniff; to track an animal for hunt' or dul-, dol- 'dog', see dulău, dolcă.[6]
afin European blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus; bilberry or whortleberry) Paliga Obscure.[6]
ag- archaic 'to get to a thorn' Paliga Cf. agănău, agăţa. Related to Thracian names Aga-thyr-soi, Aeg-issus (Tulcea). agăţa is seemingly derived from the same root.[6]
Agaua Agaua village, Brăila county Paliga related to Agnita, Agăş, Agriş/agriş, cf. Agay, Provence, and Aigai, Greece. See ag-.[6]
agănău a kind of folk dance Paliga related to root ag-.[6]
Agăş Agăş, Bacău county, Bihor county Paliga Today extinct. The village in Bihor is near a hill called Acăţel which can be used to reject an etymology from agas 'crossroad, branched out'. Cf. Thracian Aegissus; the spelling -ss- might stand for an original š in Thracian. Also place names Egeria, Egirca, Egeta, Aegeta and in Hungary Ágasvár seems related, in which case it could be Pre-Magyar.[6]
aghiuță devil Hasdeu from Greek ágios (άγιος) 'holy' + -uță.[7][9]
Agnita Agnita, Serbia Paliga cf. Thracian, Ancient Greek Aegitna, Aigaios[10]
aidoma alike, identical Hasdeu variant avidoma; from a + Slavic vidomŭ 'visible'.[7]
-aj, -aş, -eş, -iş suffix in place and river names Paliga[11] cf. Argeş, Arieş, Asuaj, Dej, Mureş, Caraş, Turdaş, Someş etc.
alac einkorn (Triticum monococcum); spelt (Triticum aestivum spelta) Hasdeu Old Romanian alacu; from Latin alica 'spelt' (cf. Sardinian alighe, Spanish álaga).
ală (Oltenia) a monster that unleashes storms Hasdeu Transylvanian hală; from Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian dialect ála, hála,[12] from Turkish hala.
aldea ? Hasdeu
ameți to drug, anesthetize, stupefy Russu from Latin *ammattīre; cf. Old French amatir.[7]
Ampoi Ampoi river Paliga in Hu. Ompoly, ancient Ampelum[13]
amurg, -uri 'sunset' Paliga related to the name of the Greek island Amorgós, and amorgís, -ídos textile plant (Chantraine). Probably from Preie. *AM-, *AN-
andrea knitting needle Russu Muntenian/Transylvanian undrea; from Andrea, Undrea 'December', from Greek Andréas 'St. Andrew's Day' (Nov. 30th); from the tradition of knitting socks on St. Andrew's Day. Similar to Alb. shëndreu 'November', after Shën Ndreu 'St. Andrew'.
anina to hang up, hook; accost Russu from Latin *annināre 'to rock'; cf. Italian ninnare, Sardinian anninnare, Romansh niner, Provençal nina 'to fall asleep'
aprig fiery, hot-blooded; harsh Russu variants apric, apreg; from Latin aprīcus 'sunny, exposed (to the sun)'; cf. Calabrian apricari 'to warm', Spanish ábrego 'southwest wind', Occitan abrigar 'to shelter'.
argea loom Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu plural argele; from Greek argaleiós; also Albanian dial. argali 'small, wooden loom' (< Gk)
Argeș Argeș River Hasdeu Arghiș (1427), Argyas (1369); from Pecheneg argiš 'high ground'[14]
arunca to throw Russu Aromanian aru(n)cu; from Latin eruncāre 'to weed out'; cf. Italian arroncare, Abruzzese arrongá
azugă ? Hasdeu Not in current use (see also Azuga, a town in Prahova County)
baci chief shepherd, cheese-maker Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu Aromanian baciu, Megleno-Romanian bač, Istro-Romanian bațe; from Turkish baş 'leader, chief'; also Serbo-Croatian bač, Albanian baç, Hungarian bacs (all < Turkish)
baier thread, band, strap, string; coin necklace; talisman Russu Transylvanian baieră, Moldavian baieri, Muntenian băieri, Aromanian bairu; from Latin bājulus, bājula; cf. French baille 'pail, bucket'
baligă dung, manure Russu (Alb.) Aromanian baligă, Megleno-Romanian balig, Istro-Romanian bålege; from Old Albanian baljëgë (modern bajgë, dial. balgë, balëg, balëgë); also Serbo-Croatian bȁlega (< Alb)
baltă pool, puddle Russu (Alb.) Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian baltă, Istro-Romanian bote; from Albanian baltë 'swamp', from Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian blȁto 'mud', Czech blato; alternatively, directly from Slavic.
bară (Banat) marsh, morass Hasdeu from Serbo-Croatian bȁra 'puddle, pool; swamp'[12]
barză stork (Ciconia ciconia) Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu, Olteanu Oltenia bardăș, bardoș 'stork', Transylvanian/Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian bardzu 'white'; feminine of barz 'whitish (of birds)', from Albanian bardhë 'white', bardhosh, bardhash 'whitish'
bască beret Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.) from French basque
batal wether (castrated ram) Hasdeu from Turkish battal 'useless',[7] itself from Arabic baṭṭāl (بطّال) 'vain, useless, worthless' (> Spanish balde 'in vain'); also Albanian batal, Serbo-Croatian dial. bàtāl, Bulgarian batal (батал), Greek batálikos (μπατάλικος) 'rude, boorish' (all < Turk).
bălaur, balaur dragon, monster Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu from Serbo-Croatian blȁvor (variants blavur, blaor) 'scheltopusik', from Albanian bullar (var. buljar, bollar).[15]
băga to insert, thrust Russu Aromanian bagu 'to put', Megleno-Romanian bagari; from Byzantine Greek bázo (βάζω) 'to put in or on, set down'
băiat boy; servant, page Russu variant băiet;
băl, bălan, bălaș fair-haired, blond (person); white-haired (animal) Hasdeu from Albanian bal(ë) 'white-haired; starred forehead', balosh, balash 'white-marked, piebald; dappled; hoary, white-haired'
bâr call to a sheep Vraciu from Albanian berr 'sheep or goat; small livestock'; cf. Czech beran 'ram', Polish/Ukrainian/Russian baran (< Romanian); Canavese berro 'ram', Piemontese bero 'id.' (< Alb)
bârsă sheth, standard (part on a plow) NODEX[16] variant bârță; from Slavic; cf. Slovenian brdče 'beam holding a trawl net', Czech (Moravian) brdče 'thill, draft-pole'
beregată Adam's apple; gullet, windpipe Russu dialectal bereglej, Istro-Romanian biricuată; from Hungarian beragad "to stick, get stuck";[17] also Serbo-Croatian berikat (< Hung)
boare breeze Russu variant bore, Aromanian boră, Megleno-Romanian boari; from Latin boreas "north wind" (< Greek Boreas 'god of the north wind')
bordei sunken-floor cottage Hasdeu, Russu older bordeiu "cottage; whorehouse" (1595); from Hungarian bordély, German Bordell, or Italian bordello, all "brothel".
bortă hole, hollow Hasdeu also borti, borteli "to bore"; from Ukrainian bort "hole", bortyty "to bore"
brad fir (Abies) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Olteanu Aromanian brad; from Proto-Albanian *brada (modern bredh).
brândușă meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale) Russu from Serbo-Croatian brnduša; akin to Bulgarian brenduška[7]
brânză cheese Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu Aromanian brîndzã, Megleno-Romanian brǫnză; from Albanian brëndës 'intestines; rennet bag (made of stomach)', identical to rânză (< rrëndës) (see below); Romanian lent Transylvanian German Pränz, Slovak/Polish bryndza, which gave Austrian Brimsen.[12][18]
brâu belt, waist Russu (Alb.) dialectal brân, colloquial brână, Aromanian brãnu, Megleno-Romanan brǫn, Istro-Romanian brĕne; from Old Albanian *bren (modern brez 'belt; waist', mbrej 'to buckle'); replaced Transylvanian/Bucovina balț 'loop, eye(let), ring (of iron)' (cf. Aromanian balțu), from Latin balteus 'belt'.
brusture burdock (Arctium lappa) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian broștur, brușturã; from Albanian brushtull 'heather'
bucura to be glad Russu (Alb.) also bucuros 'glad'; from Albanian bukuroj 'to beautify', bukurosh 'beautiful', both from bukur 'nice, lovely'[a]
buiestru ambling, ambling gait (of horse) Russu from Slavic *bujestĭ ‘boldness, arrogance’ + suffix -estru[19]
bunget dense, dark forest Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu from Albanian bung[7] 'chestnut oak' + Romanian -et 'grove'.
burghiu drill bit Hasdeu Aromanian burghie, Megleno-Romanian burghijă; from Turkish burgü 'auger, gimlet'; also Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian burgija 'drill, gimlet', Albanian burgi (all < Turk)
burlan spout, water pipe Russu from Italian borlone ‘rolling cylinder’, from North Italian borlare ‘to roll’[20]
burtă belly, stomach Russu dialectal borț 'pregnant woman's belly'
burtucă ? Hasdeu Not in current use.
burtuș ? Hasdeu Not in current use.
butuc, butură stump, log; trunk Russu from dialectal Bulgarian butuk, butur 'freshly-chopped tree stump', from bútam 'to beat, knock'.
buză lip; edge Russu (Alb.) Aromanian budzã "lip; brim"; from Albanian buzë "lip; edge"
Buzău Buzău, Buzău county Paliga[3] Attested in antiquity as Μουσεος
caier tow; hemp bundle; (arch.) distaff-full of wool, etc. to be spun Russu Aromanian cairu "distaff-full of wool, etc. to be spun"; from Vulgar Latin *cajulus, diminutive of caia, caiæ "stick"
cață shepherd's rod, crook Russu also descăța "to unhook"; See acăța above.
cârlan sheep or goat weanling; 2- or 3-year-old colt Russu
cârlig sheep hook Russu from Bulgarian kărlik (кърлик)[7]
căciulă high fur cap Russu (Alb.) from Albanian kaçule, itself from Latin casula
căpușă sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus) Russu (Alb.) from Albanian këpushë[7] 'tick', derivative of kap 'to grip, snatch'
căpută toe (of shoe); low boot Russu (Alb.) from Albanian këputë "sole (of shoe)", këpucë "shoe"; unrelated to Slavic kopyto "hoof" > Romanian copită
cătun hamlet Russu (Alb.) probably from Serbo-Croatian dial. kàtūn 'herdsmen community; summer pasture', from South Slavic katunъ 'camp, military encampment', from Byzantine Greek katoûna (κατοῦνα) 'tent camp', from Italian cantone; cf. Albanian katund (dial. katun, kotun) 'village; herdsmen community; widely spread-out village", Romani katúna 'Gypsy tent' (< Gk), Bulgarian katun(in) 'nomadic Gypsy'.[21]
cioară crow Sala, Hasdeu, Vraciu Aromanian țoarã, Megleno-Romanian čoară; from Old Albanian *corrë (mod. sorrë)[7]
cioc beak Sala, Hasdeu, Vraciu also ciocârlie 'skylark'; from Serbo-Croatian čok; also Albanian çok 'hammer; knuckle' (< Slavic).
ciomag club, cudgel Hasdeu Aromanian ciumac, Megleno-Romanian čămugă; from Turkish çomak; also Albanian çomage 'big hammer' (< Turk)
ciut hornless, poll; one-horned Russu (Alb.) dialectal șut; from Slavic; cf. Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian šut; also Albanian shyt 'hornless' (connected to "sutë" (a doe, female deer) (an albanism in the other Balkan languages)
codru wide old forest Hasdeu, Vraciu also Aromanian codru 'public square; hilltop; forest'; from Vulgar Latin *codrum, from Latin quadrum 'square'; cf. Albanian kodër 'hill; angular stone, cornerstone'
copac tree Sala, Russu (Alb.) older copaci, Aromanian cupaciu, Megleno-Romanian cupač, Istro-Romanian copaț 'thicket, brush'; from Albanian kopaç 'knot in wood, stump, trunk', itself from Bulgarian kopačĭ 'sapper', a derivative of kopája 'to hollow out, dig out'.
copil child Russu Aromanian cochil(u); from Serbo-Croatian kȍpile, Bulgarian kópele, both "bastard" (whereas other Slavic languages have sense "hoe" as in: Lower Sorbian koṕeło 'corral hoe', Polab ťüpål 'hoe', Russian kopyl 'stake; hoe'); cf. Albanian kopil (< Slav)
creț curly; curly-haired Russu Old Romanian creçu; from Slavic; cf. Serbian/Bulgarian krečav "curly", Polish kręty "curly", Slovenian kèrč, Czech krč
cruța to pardon, spare Russu (Alb.) from Albanian kursej 'to spare; save money' (var. kurcoj), from *kurt (modern shkurt), from Latin curtus 'short'
culbec snail Hasdeu variant cubelc
curma to stop abruptly, interrupt Russu (Alb.) older curmez, from Byzantine Greek kormázein (κορμάζω); cf. Albanian kurmua
curpăn vine, twining stem Russu (Alb.) from Albanian kurpën, kurpër 'clematis', from kurp 'traveller's joy, old man's beard (Clematis vitalba)'; related to below.
cursă trap, snare Russu (Alb.), Olteanu from Albanian kurth(ë), contraction of dial. kurpth, diminutive of kurp; related to above.
custură blade, knife edge, knife Russu variants custure, cusutură, cuțitură, from cuțit "knife' + suffix -tură
darari ? Russu Not in current use.
daș ram (male sheep) Russu (Alb.) from Albanian dash
dărâma to tear down, demolish, destroy Russu (Alb.) Aromanian dãrîmu; from Latin dērāmāre; cf. Albanian dërmoj 'to cut into pieces; plummet'
deh ? Hasdeu Not in current use.
deretica to tidy up Russu variants derăteca, derdica, dereteca; from Latin *deradicare "to root out"
dezbăra to break a habit, to rid Russu probably from French débarasser "to rid, get rid of"
dezgauc ? Hasdeu
doină lamenting folksong Hasdeu, Vraciu Transylvanian daină; from Lithuanian dainà 'folksong' (cf. Latvian daĩn̨a), derivative of Proto-Baltic *deî- (cf. Latvian diêt, dìet 'to dance, hop; sing')
don ? Hasdeu
dop cork, plug Russu from Transylvanian German Dop.[7]
droaie crowd, multitude; a lot Russu back-formation from the plural droi, from Albanian droe, droje[7] 'fear'; same sense development in Rom. groază 'horror' > o groază de 'a lot of'.
dulău mastiff Hasdeu, Vraciu from Polish dolow
Dunăre The Danube river Paliga[22] Dac. *Dan-ar- cf. NFl Aar, Aare, NL Aarhus, O. Dan. aar 'a river'
fărâmă crumb, morsel, bit Russu (Alb.) variant sfărâmă, Aromanian sîrmã; from Albanian thërrime, from ther 'to stab, slaughter, snip'
gard fence Russu (Alb.) Istro-Romanian gård "wattle gate to a pen"; from Albanian gardh; unrelated to Slavic gradŭ > Alb gradë
gata ready, done Russu (Alb.) from Albanian gat(i) "ready", from gatuaj 'to ready, prepare; cook', from Slavic *gotovati;[23] cf. Serbo-Croatian gotov "ready", Polish gotowy.
gâde executioner; tyrant Hasdeu plural gâzi; from Bulgarian gidija 'crazy, extravagant, reckless', Serbian gad "scoundrel"
gâdila to tickle Hasdeu var. gâdili, gâdeli, ghidili, Aromanian gádil, gădilare; from Bulgarian gădel me e (гъдел ме е) 'it tickles',[7] from gădeličkam (гъделичкам),[24] from Turkish gıdıklamak.
gălbează liver rot (fasciolosis), sheep pox Russu (Alb.) variant călbează; from Albanian gëlbazë, këlbazë, klëbacë 'sheep pox', itself from the Albanian word "kalb" (to rot, to go bad) with a diminutive suffixe -zë, commonly seen in disease names.
genune depth, abyss Hasdeu, Russu dialectal gerune, Old Romanian gerure; from Latin gyrō, gyrōnem
gheară claw, talon Russu from Arabic garaf 'grasp'
ghes a poke, a goad Russu dialectal ghies, ghios; from Hungarian gyűszű 'thimble'
ghimpe thorn Russu (Alb.) from Albanian gjemb (dialectal Tosk gjëmp, Arvanite gljimp, Gheg glëmp)
ghiob (Transylvanian) cheese vat Hasdeu from Hungarian döböny 'cylindrical, wooden, lidded crockery for honey and the like'[25][7]
ghionoaie woodpecker Sala, Russu (Alb.) dialectal ghionoi, ghin, Aromanian ǵionu 'tawny owl'; from Albanian gjon 'scops owl', from Gjon 'John'; Albanian also has qukapik 'woodpecker' (< qukë 'owl' + pik 'woodpecker')
ghiont nudge, poke Russu
ghiuj gaffer, old fogey Hasdeu, Vraciu Aromanian ghiuș; from Albanian gjysh "grandfather"
gordin kind of grapes used in winemaking Hasdeu variants gordean, g(o)ardină, gorgan, gordan; from Russian gordina "currant"
gorun durmast oak (Quercus petraea) Russu from Bulgarian gorun (горун)
grapă harrow Russu (Alb.) from Albanian grep (var. grap) 'hook'.
gresie sandstone, whetstone Russu (Alb.) Aromanian greasă; from Albanian gërresë (var. grresë) 'rasp, scraper; drawing knife', from gërryej 'to scrape, scour'
groapă hole, pit Russu (Alb.) Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian groapă, Istro-Romanian gropă; Albanian gropë, Montenegrin grȍp, variant of Serbo-Croatian grȍb
grui hilltop, hillock Russu variant gruńu, Aromanian gruñiu 'chin'; from Latin grunnium; cf. French groin 'pig snout', Italian grugno 'snout', Romansh grugn 'chin'.
grumaz neck Russu (Alb.), NODEX Aromanian grumadz, gurmadz; from Albanian gurmaz 'gaping maw, wide-open jaws; esophagus' (variants gurmac, grumas, gërmaz), itself from kurm 'trunk (of the body), torso' (> Romanian dial. curm 'short rope', curmei 'vine shoot')
grunz lump, clod Russu (Alb.) variants (s)grunț, Aromanian grundã (plural grundz) 'lump', grundzã 'bran'; from Albanian krunde 'coarse bran; sawdust' (var. grundë), derivative of kruaj 'to scratch'
gudura to fawn, cajole Russu from Albanian gudulis 'to tickle; pleasure'; unrelated to Romanian gâdila 'to tickle' (see above).
Gugu name of mountain Paliga[26] Etymologically related to Kogaionon
gușă a bird's crop; goiter Russu (Alb.) Aromanian gușe "neck, goiter"; from Late Latin geusiæ (Marcellus, 5th c.); cf. Italian gozzo, Friulian gose, French gosier; also Albanian gushë, Bulgarian/Serbian guša (all < Rom).
hojma (Moldova, Bucovina) repeatedly, continuously Hasdeu, Vraciu from Ukrainian hožma[7]
iazmă (Banat) ugly and evil apparition, ghost Hasdeu western aiazmă, eastern agheazmă; from Greek agíasma (αγίασμα) 'holy water; sacred spring'.
iele (mythology) white lady, Dames Blanches, who bewitch men with song and dance Hasdeu variant ele; from Romanian ele, feminine form of el "they". Euphemism of Romanian word dînsele 'ghost, soul of the dead' (= Latin lemures)[12]
încurca to tangle, to mix up Russu from Vulgar Latin *incolicare, from colus "distaff"; also descurca "to untangle"
înghina to assemble, to put together Russu variant of îmbina, from Latin imbinare; cf. Friulian imbinâ; likewise dezbina ~ desghina "to take apart, disassemble"
îngurzi to wrinkle the edge of a fabric or the sole of a shoe with a thread Russu variant îngruzi; from în + gurgui
însăila to stitch, to sew temporarily Russu variant înseila; from dial. saia "stitch" (Muntenia, Moldavia sailă), from Transylvanian German Seil "cord, rope".
întrema to recover after illness or fatigue Russu variants întrăma, (Moldavia, Bucovina) întrarma, back-formation from destrăma 'unweave, unravel, break up'.
jeț tall-backed (arm)chair Hasdeu, Vraciu variants jețiu, jățiu; from Transylvanian German Sätz "seat"; but older and dialectal variants jilț, jelț may have been influenced by Slavic; cf. Czech židlice "stool; seat", Serbo-Croatian sjedalo
leagăn cradle, swing Russu variants leangăn, leagănă; Istro-Romanian leagăr; back-formation of legăna "to rock, swing" (cf. Aromanian leagînu "to swing", Megleno-Romanian legăn), from Byzantine Greek liknon "cradle"
lepăda to drop; to take off (clothes) Russu dialectal lăpăda; Aromanian aleapidu "to throw, abandon"; from Latin lapidare "to throw stones"
lespede plat, slab, flagstone, gravestone Russu from Rusyn lepest "page, sheet", dialectal lespet(ok), from lepestitj "to shed"
leșina to faint Russu from Serbo-Croatian lešina "corpse"
mal lakeside shore, riverbank; coast Sala, Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu from Albanian mal "mountain"[27]
maldac, măldac a small load (of wood, hay, etc.) Hasdeu from Greek mandákis
mazăre pea (Pisum sativum) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu, Olteanu Aromanian madzãre; also Romanian măzăriche 'vetch', Aromanian mãdziricl'e; from Albanian modhull(ë) 'yellow vetchling', diminutive of modhë 'rye-grass, brome'
mânz foal, colt Russu (Alb.) Aromanian mîndzu, Megleno-Romanian mǫndz; from Old Albanian manz (modern Tosk mëz, Gheg mâz). Also mânzat 'steer', from OAlb. *manzat (mod. Tosk mëzat, Gheg mâzat 'yearling calf; bullock').[b][c]
măceș sweetbriar (Rosa rubiginosa) Russu
mădări to pamper, to spoil (a child) Russu from Transylvanian German maddern
măgură hill, knoll Sala, Russu (Alb.) dialectal Romanian and Aromanian măgulă; from Albanian magulë, a metathesis of gamulë; likewise Serbo-Croatian gòmila ~ mògila 'heap'.
mălai cornflour; dial. millet (flour) Hasdeu Moldavian malai; from Albanian miell "flour" (var. mjell, mill) or mel "millet", from Latin milium
mămăligă polenta, cornmeal mush (mămăligă) Hasdeu Aromanian mumalig; from Bulgarian mamuli[citation needed], metathesis of Turkish muhlama "pudding-like dish of cornmeal cooked in butter and water"
mărcat (Aromanian) rancid milk Russu
mătură broom Russu (Alb.) Aromanian metură, Megleno-Romanian mietură, Istro-Romanian meture; from Vulgar Latin *metula (cf. Albanian netull 'mullein', used in broommaking), from early Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian mètla, Bulgarian metlá 'broom'
Mehadia Mehadia Hasdeu 1614; from Hungarian Mihald (1323), Myhold (1349), from Mihály "Michael" + -d
melc snail Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu older melciu, Aromanian zmelciu; from Bulgarian melčev (мелчев), melčov (мелчов), melčo (мелчо) 'snail'[32]
mieriu sky blue; bluish, whitish Russu from dial. mier 'blue', from Latin merus
mire bridegroom Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu from Albanian mirë[7] 'good'; replaced Old Romanian măritu (still used in Muntenia).
mistreț wild boar (Sus scrofa) Russu from Latin mixtīcius 'mixed, crossbred, hybrid'; cf. Spanish mestizo 'half-breed'; also Albanian mistrec 'runt; brat, trouble-maker' (< Romanian).
mișca to move, stir Russu Megleno-Romanian micicari; from Vulgar Latin root *miscicāre, from Latin miscīre ("to agitate, mix") or from a derivative of miscēre.
morman pile, heap Russu
moș old man Russu (Alb.) back-formed from moașă 'midwife' (cf. Aromanian moașe, Megleno-Romanian moașă 'old woman'), from Albanian moshë 'age', moshëm 'old, aged'; replaced Old Romanian auș (still in Oltenia), from Latin avus.
moț tuft, crest Hasdeu from Slavic; cf. Czech/Slovak moc 'power, clout', Serbo-Croatian mȏć 'id.'
mozoc large shepherd dog Hasdeu variant mosoc
mugure bud Russu (Alb.) from Albanian mugull "bud, sprout"
munună, murună hilltop Russu
Mureş Mureş river Paliga[33] Ancient Maris, from IE *māro, *māno 'wet' and related to Romanian a mura 'to pickle'
murg dark-bay horse Sala, Russu (Alb.) Aromanian murgu, Megleno-Romanian murg; also amurg 'twilight, dusk'; from Albanian murg "dark".
mușat handsome Russu Aromanian mușeat, Megleno-Romanian/Istro-Romanian mușat; clipped form of *frumușat, from frumos
năpârcă common adder, viper (Vipera berus) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian năpîrtică; from Albanian nepërtkë (standard nepërkë, dial. nëpërkë), from Slavic *nepŭrŭtkŭ; cf. Bulgarian neprătăk 'buttercup'.
năsărâmbă (Transylvania, Oltenia) prank, mischief Hasdeu from sărâmb "head"
nițel a little Russu from Old Romanian nișchițel, diminutive of nișchit, neșchit "tiny", from niște, (Oltenia) nește "some, a few", from Latin nescit
noian multitude, heap; (arch.) abyss, immense sea Sala, Russu from Albanian ujanë "ocean", from ujë "water"
ortoman rich (of a shepherd); handsome (of an outlaw); quick (of a horse) Hasdeu variants iortoman, hartoman; from Turkish yortman "to run, flee"[34]
păstaie pod, capsule, hull Russu (Alb.) Aromanian păstăl'e; from Vulgar Latin pistālia, from pistāre "to pound"; cf. Albanian bishtajë "pod, hull; string bean"
pânză cloth, linen, fabric, textile Russu Aromanian pîndzã, Megleno-Romanian pǫndză, Istro-Romanian pănzę; from Vulgar Latin *pandia, from pandere
pârâu (pl. pâraie) brook, creek Russu (Alb.) dial. (North) pârău, Megleno-Romanian păroi; from Albanian përrua ( përroi) 'torrent, rushing stream', from Bulgarian poroj (порой) 'torrent', from *po-rojĭ (cf. Macedonian roj (рој) 'swarm', Polish zdrój 'spring, waters'); ending influenced by Romanian râu "river; stream", from Latin rivus
păstra to keep up Russu older păstrez; Aromanian spăstrescu, Megleno-Romanian păstres; from Greek pastrevo (παστρεύω) 'to clean, cleanse', from Byzantine Greek spastréuō; cf. Bulgarian pastrja (< Greek)[12]
Proca name of person Paliga[35] related to Dac. NL Napoca
prunc toddler, infant Russu from early Serbo-Croatian *prǫtče 'small rod' (modern Serbian prutka, Croatian pritka), variant of *prątče (Bulgarian prăčka), diminutive of *prątŭ 'rod' (Serbo-Croatan prût 'rod, with, switch')
pupăză hoopoe Sala Aromanian pupăză, Megleno-Romanian pupează; from Albanian pupëz(ë), diminutive of pupë, from Latin upupa[36]
pururi always, forever Russu (Alb.) variant purure, pururea; from d(e-a) pure(a)
rață duck Hasdeu, Vraciu, Sala from Serbo-Croatian dial. rȁca, race (also Bulgarian rĕca), from Old Albanian *roça (mod. rosë)[37]
râmf (Transylvanian) birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis) Hasdeu variants rimf, remf, rempf; from Transylvanian German Rämp 'birthwort' ~ Rimf 'tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)'[38]
rânză abomasum (rennet stomach) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu Aromanian arîndzã 'rennet'; from Albanian rrëndës 'rennet'.
răbda to suffer, endure, tolerate Russu older/Transylvanian rebda, Aromanian aravdu, arăvdare; from Latin *rigidare[39]
reazem support, backing, prop Russu variants razăm, reazăm, reazim; back-formation from rezema (dial. răzima) "to lean against, prop up"
ridica to raise, lift Russu older aridica, dialectal radica, Aromanian ardic(ari); from Latin eradicare "to uproot"
Sarmisegetuza Sarmizegetusa Hasdeu refers to a pre-Roman Dacian archaeological site; did not survive into Romanian
sâmbure kernel; pip, core Russu (Alb.), NODEX, Olteanu dialectal simbure, sumbure, Aromanian sîmbure, sumbur; from Albanian sumbull "push button; bud"
sâmvea (?) Hasdeu
scăpăra to strike fire; sparkle, lighten Russu (Alb.) Aromanian ascăpirare, Megleno-Romanian scăpirari; from Albanian shkrep "to strike fire", shkrepës "flint"
scrum ashes Russu (Alb.) older scrumb; from Albanian shkrumb; also Bulgarian скрум (< Romanian)
scula to get up (out of bed), wake up Russu (Alb.) Aromanian sculare, Megleno-Romanian sculari, Istro-Romanian scolu; back-formed from (se) răscula "to rise up, revolt, rebel", from South Slavic raskoliti;[40] cf. Serbo-Croatian raskòliti 'to split, cleave, rive'.
scurma to scrape or dig (with snout, claws, beak, tools) Russu from Vulgar Latin *excorrimāre; although rimāre > Romanian râma.
searbăd insipid Russu (Alb.), Olteanu older sarbăd, Aromanian sarbit; from Albanian tharbët "sour" (standard thartë, dialectal tharptë)
spânz purple hellebore Russu (Alb.) variants spânț, spunz, Aromanian spingiu; from Albanian shpendër (variants shpindër, spindër, spinër)[41]
stână sheepfold Hasdeu, Vraciu, NODEX variants stan, stean, Aromanian stînă, stane; from Slavic; cf. Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian stan "shepherd's hut"[42][43][44]
stăpân master, owner Hasdeu, Vraciu Megleno-Romanian stăpǫn; from Slavic stopanŭ;[7] cf. Macedonian stopan, Serbo-Croatian stopanin; also Albanian (Gheg) shtëpâ 'cheese-making shepherd'.
strănut with a white spot on nose (of animals) Russu variants strenut, stărnut; back-formation from strănuta,[7] from Latin sternūtāre "to sneeze"
stejar oak Hasdeu, Vraciu variants stăjer(iu), st(r)ăjar, strejar; from Bulgarian stežer (стежер);[7] doublet of steajer, from Serbo-Croatian stežer "trunk"
steregie soot caked in a chimney; scum; dross, waste; wine tartar Russu variants stirigie, stirighie, etc.; from variants tereghie, tirghie, etc. "wine tartar", from Greek trugiá, blended with Serbo-Croatian striješ (Chakavian striš) "wine tartar"[45]
sterp barren, infertile Russu (Alb.) eastern stărp, Aromanian sterpu; from Byzantine Greek stérifos (στέριφος; mod. stérfos (στέρφος)); cf. Albanian shterpë, Slovene stirpa, Venetian sterpa (all < Gk).
străghiață cottage cheese Russu variant stereghiață, Banat străghiată, Aromanian strãgl'atã, Megleno-Romanian strigl'ată; from Bulgarian strigle (стригле), literally 'clipped, sheared', preterit/past participle of striža (стрижа) 'to shear, clip'; cf. Greek éstriglos (ἔστριγλος) ~ strigária (στριγάρια) 'gleanings' (< Bulg); also Serbo-Croatian strigljata, Greek stringléta (στριγκλέτα) (< (Ar)Romanian)
strepede cheese maggot (larva of the cheese fly, cheese skipper; Piophila casei) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian streapit "cheese mite", Megleno-Romanian strepij; from Albanian shtrep "maggot, larva"
strugure grape; (arch.) bunch Russu, NODEX Aromanian strugur 'sliver, gleanings'; singularized plural, from dialectal (Basarabia) strug, deverbative of dial. strugi, struji 'to shave or scrape off; chisel';[46] replaced Old Romanian auă, from Latin ūva
strungă sheepfold; narrow passage, canyon Russu (Alb.), NODEX from Albanian shtrungë 'milking enclosure', from shtroj 'to spread'
sugruma to strangle, to burke Russu from sub "under" + grumaz "throat" (see above).
sugușa to strangle, to burke Russu from sub "under" + gușă "neck; goiter" (see above).
șale loins, small of the back Russu (Alb.) Aromaian șali 'loins'; from Albanian shalë 'saddle; inner thigh', from Latin sella 'saddle'; cf. inherited Romanian șa (Muntenia șea, pl. sele), Aromanian șeauã, șelã, both 'saddle'
șir row, line Hasdeu, Russu also șiră "spine"; from Greek sirá (σειρά) 'line, row; cord, rope'
șopârlă wall lizard (Lacerta muralis) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu variant șopirlă, Aromanian ciupilar (recent jabilu, şapic, japie); from Albanian zhapi (plural zhapinj) 'lizard' (var. xhapi, xhzpik).
șorici bacon skin, pork rind Russu Moldavian cioric; from Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian čvarak, Czech škvarek, Polish skwarek
tare hard Russu Aromanian tari 'some, certain', Megleno-Romanian tari, Istro-Romanian tore; from Latin talis 'such';[7] cf. Albanian tallë
Tăpia Tăpia, Banat Paliga[47] The same, or close to ancient Tapae
traistă bag Hasdeu older taistră, tainstră, traistră, Bassarabia/Maramarus straistă, Transylvanian straiță; cf. Albanian trastë, trajstë, strajcë.
tulei (young) whiskers Hasdeu from Serbo-Croatian tulaj, Ukrainian tulij.[7]
țap he-goat; buck Russu (Alb.) from Albanian cjap (var. cap, cqap, sqap).
țarc pen, fold Russu (Alb.), Olteanu from Albanian thark (var. cark) 'enclosure (esp. for milking)'.
țarină country, land Russu from Serbo-Croatian carina.;[7] alternatively and possibly from țară + suffix -ină.
țăruș pole, pale, picket Russu from Ukrainian taraš "post, pile, pillar"[48]
țumburuș small, round knob, nub Olteanu older țâmburuș; from Albanian thumbull 'button; pin'; nearly identical to sâmbure (< sumbull) (see above).
țurcă traditional Romanian game Hasdeu from Ukrainian curka[7]
(a se/ a) uita respectively: to look, to forget Russu Banat/Maramus zăuita, Aromanian ultare, Megleno-Romanian ul't(ari), Istro-Romanian utu; from Latin oblitare "to forget";[7] cf. Occitan/Catalan oblidar, French oublier
urca to mount, ascend; increase Russu, Paliga[49] Either from Vulgar Latin *oricāre,[7] frequentative of orior "to rise" or ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *OR- / *UR- 'big, huge, giant' related with Greek ouranizo 'to go up, to climb' derived from Ouranos 'sky'.
urcior stye Russu variant ulcior, Aromanian ulcior, urcior; from Latin hordeolus;[7] cf. Italian orzaiolo, Old French orgeoul, Spanish orzuelo
urdă cottage cheese Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu from dialectal Albanian urdhë (standard udhos, dialectal urdhos)
urdina to go frequently, visit; have diarrhea Russu from Latin ordināre "to put in order";[7] cf. Spanish ordeñar
urdoare bleariness; eye snot Russu from Latin horridus; cf. Old French ord 'foul'.
vatră hearth, fireplace; home Hasdeu, Russu (Alb). from Albanian vatër;[d] also Serbian vatra "fire" (< Alb)[50]
vătăma to hurt, to injure Russu from Latin victimare "to sacrifice"[7]
vătui yearling kid (goat); hare Russu (Alb.) older vătuiu, Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian vitul'u; from Byzantine Greek *vitoúlion (*βιτούλιον; modern Lefkada vitũli (βιτοῦλι));[51] also Albanian ftujë (Cham ftulë, Arbëresh vëtulë) 'female kid' (< ByzGk)
viezure badger Sala, Russu (Alb.), Olteanu older viedzure, Aromanian yedzurã, yedzãre; from Albanian vjedhull, from vjedh "to steal"
viscol snowstorm, snow squall Russu from Hungarian *veszkölni ~ viszkol, as in veszködni 'to agitate', from visz, vesz 'to take; bear'.
zară buttermilk Russu from *dzară, from Albanian dhallë; also Aromanian dhală (recent loan; < Alb)
zâmbru Swiss pine, Arolla pine (Pinus cembra) Hasdeu, Vraciu from Italian cembro (or Lombardo zémbro)
zârnă black nightshade, sunberry (Solanum nigrum) Hasdeu from Slavic *zĭrno ~ zarno 'grain; berry';[7] cf. Serbo-Croatian zȑno, (Hvar) zȃrno, Bulgarian zărno
zburda sport, frolic, frisk about Russu variant sburda; from Byzantine Greek spyrthizein 'to frolic, lark (of animals)'
zer whey Russu, Olteanu older zăr, Moldavian/Banat/Aromanian dzăr, masculine back-formation from zară (see above).
zestre dowry Russu from Latin dextræ "solemn vow"[7]
zgardă dog collar Russu (Alb.) from Albanian shkardhë[7] 'dog chain; (dial.) wicker gate in fence', from sh- + gardhë 'fence'.
zgâria to scratch Russu (Alb.?) Megleno-Romanian zgair, zgăirari; from Latin *scaberare (< scaber "itchy").[7]
zgîrma, zgrîma, sgrîma (Aromanian) to scratch, scrape Russu cf. Romanian scurma above
zimbru wisent Hasdeu, Vraciu from Old Slavic *zǫbrъ;[7] cf. Ukrainian zubr (зубр), Slovak zubor, Bulgarian zúbǎr (зу́бър)


The Sources column indicates the linguist(s) or the works who suggested including the words in the list:

  • "Sala": Marius Sala, De la latină la română (1998) [2]
  • "Hasdeu": Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae, 1894.[better source needed]
  • "Russu": Ion I. Russu [ro], Limba traco-dacilor, Editura Ştiințifică, 1967. The words that have been identified by I. I. Russu to have cognates in Albanian are marked with (Alb.).
  • "Vraciu": Ariton Vraciu, Limba daco-geților, Timişoara: Editura Facla, 1980.
  • "NODEX": Noul dicționar explicativ al limbii române [The New Dictionary of the Romanian Language], Litera Internațional, 2002. In this dictionary substratum words are labeled cuvînt autohton "native word".
  • "Olteanu": Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal".[52]
  • "Ciorănescu": Alexandru Ciorănescu, Diccionario etimológico rumano, Tenerife: Universidad de la Laguna, 1958–1966.
  • Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See also: E Bukura e Dheut ('The Beauty of the Earth'), Albanian mythological character.
  2. ^ The Messapic word menza ('foal') and Gaulish manduos ('foal') are also considered cognates.[28][29][30]
  3. ^ An obscure deity called Jove or Juppiter Menzanas is attested in relation to the Messapians of Sallentini.[31]
  4. ^ See also: Nëna e Vatrës, Albanian goddess of the hearth fire.


  1. ^ Lucian Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, Reaktion Books, ISBN 1861891032, p.57
  2. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 25
  3. ^ a b c d Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 60.
  4. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 25.
  5. ^ a b c Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 27.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag I. Coteanu et al., eds. Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, 2nd edn. (Bucharest: Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan" / Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1996; reprint 1998).
  8. ^ Rupprecht Rohr, Kleines rumänisches etymologisches Wörterbuch: 1. Band: A-B, s.v. "adia" (Frankfurt am Main: Haag + Herchen, 1999), 16.
  9. ^ Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică din București, Dicționarul limbii române moderne (Editura Academiei, 1958).
  10. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 29.
  11. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 30.
  12. ^ a b c d e Alexandru Ciorănescu, Diccionario etimológico rumano (Tenerife: Universidad de la Laguna, 1958–1966).
  13. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 30.
  14. ^ Laurenţiu Rădvan, At Europe's Borders: Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities (Brill, 2010), 243.
  15. ^ Draucean, Adela Ileana (2008). "The Names of Romanian Fairy-Tale Characters in the Works of the Junimist Classics". In: Studii și cercetări de onomastică și lexicologie, II (1-2), p. 28. ISSN 2247-7330
  16. ^ Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, Entry for bîrsă
  17. ^ Rupprecht Rohr, KlRuEW, s.v. "beregată", 160.
  18. ^ Lazăr Șăineanu, Dicționar universal al limbii române (Craiova: Scrisul Românesc, 1896).
  19. ^ Rupprecht Rohr, KlRuEW, s.v. "buiestru", 239.
  20. ^ Rupprecht Rohr, KlRuEW, s.v. "burlan", 251.
  21. ^ Bardhyl Demiraj, Albanische Etymologien (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1997), 214–5.
  22. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 269
  23. ^ Vladimir Orel, Albanian Etymological Dictionary (Leiden: Brill, 1998), 111.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2009-01-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)[failed verification]
  25. ^ German original: "ein cylindrisches, hölzernes Geschirr aus einem Stücke, mit Deckel, zum Honig und dergleichen"; Gregor Dankovszky, Kritisch-etymologisches Wörterbuch der magyarischen Sprache... (Bratislava [Pozsony]: Belnays Erben, 1833), 270.
  26. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 106.
  27. ^ Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (p. 145 [1])
  28. ^ Pisani, Vittore (1976). "Gli Illiri in Italia". Iliria (in Italian). 5: 69. doi:10.3406/iliri.1976.1213.
  29. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998). Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Brill. p. 260, 265. ISBN 978-90-04-11024-3.
  30. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental (in French). Errance. p. 215. ISBN 9782877723695.
  31. ^ Francisco Marcos-Marin. "Etymology and Semantics: Theoretical Considerations apropos of an Analysis of the Etymological Problem of Spanish mañero, mañeria." In: Historical Semantics—Historical Word-Formation. de Gruyter, 1985. p. 381.
  32. ^ Maček, Slavia 28 (1959): 273.
  33. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 140
  34. ^ Tiktin; Ovid Densuşianu, GS, VI, 313-18.
  35. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 161
  36. ^ Orel, AED, p. 350.
  37. ^ Orel, AED, p. 374.
  38. ^ Malwine Dengel, ed. Siebenbürgisch-sächsisches Wörterbuch: Q – R, 2nd edn. (Cologne-Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2006), 48.
  39. ^ Delphine Seigneur & Claudine Pagliano, "On the Rumanian kt >pt Shift: Coda Lenition or Melodic Contamination?", Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2003 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005), 327.
  40. ^ Kim Schulte, "Loanwords in Romanian", Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook (Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2009).
  41. ^ Roger Bernard, "VI. Bulgare карп 'ellébore', стрáтур 'amarante'", Revue des études slaves 23 (1947): 161.
  42. ^ Lazăr Șăineanu, Dicționar universal al limbei române, 6th edn. (Editura "Scrisul românesc", 1929).
  43. ^ August Scriban, Dicționaru limbii românești (Institutu de Arte Grafice "Presa Bună", 1939)
  44. ^ Lambrior, Cihac, Densuşianu, Tiktin, Rosetti, Conev, cf. DER; DEX
  45. ^ Olga Mladenova, Grapes and Wine in the Balkans: An Ethno-Linguistic Study (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998), 547.
  46. ^ Alexandru de Cihac, Dictionnaire d'étymologie daco-romane, vol. 2: Éléments slaves, magyars, turcs et albanais (Frankfurt: Ludolphe St. Goar, 1879), 375–6.
  47. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 187
  48. ^ Schulte, "Loanwords in Romanian", p. 254.
  49. ^ Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 200.
  50. ^ SCHUSTER-ŠEWC, HEINZ. "Zur Etymologie und Wortgeschichte von südslawisch vatra 'Feuer, Herd'". In: STUF - Language Typology and Universals 32, no. 1-6 (1979): 699-702.
  51. ^ Guillaume Bonnet, Les mots latins de l'albanais (Paris-Montreal: L'Harmattan, 1998), 369.
  52. ^ (in English and Romanian) Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal" Archived 2009-04-15 at the Wayback Machine


  • (in Romanian) Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu. Columna lui Traian, 1876.
  • (in Romanian) Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu. Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae: Dicționarul limbei istorice și poporane a românilor, 3 vols. Bucharest: Socec şi Teclu, 1887–1895 (reprint ed. Grigore Brâncuș, Bucharest: Minerva, 1972–1976).
  • (in Romanian) Ion. I. Russu. Limba traco-dacilor, 2nd edn. Bucharest: Editura Științifică, 1967 (1st edn. Acad. Rep. pop. Romîne 1959; reprint Dacica 2009).
  • (in Romanian) Ion. I. Russu. Elemente autohtone în limba română: Substratul comun româno-albanez. Bucharest: Editura Academiei RSR, 1970 (reprint Dacica 2013).
  • (in Romanian) Ion. I. Russu. Etnogeneza românilor. Bucharest: Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică, 1981.
  • (in Romanian) Ariton Vraciu. Limba daco-geților. Timișoara: Editura Facla, 1980.
  • (in Spanish) Alexandru Ciorănescu. Diccionario etimológico rumano. 3 vols. La Laguna, Tenerife: Biblioteca Filológica, Universidad de la Laguna, 1958–1966 (reprint: Madrid: Gredos, 1966).
    • Romanian translation: Dicționar etimologic român. Translated by Tudora Șandru Mehedinți & Magdalena Popescu Marin. Bucharest: Saeculum, 2001 (in part available online at DEX online).
  • (in Romanian) George Pruteanu. "Limba traco-dacilor", transcript of a TV show broadcast March 25 and 26, 1996, on PRO TV; the transcript is followed by a "List of words considered by specialists as most probably belonging to the Dacian language".
  • (in Romanian) DEX online: a collection of Romanian dictionaries
  • Albanian <-> English Dictionary