List of Russian dishes

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This is a list of notable dishes found in Russian cuisine.[1] Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian peoples. The cuisine is diverse, with Northeast European/Baltic, Caucasian, Central Asian, Siberian, East Asian and Middle Eastern influences.[2] Russian cuisine derives its varied character from the vast and multi-ethnic expanse of Russia.

Russian dishes[edit]

Zakuski[edit]

Name Image Description
Caviar Ossetra caviar.jpg Processed, salted roe, often of sturgeon[3]
Courgette caviar Squash Caviar.jpg Cold entrée made of stewed vegetables (predominantly courgettes). Usually it is eaten with bread[4]
Kasha Гречневая каша.jpg Porridge. Buckwheat,[5] millet, oat, wheat and semolina kashas are widely popular in Russia.[6][7]
Kholodets Holodez s hrenom.JPG A meat jelly that is also known as studen[7][8]
Knish Lower East Side - Schimmel Knish 2.jpg A baked or fried potato dumpling made of flaky dough[9][10]
Salo Sushi Made from Salo.jpg Is a food consisting of cured slabs of fatback (rarely pork belly), with or without skin.
Stroganina Dish Stroganina .jpg A dish of the indigenous people of northern Arctic Siberia consisting of raw, thin, long-sliced frozen fish.
Zakuski Russian Celebration Zakuski.jpg Refers to a variety of hors d'oeuvres, snacks, appetizers, usually served buffet style.[11] It often includes cold cuts, cured fishes, mixed salads, kholodets, various pickled vegetables and mushrooms, pirozhki, caviar, deviled eggs, open sandwiches, canapés and breads.[11]
Zhulien (Julienne) Julienne.jpg Мushrooms in cream or béchamel sauce topped with grated cheese and baked in a cocotte. Chicken, fish or seafood can also be used with or instead of mushrooms.

Soups[edit]

Name Image Description
Borscht Borscht with bread.jpg It is traditionally made from meat or bone stock, sautéed vegetables, and beet sour (i.e., fermented beetroot juice). Depending on the recipe, some of these components may be omitted or substituted for.
Okroshka Kvass-okroshka.jpg Cold soup of mostly raw vegetables like cucumbers, spring onions, boiled potatoes, with eggs, and a cooked meat such as beef, veal, sausages, or ham with kvas, topped with sour cream[12]
Rassolnik Rassolnik.jpg A soup made from pickled cucumbers, pearl barley, and pork or beef kidneys[13]
Shchi Schi.jpg A cabbage soup.[14] Also can be based on sauerkraut.[14] Kislye Shchi (sour shchi) despite its name is a fizzy beverage similar to kvass, usually with honey.
Svekolnik Chlodnik (Cold Borscht).jpg A type of cold borscht.
Solyanka Soljanka with olives.jpg A thick, spicy and sour soup that contains fish and pickled cucumbers[15]
Sorrel soup Sorrel soup with egg and croutons (Zupa szczawiowa z jajkiem i grzankami).jpg Water or broth, sorrel leaves, salt, sometimes with whole eggs or egg yolks, potatoes, carrots, parsley root, and rice[16][17]
Ukha Опеканная уха.JPG A clear soup, made from various types of fish[18]

Salads[edit]

Name Image Description
Dressed herring (Seld pod shuboi) Selidi pod shuboi.jpg Diced, salted herring covered with layers of grated, boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beet roots), chopped onions, and mayonnaise[19][7]
Mimosa salad Mimoza salat e-citizen.jpg A festive salad, whose main ingredients are cheese, eggs, canned fish, onion, and mayonnaise[citation needed]
Olivier salad (Stolichniy salad) Russischer Oliviersalat.JPG Diced potatoes, eggs, chicken or bologna, sweet peas, and pickles with a mayonnaise dressing. Other vegetables, such as carrot or fresh cucumbers, can be added.[20][7]
Vinegret Vinegret.jpg Diced boiled vegetables (beet roots, potatoes, carrots), chopped onions, and sauerkraut and/or pickled cucumbers.[21][22][23] Other ingredients, such as green peas or beans, are sometimes also added.[22][23] Dressed with vinaigrette or simply with sunflower or other vegetable oil.

Meat dishes[edit]

Name Image Description
Beef Stroganoff Beef Stroganoff-02 cropped.jpg Pieces of sautéed beef in sauce, with smetana (sour cream)[24]
Chicken Kiev Chicken kiev.jpg A dish made of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and either fried or baked.
Golubtsy Golubzi4.jpg Cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings[25][7]
Makarony po-flotski Макароны по-флотски.JPG Literally navy-style pasta, a dish made of cooked pasta (typically macaroni, penne or fusilli) mixed with stewed ground meat, fried onions and seasoned with salt and black pepper.
Pelmeni Pelmeni Russian.jpg Dumplings consisting of a meat filling wrapped in thin, pasta dough[26][27][7]
Pozharsky cutlet Pozharsky cutlet A breaded ground chicken patty[28]
Shashlyk Chenjeh1.jpg A dish of skewered and grilled cubes of meat.
Veal Orlov French meat.jpg A dish invented by the French[29] consisting of braised loin of veal, thinly sliced, filled with a thin layer of pureed mushrooms and onions between each slice, topped with bechamel sauce and cheese. Various versions of this dish usually go by the name French-style meat in Russia today.

Pancakes[edit]

Name Image Description
Blini Blini with beef.jpg Pancakes of various thickness and ingredients[30][7]
Oladyi Russian oladyi, Bob Bob Ricard, Soho, London.jpg Small thick pancakes[31]
Syrniki (Tvorozhniki) Syrniki6.jpg Fried pancakes made of quark, usually topped with sour cream, varenye, jam, honey, or apple sauce[32][33]

Khleb (bread)[edit]

Name Image Description
Baranki Barankas.jpg A dough ring somewhat smaller than a bublik, but also thinner and drier.
Borodinsky bread Borodinoer Brot, borordinsky bread, бородинский хлеб II.jpg Dark brown sourdough rye bread
Bubliki Bublik in Kiev with Sesame.JPG It is a ring of yeast-leavened wheat dough, that has been boiled in water for a short time before baking.
Karavai Russian bread and salt.jpg A large round braided bread, traditionally baked from wheat flour and decorated with symbolic flags and figurines, such as suns, moons, birds, animals, and pine cones.
Kalach Lob NARkult 09.JPG Historically, kalach meant any kind of white bread, and before modern methods of grinding wheat came into use, white bread was classed as a type of fancy bread.
Kulich Kulich pies.JPG One of the two sine qua non attributes of the Russian Easter (the other is Paskha).[34] A type of Easter bread.[34]
Sushki Sooshki.jpg Traditional small, crunchy, mildly sweet bread rings eaten for dessert, usually with tea or coffee.

Pirogi (pies)[edit]

Name Image Description
Kulyebyaka Salmon Coulibiac 2.jpg A fish (usually salmon or sturgeon) loaf, with rice, hard-boiled eggs, mushrooms, and dill[35]
Karelsky pirog Karjalanpiirakka-20060227.jpg Atraditional pirog from the region of Karelia.
Kurnik Kurnik.jpg A dome-shaped savoury type of Russian pirog, usually filled with chicken or turkey, eggs, onions, kasha or rice, and other optional components.[36][37]
Rasstegai Rasstegai s gorbushei.jpg The filling usually contains fish, but may also contain meat, liver, rice or mushrooms.
Pirog Pirog from Stolle 02.jpg A pie either with a sweet or savoury filling[38]
Pirozhki Piroshki.JPG Small pies[39][7]
Vatrushka Vatrushka.jpg A pastry with a ring of dough and sweet farmer's cheese in the middle[40]

Sauces[edit]

Name Image Description
Khren Food 013 white.JPG A spicy paste made of grated horseradish.
Khrenovina Khrenovina-sauce.jpg A spicy horseradish sauce served with a main course, which is very popular in Siberia.
Smetana Crème d'Isigny 2.JPG It is a dairy product produced by souring heavy cream.

Desserts[edit]

Name Image Description
Guriev porridge Gurievskaya porridge photo 05-2017.jpg A Russian porridge dish prepared from semolina and milk with the addition of nuts (hazelnut, walnuts, almonds), kaimak (creamy foams) and dried fruits.[41]
Kutia Kutia Natalii.jpg A ceremonial grain dish with sweet gravy.
Paskha Paskha2.jpg Tvorog (farmer's cheese) plus heavy cream, butter, sugar, vanilla, etc., usually molded in the form of a truncated pyramid. Traditional for Easter.
Pryanik Big Tula Gingerbread.JPG A range of traditional sweet baked goods made from flour and honey.
Pastila Kolomna Pastila.jpg It has been described as "small squares of pressed fruit paste"[1] and "light, airy puffs with a delicate apple flavor".
Varenye Az-Strawberry jam, making by e-citizen (moonsun1981).JPG It is made by cooking berries, other fruits, or more rarely nuts, vegetables, or flowers, in sugar syrup.
Zefir Zefyrai.JPG A type of soft confectionery made by whipping fruit and berry purée (mostly apple puree) with sugar and egg whites with subsequent addition of a gelling agent like pectin, carrageenan, agar, or gelatine.

Beverages[edit]

Non-alcoholic drinks[edit]

Name Image Description
Kissel Red Currant Kissel.jpg Fruit dessert of sweetened juice, thickened with arrowroot, cornstarch or potato starch[42]
Kompot Compot 12.jpg Non-alcoholic sweet beverage, that may be served hot or cold, depending on tradition and season. It is obtained by cooking fruit such as strawberries, apricots, peaches, apples, rhubarb, gooseberries, or sour cherries in a large volume of water, often together with sugar or raisins as additional sweeteners.
Kvass Mint bread kvas.jpg A fermented non-alcoholic beverage made from black or regular rye bread or dough[43]
Mors Mors (ru. Морс - прохладительный негазированный напиток).JPG A non-carbonated Russian fruit drink[44][45][46] prepared from berries, mainly from lingonberry and cranberry (although sometimes blueberries, strawberries, sea buckthorns or raspberries).
Ryazhenka Ryazhenka16c.JPG It is made from baked milk by lactic acid fermentation.[47]
Varenets Varenets2.jpg A fermented milk product that is popular in Russia.[48][49] Similar to ryazhenka, it is made by adding sour cream (smetana) to baked milk.[49]

Alcoholic drinks[edit]

Name Image Description
Medovukha Медовуха.jpg A traditional Russian honey-based drink analogous to its counterparts of other Indo-European peoples[50]
Sbiten Сбитень (збитень) ржаной.JPG A traditional Russian honey-based drink similar to Medovukha[51]
Vodka Smirnoff Red Label 8213.jpg It is composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally it is made by distilling the liquid from cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented, though some modern brands use fruits or sugar as the base.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Classic Russian Cooking, Elena Molokhovets ("A Gift to Young Housewives"), Indiana University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-253-36026-9
  2. ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  3. ^ Mitchell, C. (2009). Passport Russia 3rd Ed., eBook. World Trade Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-60780-027-9. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  4. ^ "Courgette caviar, recipe". FalkTime. Retrieved 2019-07-10.
  5. ^ Molokhovets, E.; Toomre, J. (1998). Classic Russian Cooking: Elena Molokhovets' a Gift to Young Housewives. Indiana-Michigan Series in Rus. Indiana University Press. p. 334. ISBN 978-0-253-21210-8. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
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  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Don't Miss These 10 Russian Dishes When Going To The World Cup". caspiannews.com. November 29, 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
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  9. ^ "Recipe: Knish – The Carbohydrate-Laden Jewish Comfort Food". The Moscow Times. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
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  12. ^ Goldstein, D. (1999). A Taste of Russia: A Cookbook of Russian Hospitality. Russian Life Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-880100-42-4. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  13. ^ Schultze, S. (2000). Culture and Customs of Russia. Culture and Customs of Europe. Greenwood Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-313-31101-7. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
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Bibliography[edit]