List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi

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The following is an alphabetical (according to Hindi's alphabet) list of Sanskrit and Persian roots, stems, prefixes, and suffixes commonly used in Hindi.

अ (a)[edit]

Root English Equivalent Origin language Etymology Hindi examples
अग्नि- (agni-) pyro-,ignite(Latin)- Sanskrit अग्नि (fire) अग्निशामक (agniśāmak) = fire extinguisher; अग्निरोधक (agnirōdhak) = Fire proof; अग्निभीति (agnibhīti) = pyrophobia
-अणु (-aɳu) Sanskrit अणु (minute, particle, atomic) प्राणु (prāɳu) = proton; धनाणु (dhanāɳu) = positron; विषाणु (vishāɳu) = virus
अति- (ati-) super- Sanskrit अति (extremely, beyond, over) अतिकाल (atikāl) = delay
अधि- (adhi-) epi-, meta- Sanskrit अधि (over, above, upon, after) अधिकार (adhikār) = rights, authority
अन- (an-), अ- (a-) non-, un-, a-, an- Sanskrit अन-, अ- (not, without) अकारण (akāraɳ) = causeless, unprovoked; अनादर (anaadar) = disrespect
अनु- (anu-) Sanskrit अनु (along, orderly, accordingly) अनुक्रम (anukram) = sequence
अम्ल- (aml-) acid- Sanskrit अम्ल (acid) अम्लप्रेमी(amlapremī) = acidophile
अप- (ap-) ab- Sanskrit अप (away, off) अपमान (apmān) = insult
अभि- (abhi-) ambi-/ἀμφί- Sanskrit अभि (to, towards, into, over, upon) अभिज्ञान (abhijñyān) = recognition, identification
-अर्बुद (arbud) -oma, onco- Sanskrit अर्बुद (tumor, swelling) लसीकार्बुद (lasīkārbud) = lymphoma; अर्बुदविज्ञान (arbudvijñān) = oncology
अव- (av-) Sanskrit अव (down, off, away) अवरोध (avarodh) = barrier, inhibition; अवगुण (avguɳ) = failing, fault, demerit
अर्ध- (ardha-) semi-, demi-, Sanskrit अर्ध (half) अर्धचालक (ardhachālak) = semiconductor; अर्धपारगम्य (ardhapārgamya) = semipermeable
आत्म- (ātma-) auto-, self- Sanskrit आत्मा (self) आत्महत्या (ātmahatyā) = suicide; आत्मज्ञान (ātmajñān) = self-knowledge; आत्मकथा (ātmakathā) = autobiography
अष्ट- (aṣṭa-) octo- Sanskrit अष्ट (eight) अष्टकोण (aṣṭakōṇ) = octagon; अष्टपदी (aṣṭapadī) = octave; अष्टभुज (aṣṭabhuj) = octopus

आ (aa)[edit]

-आना (-ānā) Adjective-forming. -ish, -ous, -ly. Persian انه (âneh) दोस्ताना (dostānā) = friendly; फ़क़ीराना (faqīrānā) = austere, ascetic.
आप-/अप- (aap-/ap-) aqua- Sanskrit आप (water) अप्सरा; अब्ज
आब- (aab-) aqua- Persian آب (aab) (water) आबखोरा (ābkhorā) = mug, pot; आबहवा (ābhavā) = climate; पंजाब (Panjāb) = Punjab (Land of five Rivers)

इ (i)[edit]

उ (u)[edit]

उद- (ud-) hydro- Sanskrit उद (water) उदजन (udjan) = hydrogen
उभय- (ubhaya-) ambi-, amphi- Sanskrit उभय (both) उभयभावी (ubhayabhāvī) = ambivalent; उभयलिंगी (ubhayalingī) = bisexual; उभयचर (ubhayachar) = amphibian
उप- (up-) sub- Sanskrit उप (below, subsidiary, towards) उपवन (upvan) = orchard, park; उपमार्ग (upmārg) = bypass, side street; उपमहाद्वीप (upmahādvīp) = subcontinent

ऊ (oo)[edit]

ए (e)[edit]

एक- (ek-) uni-, mono- Sanskrit एक (one) एकभाषी (ekbhāshī) = monolingual; एकपक्षीय (ekpakshīya) = unilateral; एकवर्णी (ekvarnī) = monochromatic

ऐ (ai)[edit]

ओ (o)[edit]

औ (au)[edit]

अं (am/an)[edit]

अंतः- (antaha-) inter-, endo- Sanskrit अंतः (in, inside) अंतःकरण (antahakaraɳ) = conscience
अंतर- (antar-) inter- Sanskrit अंतर् (in the middle, internal, amongst, within) अंतर्राष्ट्रीय (antarrāṣtrīya) = international
अंश- (amsh-) Sanskrit अंश (part, portion) अंशकालिक (amśakālik) = part-time; अंशांकन (amśānkan) = calibration

क (k)[edit]

कम- (kam-) min- Persian کم (kam) (low, little, small) कमज़ोर (kamzor) = weak
कठ- (kath-), काठ- (kaath-) xylo- Sanskrit काष्ठ (kāṣth) (timber, wood) कठफोड़वा (kathphodvā) = woodpecker ; काठमांडू (kāthmāndu) = Kathmandu
काष्ट- (kāṣt-) xylo- Sanskrit काष्ठ (timber, wood) काष्ठवाद्य (kāṣtavādya) = xylophone, काष्ठशर्करा (kāṣtasharkarā) = xylose
-काय (-kāya) -some, -soma Sanskrit काय (Body) लयनकाय (Layankāya) = Lysosome; कायिक (kāyik) = Somatic
-कोण (-kona) -gon Sanskrit कोण (corner, angle) त्रिकोण (trikona) = triangle; षट्कोण (ṣatakona) = hexagon

ख (kh)[edit]

ख़ुद- (khud-) auto- Persian خود (xod) (self, own, ego) ख़ुदग़रज़ी (khudgarzī) = selfish
ख़ुश- (khuś-) good-, eu- Persian خوش (xoš) (good) ख़ुशनसीब (khuśnasīb) = fortunate; ख़ुशफ़हमी (khuśfahmī) = fantasy (lit. good understanding)
ख़ून- (khoon-) Persian خون (xun) (blood, gore) ख़ूँखार(khūnkhār) = bloodthirsty

ग (g)[edit]

गाव- (gaav-) Persian گاو (gaav) (cow) गावशुमारी (gaavśumārī) = cow census
ग़ैर- (ġair-) non- Arabic غير (ghayr) (non-, un-) ग़ैरमुल्की (ġairmulkī) = foreigner, non-native
गो- (go-) Sanskrit गो (cow) गोविन्द (govind) = cow herder

घ (gh)[edit]

च (c)[edit]

चल- (chal-) Sanskrit चल (moving) चलचित्र (chalchitra) = movie, motion picture
चित्र- (chitra-) Sanskrit चित्र (picture) चित्रयंत्र (citrayantra) = camera

छ (ch)[edit]

छद्म- (chadm-) pseudo- Sanskrit छद्म (deceptive) छद्मावरण (chadmāvaraɳ) = camouflage

ज (j)[edit]

-ज़दा (-zadā) Adjective forming, denoting "stricken, afflicted" Persian زده (beaten, hit) मुसीबतज़दा = (musībatzadā) = disaster-stricken; हैरतज़दा = (hairatzadā) = awestruck
-जन (-jan) -gen Sanskrit जन (generating) उदजन (Udjan) = Hydrogen; तुषारजन (Tushārjan) = Cryogen
जल- (jal-) aqua- Sanskrit जल (water) जलसेतु (jalsetu) = aqueduct
जीव- (jīva-) bio- Sanskrit जीव (life, living) जीवविज्ञान (jīvavijñān) = biology; जीवतत्व (jīvatatva) = physiology; जीवाणु (jīvānu) = bacteria
जन- (jan-) Sanskrit जन (people) जनगणना (jangananā) = census; जनसंख्या (jansankhyā) = population; जनरञ्जक (janrañjak) = popular

झ (jh)[edit]

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त (t)[edit]

ताप- (tāp-) Sanskrit ताप (heat, fever) तापमान (tāpmān) = temperature
तारा- (tārā-) stell- Sanskrit तारा (star) तारामीन (tārāmīn) = starfish
तुषार- (tuṣār) cryo- Sanskrit तुषार (cold, ice, frigid) तुषाराच्छादन (tuṣārācchādan) = frosting
तृण- (tr̥iɳ) Sanskrit तृण (grass, straw, herb) तृणमणि (tr̥iɳmaɳi) = amber

थ (th)[edit]

द (d)[edit]

दंश- (danś-) Sanskrit दंश (bite) उपदंशक्षत (upadanśakṣat) = hard chancre
-दान (-dān) Sanskrit दान (donation, charity) रक्तदान (raktdān) = blood donation; भिक्षादान = (bhikṣādān) = charity, alms-giving; मतदान (matdān) = vote, poll
दिल- (dil-) Persian دل (dil) (heart) दिलचस्पी (dilcaspī) = interest, zeal
-दार (-dār) adjective-forming suffix, denoting "having, possessing" Persian دار (having) ईमानदार (īmāndār) = earnest; ज़िम्मेदार = (zimmedār) = responsible, held-accountable
दूर- (dūr-) tele- Sanskrit दूर (far, distant) दूरदर्शन (dūrdarshan) = television; दूरबीन (dūrbīn) = binoculars; दूरभाष (dūrbhāsh) = telephone; दूरदर्शक (dūrdarśak) = Telescope
द्रुत- (drut-) Sanskrit द्रुत (rapid) द्रुतगति (drutgati) = high-speed; द्रुतगामी (drutgāmī) = express
द्वि- (dvi-) bi-, di- Sanskrit द्वि (two) द्विकोणीय (dvikōnīya) = biangular; द्विध्रुव (dvidhruv) = dipole
दो- (do-) bi-, di- Sanskrit द्वि (two) दोगुना (dogunā) = double; दोहरा (doharā) = duplex; दोपहर (dopahar) = midday, noon

ध (dh)[edit]

ध्वनि- (dhvani-) phon-, son- Sanskrit ध्वनि (tune, sound) ध्वनीलेख (dhvanīlekh) = phonograph

न (n)[edit]

नाय- (nāy-) Sanskrit नाय (guide, leader, direction) नायकत्व (nāykatva) = leadership; नायक (nāyak) = hero; नायिका (nāyikā) = heroine (feminine of hero)
निद्रा- (nidrā-) somn- Sanskrit निद्रा (sleep) निद्राजनक (nidrājanak) = soporific, somniferous
निम्न- (nimn-) min- Sanskrit निम्न (low, less, depressed) निम्नलिखित (nimnalikhit) = following
-नाक (-nāk) adjective-forming suffix, denoting "full of" Persian दर्दनाक (dardnāk) = painful; ख़ौफ़नाक (khaufnāk)= terrifying, fearsome

प (p)[edit]

पाण्डुर- (pāndur-) flav- Sanskrit पाण्डुर (yellow) पाण्डुरविषाणु (pāndurviṣāɳu) = Flavivirus
पीत- (pīt-) xanth- Sanskrit पीत (yellow) पीतार्बुद (pītārbud) = xanthoma
पुरा- (purā-) archae-, arche- Sanskrit पुरा (of old, long ago) पुरातत्त्व (purātattva) = archaeology
पूति- (pooti-) Sanskrit पूति (stink, putrid) पूतिता (pootitā) sepsis, पूतिजीवरक्तता (pootijīvaraktatā) = septicemia
पूर्व- (poorv-) ante- Sanskrit पूर्व (early, previous, former) मृत्युपूर्व (mrutyupoorva) = antemortem
पेशाब- (peśāb-) ur-, uro- Persian پیشاب (peśāb) (urine) पेशाबघर (peśābghar) = urinal
प्रजा- (prajā-) dem- Sanskrit प्रजा (man, mankind) प्रजानायक (prajānāyak) = demagogue
प्रति- (prati-) anti- Sanskrit प्रति (back, against, opposite) प्रतिजैविक (pratijaivik) = antibiotic; प्रतिलघुगणक (pratilaghugaṇak) = antilogarithm
परम- (param-) Sanskrit परम (absolute, utmost, highest) परमात्मा (paramātmā) = god, supreme being; परमाणु (paramānu) = atom
-पाद (-pād) -pod Sanskrit पाद (foot, quarter) द्विपाद (dvipād) = biped; संधिपाद (sandhipād) = arthropod
पार- (pār-) trans- Sanskrit पार (crossing, opposite side) पारलैंगिक (pārlaingik) = transsexual; पारदर्शक (pārdarśak) = transparent; पारवहन (pārvahan) = transit

फ (ph)[edit]

फल- (phal-) fruct-, frug- Sanskrit फल (fruit) फलदायक (phaldāyak) = available; फलधु (phaladhu), फलशर्करा (phalsharkarā) = fructose

ब (b)[edit]

बा- (baa-) Persian با (baa) (with) बाक़ायदा (qāydā) = methodically (lit. by the principles); बारूद (baarood) = gunpowder
बर्फ़- (barf-) glaci- Persian برف (barf) (ice) बर्फानी (barfānī) = blizzard
बाष्प- (bāṣp-) vap- Sanskrit बाष्प (vapor, steam) बाष्पातु (bāṣpātu) = rhenium
बे- (be-) Persian بی (be) (without) बेतार (betār) = wireless; बेशुमार (beshumār) = uncountable, innumerable
-बीन (-bīn) -scope दूरबीन (dūrbīn) = binoculars; खुर्दबीन (khurdbīn) = microscope

भ (bh)[edit]

भीति- (bhīti-) phobia- Sanskrit भीति (fear) अग्निभीति (agnibhīti) = pyrophobia; जलभीति (jalabhīti) = Aquaphobia
-भुज (-bhuja) Sanskrit भुज (hand, arm, side) अष्टभुज (aṣtabhuja) = octagon, eight-armed

म (m)[edit]

मल- (mal-) mal- Sanksrit मल (dirt, impurity) मलोत्सर्ग (malotsarg) = bowel movement; मलावरोध (malāvarodh) = constipation
मांस- (mããs-) carn- Sanskrit मांस (flesh, meat) मांसाहारी (mããsaahaaree) = carnivore
मार्ग- (mārg-) Sanskrit मार्ग' (road, passage) राजमार्ग (rājmārg) = highway
मूत्र- (mootr-) ur-, uro- Sanskrit मूत्र (urine) मूत्रविज्ञान (mootravinyān) = urology; मूत्राशय (mootrāśay) = bladder
मेघ- (megh-) Sanskrit मेघ (cloud) मेघधनुष (meghdhanuṣ) = rainbow
मृद- (mrid-) Sanskrit मृद (loam, clay, soil) मृदभक्षण (mridbhakṣaɳ) = geophagy
-मंद (-mand) adjective-forming suffix, denoting possession Persian अक़्लमंद (aqlmand) = wise; दौलतमंद (daulatmand) = wealthy
मनो (mano-) psycho- Sanskrit मन (thought, view, imaginary) मनोविज्ञान (manovijñān) = psychology; मनोदशा (manodashā) = mood
महा- (mahā-) Sanskrit मह (great, mighty) महात्मा (mahātmā) = saint; महारानी (mahārānī) = empress
मेरु- (meru-) Sanskrit मेरु (spinal) मेरुदण्ड (merudanda) = spinal column; मेरुरज्जु (merurajju) = spinal cord; मेरुनाल (merunāl) = spinal canal

य (y)[edit]

यव- (yav-) Sanskrit यव (barley) यवसुरा (yavsurā) = ale

र (r)[edit]

रक्त- (rakt-) hem-, haem- Sanskrit रक्त (blood) रक्तविज्ञान (raktavinyān) = hematology, रक्तला (raktalā) = erbium

ल (l)[edit]

ला- (lā-) -less, used for negation Arabic लापरवाह (parvāh) = carefree, careless; लाजवाब (javāb) = matchless, unequalled; लापता (patā) = missing
लाप- (lāp-) Sanskrit लाप (speaking, speech) संलाप (samlāp) = discourse; आलाप (ālāp) = dialogue
लोक- (lok-) Sanskrit लोक (people, public, human race) लोकतंत्र (loktantra) = democracy; लोकप्रिय (lokpriya) = popular; लोकसभा (loksabhā) = House of Commons

व (v)[edit]

वायु- (vāyu-) aer—as- Sanskrit वायु (gas) वायुगतिकी (vāyugatikī) = aerodynamics
वृष- (vrishhabh-) taur—os- Sanskrit वृष (bull) नरवृषभ (narvriṣabh) = Minotaur—os
विद्युत्‌- (vidyut-) Sanskrit विद्युत (electricity) विद्युत चुम्बकीय (vidyutchumbakīya) = electromagnetic; विद्युदणु (vidyudanu) = electron
वित्त- (vitta-) Sanskrit वित्त (wealth, money, finance) वित्तमंत्री (vittamantrī) = finance minister; वित्तदाता (vittadātā) = financer

श (sh)[edit]

शति- (śati-) centi- Sanskrit शत (hundred) शतिमान (śatimān) = centimeter
शत- (śata-) hecto- Sanskrit शत (hundred) शतमान (śatamān) = hectometre
शिला- (śilā-) petro- Sanskrit शिला (stone) शिलातैल (śilātail) = petroleum; शिलाचित्र (śilācitra) = petroglyphy
शीत- (śit-) cryo- Sanskrit शीत (cold, frigid) शीतागार (śitāgār) = cold storage; शीतदंश (śitdanś) = frostbite
शुष्क- (śuṣk-) xer- Sanskrit शुष्क (dry) शुष्काक्षिपाक (śuṣkākṣipāk) = xerophthalmia
श्याम- (śyām-) Sanskrit श्याम (black) श्यामपट्ट (śyāmpatt) = blackboard

ष (shh)[edit]

स (s)[edit]

सद- (sad-) sed-, -sid-, sess- Sanskrit सद (sitting) सदन (sadan) = assembly, tenement
सर्व- (sarv-) salv- Sanskrit सर्व (whole, each, entire, all) सर्वश्रेष्ठ (sarvaśreṣth) = foremost, ace, ultimate
सह- (sah-) con-, co-, col-, com-, cor- Sanskrit सह (with) सहपक्ष (sahpakṣ) = aileron
स्था- (sthā-) Sanskrit स्था (stand) स्थानान्तरण (sthānāntaraɳ) = transfer, shift
स्मृ- (smri-) memor- Sanskrit स्मृ (remember) स्मृती (smritī) = remembrance
स्फट- (sphat-) Sanskrit स्फट (crystal) द्विस्फटिक (dvisphatik) = macle; स्फटयातु (sphatayātu) = aluminum
स्व- (sva-) auto- Sanskrit स्व (self, own) स्वाभिमान (svābhimān) = self-respect
सु - (su-) eu- Sanskrit सुभाग्य (subhāgya) = good-fortune; सुस्वर = (susvar) = euphonious
सहस्र- (sahasra-) kilo- Sanskrit सहस्र (thousand) सहस्रमान (sahasramān) = kilometre
सहस्रि- (sahasri-) milli- Sanskrit सहस्र (thousand) सहस्रिमान (sahasrimān) = millimetre
सूक्ष्म- (sūkshma-) micro- Sanskrit सूक्ष्म (minute, fine) सूक्ष्मदर्शी (sūkshmadarshī) = microscope; सूक्ष्मतरंग (sūkshmatarang) = microwave; सूक्ष्मजीव (sūkshmajīv) = micro-organism
-सरट (-saraṭ) -saur Sanskrit सरट (lizard) भीमसरट (bhīmsaraṭ) = dinosaur; त्रिशृंगसरट (triśringasaraṭ) = triceratops; वर्मसरट (varmasaraṭ) = stegosaurus

ह (h)[edit]

हम- (ham-) fellow, co-, sym- Persian هم (ham) (fellow, kindred) हमवतन (hamvatan) = compatriot; हमदर्द (hamdard) = sympathy (lit. kindred pain)
हिम- (him-) glaci- Sanskrit हिम (ice, snow) हिमनद (himnad) = glacier
-हीन (-hīn) Sanskrit हीन (poor, without) शक्तिहीन (śaktihīn) = powerless; भावनाहीन (bhāvnāhīn) = emotionless
हरित- (harit-) chloro- Sanskrit हरित (green) हरितलवक (haritlavak) = chloroplast; पर्णहरित (parnaharit) = chlorophyll

क्ष (kshh)[edit]

त्र (tr)[edit]

ज्ञ (gy)[edit]

ऋ (ri)[edit]

ऋक्ष- (rikṣ-) urs- Sanskrit ऋक्ष (bear) लघु सप्तर्षि (Ursa Minor)

See also[edit]