List of Sanskrit loanwords in Indonesian

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Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit, the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem, and its status is comparable with that of Latin in English and other Western European languages. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms; these are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. For example, the name of Jayapura city (former Hollandia) and Jayawijaya Mountains (former Orange Range) in the Indonesian province of Papua were coined in the 1960s; both are Sanskrit origin name to replace its Dutch colonial names. Some Indonesian contemporary medals of honor and awards, such as Bintang Mahaputra medal, Kalpataru award and Adipura award, are also Sanskrit derived names.

The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. The Sanskrit influence came from contacts with India long ago before the 1st century.[1] The words are either directly borrowed from India or through the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. In the classical language of Java, Old Javanese, the number of Sanskrit loanwords is far greater. The Old Javanese — English dictionary by Prof. P.J. Zoetmulder, S.J. (1982) contains no fewer than 25,500 entries. Almost half are Sanskrit loanwords. Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign.

Loanwords[edit]

Indonesian Word Indonesian Meaning Sanskrit Word Sanskrit Transcription Sanskrit Meaning Note
abrak clear mining product, such as glass, mica अभ्रक abhraka talc, mica
acara event, item in a programme आचार ācāra custom, practice, behaviour
adakala sometimes यदा काल yada-kāla yada: from time to time, kala: time lit. whenever-time
adi- (b.m.) ultimate (poetic) आदि adi infinite, primitive, beginning,
adicita ideology अधि
चित्त
adhi
citta
above, beside
thinking, aim, reason
adikara powerful, rampant अधिकार adhikāra supremacy, authority
adikarya masterpiece अधि
कार्य
adhi
kārya
above, beside
work, oeuvre, product
adikuasa superpower अधि
वश
adhi
vaśa
above, beside
power, control, dominion
adimarga great road अधि
मार्गः
adhi
mārgaḥ
above, beside
road
adipati, dipati noble (title),
local government
अधि
पति
adhi
pati
above, beside
govern
adiraja High king अधि
राज
adhi
raja
above, beside
king
adiratna great jewel अधि
रत्न
adhi
ratna
above, beside
jewel
adisiswa honor student, valedictorian अधि
शिष्यः
adhi
śiṣyah
above, beside
student
aditokoh hero, protagonist अधि adhi above, beside tokoh means character.
adiwangsa great nation, nobleman अधि
वंश
adhi
vaṁśa
above, beside
lineage, dynasty
see bangsa.
adiwarna very beautiful, very good अधि
वर्ण
adhi
varṇa
above, beside
color
agama religion आगम āgama traditional doctrine, sacred teaching
agung grand, great agūṁ grand see adi-
ahimsa not injuring anything अहिंसा ahiṃsā not injuring anything
ajnabi (arch.) stranger (classic word) अज्ञाति ajñāti not a kinsman, not related अज्ञ (ajñā) = unknown.
aksara letter अक्षर akṣara letter
alpa negligent अल्प alpa small, minute
amarah anger आमर्ष āmarṣa anger
amerta immortal, eternal, unforgotten अमृत amṛta immortal, drink of the gods
ananda, anakda, nanda son धर्मनन्दन
नन्दन
dharmanandana
naṃdana
"dharma-'s joy or son"
son
ananta endless, infinity अनन्त ananta Ananta
aneka multifarious, varied, all sorts अनेक aneka many, various a- (not), eka (one)
anekaragam variety show अनेक ग्रामः aneka-rāgam various scale
anekawarna multi-colored अनेक वर्ण aneka-varṇa various color
anggota limb, member अङ्गता aṅga-jāḥ born from the body, limbs, member
angka numerical figure अङ्क aṅka numerical constant
angkara insolence, cruel अहंकार ahaṁ-kāra ego, pride-maker
angkasa sky आकाश ākāśa sky
angkasawan astronaut आकाश वन ākāśa-vān the sky + having; possessing
angsa goose हंस haṁsa swan
angsana Pterocarpus indicus असन asana Terminalia Tomen Indica
aniaya maltreatment, abuse, injustice, tyranny अन्याय anyāya sinful activities, mischief
antara,
antar-
among, (in) between अन्तर् antar among, between, in the middle
antariksa outer space अन्तरिक्ष antarikṣa the middle of the three spheres or regions of life
atmosphere or space deity
anugerah award, honour, grace अनुग्रह anugraha to bestow blessings, compassion
anumerta posthumous, posthumous military award for achievement अनुमृत् anumṛt dying after, following in death
anuswara nasal sound, especially nasal consonants अनुस्वारः anusvāra nasal sound, see anusvara
arti meaning अर्थ
-
artha
krti
meaning
understanding
for example, अर्थकथा (arthakathā) = explaining meanings.
arya 1. title for high official in Java in the past
2. ancestor of Indian, Persian and European
आर्य ārya (honourable) man, master see Aryan
asa hope आशा āśā hope
asana 1. foot position (representing the deva)
2. chair, throne
आसन āsana sitting (according peculiar pose to the custom of devotees), see asana
asmara love, passion स्मरः smaraḥ love
asrama dormitory आश्रम āśrama religious order, college, hermitage
asta- (b.m.) eight अष्ट aṣṭa eight
atau or अथवा athavā alternatively, or, either
atma soul, life आत्मन् ātman breath, life, spirit, soul see atman
baca read वाच् vāc words, talk
bagai as if, like भग bhaga good fortune
bagi for, give भाग bhāga (to) divide
baginda majesty भाग्य bhāgya good fortune + -nda: Austronesian suffix
bagus fine, good, exemplary भग bhaga good fortune, happiness, welfare
bahagia blissful, lucky, blessed, happy भाग्य bhāgya good fortune, luck, happiness
bahasa language भाषा bhāṣā sign, description
bahaya danger भय bhaya fear
bahtera ship वहित्र vahitra a boat, ship
bahu shoulder बाहु bāhu arm
bahu- (b.m.) many बहु bahu many
bahwa that (conj.) भव bhava become, state of being
baiduri opal (gem) वैडूर्य vaiḍūrya cat's eye (gem)
baja, waja steel, strong metal वाज vāja strength
bakti, bhakti homage, devotion, service etc. भक्ति bhakti bhakti
bala disaster, calamity; also means help, assist बल bala power, strength, force
bangsa nation, race वंश vaṁśa lineage, dynasty see vaṃsa
bangsawan noble वंश वन vaṁśa-vān of the dynasty + having, possessing
baruna sea god वरुण varuṇa Varuna
basmi eliminate, destroy भस्मन् bhasman devour, consume, pulverize (to ashes)
bau an area measurement unit, 7.096 m² बाहु bāhu arm
bayu wind (poetic) वायु vāyu Vayu: Hindu god of wind
bejana vessel भजनम् bhajanam
bela defend वेला velā time-limit, boundary, interval
belaka merely बालक bālaka young
belantara jungle वनान्तर vanāntara (interior of a) forest
belia youth बाल्य bālya childhood age, infancy
bencana disaster, calamity वञ्चन vañcana deception
benda object भाण्ड bhāṇḍa goods
bendahara treasurer भाण्डार bhāṇḍāra store, storehouse
berahi, birahi passionate love विरहिन् virahin separated (especially from beloved person)
berhala idol, image of a god भट्टार bhaṭṭāra lord
berita news वार्ता vārtā news see warta.
besi iron (metal) वाशी vāśī pointed knife
bestari clever (vast of knowledge) विस्तारिन् vistārin extending, large, broad
biara monastery विहार vihāra Buddha or Jaina convent see wihara.
biarawan male monasticism विहारवन vihāra
van
Buddha or Jaina convent
-man
see wihara.
biasa habitual, usual, ordinary अभ्यास abhyāsa habit, repetition, custom, practice
biaya expense व्यय vyaya loss, expense, spending
bicara speak विचार vicāra discussion, consideration
bidadari apsara, nymph, lesser female deities विद्याधरी vidyādhari fairy, sylph, (fem.) bearer of knowledge
bidan midwife विद्वान vidvān wise, vidwan vidvān: nom. masc. of vidvant
bija seed बीजं bījaṃ seed classical word, for the modern one see biji.
bijak clever, wise विचक्ष्
विचक्षण
vicakṣ
vicakṣana
vicakṣ: to see distinctly
bijaksana clever, wise विचक्षण vicakṣaṇa clever, wise, experienced
biji seed बीजं bījaṃ seed
biksu bhikkhu भिक्षु bhikṣu beggar, bhikkhu
biksuni bhikkhuni भिक्षु bhikṣu beggar, bhikkhuni
bila when वेला vela time
bina to build भिन्न bhinna different, fresh, new
binaraga bodybuilding भिन्न bhinna from combined words bina: to build and raga: body
binasa die, death, destroyed विनाश vināśa destruction
bisa venom, malice विष viṣa poison bisa also means can, able, potent
boga food भोग bhōga object of enjoyment (such as food), eating
buana world (poetic) भुवन bhuvana world, earth, place of being
budaya culture बुद्धि
दय
buddhi
daya
combination of boddhi: virtue and dhaya: power. give, move, protect
budi reason, virtue बुद्धि buddhi intellect, discernment, judgment
budiman kind, wise बुद्धिमान buddhimān nom. of buddhi
bujangga scholar भुजंग bhujaṅga snake, dissolute friend of prince
bukti proof भुक्ति bhukti enjoyment, fruition, possession
bumi earth भूमि bhūmi land
bupati head of second level administrative area in Indonesia भूमिपति bhūpati lord of the earth see bumi and patih
busana clothing भूषण bhūṣaṇa ornament, decoration
cabai, cabe Capsicum sp. (Chili Peppers) चवि cavi Piper chaba (Pepper)
cahaya light छाया chāyā lustre, light
cakra disk, sphere etc.
Chakra
चक्र chakra wheel, circle, cycle, Chakra
cakram disk, sphere etc.
disc in discus throw
चक्र chakra wheel, circle, cycle, Chakra
cakrawala horizon चक्रवाल cakravāla mythical mountains at the edge of light and dark, horizon
canda joke छन्द chanda pleasing, alluring, lovely, delightful
candi temple चण्डिका caṇḍika another manifestation of Durga as goddess of death
candu 1. opium (Papaver somniferum)
2. favorite, hobby
छन्दु chandu pleasing
candra, chandra moon (poetic), lunar चन्द्र candra Chandra: Hindu moon god
candradimuka crater (poetic) चन्द्र
मुख
candra
mukha
lunar surface
cangkang shell शङ्ख śaṅkha winged shell attribute of Vishnu, shell
cara way, style, customs चारी cāra course, way
cari search, look for चारी cārī particular step
catur chess चतुर
चतुरंगं
catura
caturaṃgaṃ
swift, quick, dexterous, clever, skilful
chess
catur- (b.m.) quad- चतुर् chatur quad-
cedera injury छिद्र chidra defect
celaka mishap छलक chalaka delusive
cempaka Magnolia sp. चंपक campaka Magnolia sp.
cendala (classical) lowly, bad person चण्डाल caṇḍāla outcaste
cendana Santalum album चन्दन candana Santalum album
cenderawasih paradisaeidae (bird-of-paradise) चन्द्र candra Chandra: Hindu moon god
ceria 1. clean, holy, pure
2. shining, clear,
3. word expression during monarch accession (archaism)
चर्य carya due observance of all rites and customs, proceeding
cerita story चरित carita narration, story e.g. Buddhacarita
cerna digest जीर्ण jīrṇa old, digested, decayed
cinta love चिन्ता cintā thought (fem.)
cipta create चित्त citta thinking, aim, reason
cita hope, idea, future goals चित्त citta thinking, aim, reason
citarasa delicious चित्त
रस
citta
rasa
thinking, aim, reason
flavor, taste
citra image चित्र citra picture (Hindi, Sanskrit)
citrum pixel चित्र citra picture singular form back-formation of "citra"
cuci clean शुचि śuci clean, pure, correct
cuka vinegar चुक्र cukra vinegar
curi steal चोर cōra thief, robber
curiga suspicious छुरिका churikā knife
dahaga thirst धागा dhāgā string, thread
dana donation, funds दान dāna donation, gift, oblation, paying back
darma, dharma duty, good deeds (i.e. charity), truth etc. धर्म dharma Dharma
dasawarsa decade दशन्
वर्ष
daśan
varṣa
ten
year, rain
daya power दया dayā compassion, mercy
denda fine, punishment दण्ड daṇḍa punishment
derma alms giving धर्म dharma good works, justice
desa village देशा deśa place, spot, region, country
dewa god देव deva god
dewata godness देवता devata deity
dewi goddess देवी devī goddess
dina (classical) day दिनं dinaṃ day
dina (b.m.) poor दीन dīna poor only in hina dina (phr.)
dirgahayu long live दीर्घ
आयु
dīrgha
āyu
long
age
āyuṣā = with a life span
dosa sin दोष doṣa fault; vice
duga guess, estimate दुघ dugha yielding
duka sadness दुःख duḥkha pain, sorrow, affliction, distress, unhappiness, difficulty, trouble
dulu, dahulu before, first, past ढालू ḍhālū sloping, slant
dupa incense धूप dhūpa incense, see dhupa
duta envoy दूत dūta messenger, envoy, ambassador, negotiator
durjana evil, wicked, malicious दुर्जन durjana bad man, villain, scoundrel
malicious, wicked
dusta lie दुष्ट duṣṭā wrong, false, guilty
dwi (b.m.) two, bi- द्वि dvi two, bi-
eka (b.m.) one, mono- एक eka one, mono-
gagah manly ghagā manly
gajah elephant गज gaja elephant
gapura gate गोपुरं gōpuraṃ gate lit. city way (way + city)
garuda, geroda garuda गरुड़ garuḍa garuda
gaya stylish, fashionable गय gaya wealth, property
gelita, gulita dark गलित galita waning, lost, perished
genta bell घण्ट ghaṇṭa bell
gerha, graha building, office, house, etc. गृह gṛha house
gerhana eclipse ग्रहण grahaṇa seizure, possession, eclipse
gita song (poetic) गीत gīta singing, song
gua cave गुहा gūḥa burrow, cave
guna utilize, use, purpose गुण guṇa quality, attribute
guru teacher, guru गुरुः guru teacher
hamba servant, slave हम्बा hambā the lowing of cattle
harga cost, price, value अर्घ argha price
harta asset अर्थः arthaḥ wealth
hasta forearm (measurement unit) हस्तः hastaḥ hand
hina lowly, inferior हीन hīna small, lesser, petty, deficient, left, blamable
hina dina (phr.) inferior and poor, unworthy, very inferior हीन
दीन
hīna
dīna
lesser, etc.
poor
husada health औषधं auṣadhaṃ medicine as in panti husada, health center.
indra sense (organs) इन्द्रिय indriya sense (organs)
istri wife स्त्री strī wife (lit. bearer of children)
jaga awake, guard जागृ
जागर
jāgṛ
jāgara
to watch over, awake
jagat universe जगत् jagat world, universe
jaksa attorney अध्यक्ष adhyakṣa inspector, superintendent
jala net, casting net जाल jāla net
jam hour, clock याम yāma time
jambu Myrtaceae जम्बु jambu Myrtaceae
jampi incantation जप japa muttering, whispering (prayer)
janda widow रण्डा raṇḍā widow see randa.
jasa merit, service, etc. यशस्
व्यास
yaśas
vyāsa
worth, glory;
service
jati Tectona grandis (Teak) जाति jāti Jasminum grandiflorum
jawa Java, Javanese यव yava barley, grain On Java context, it means rice or paddy.
jaya glorious जय jaya conquest, victory, triumph
jelata common people जनता janata a number of men, assemblage of people, community, subjects, mankind
jelita lovely ललित lalita lovely, charming, favourite, liked
jelma incarnation, to become, to turn into जन्म janma birth
jentera spinning, wheel यन्त्र yantra instrument
jiwa life, soul, sanity जीव jīva (personal) soul
juta million अयुत ayuta ten thousand, myriad
jutawan very rich अयुत वन ayuta+vān ten thousand + having, possessing
kaca glass काच kāca glass
kacamata glasses, spectacles काच kāca glass
kala time काल kāla time
kalah defeat कलह kalaha quarrel, fight
kalau if काल kāla time
kali time(s), in mathematics काल kāla time
kalpataru 1. tree of life and hope,
2. environmental award from government of Indonesia
कल्पतरु kalpataru wishing or wonder tree, see Kalpavriksha
kamboja Plumeria acuminata काम्बोज kāmboja 1. related to Kámbója,
2. Rottlera tinctoria,
3. white mimosa,
4. Gunja
kanta, suryakanta lens सूर्य्यकान्त
कान्त
sūryyakānta
kānta
sun-crystal, crystal lens
precious stone
kapas cotton कर्पास karpāsa cotton
karena because कारण kāraṇa cause
karma 1. personal work in world
2. law of causality
कर्म karma karma
karsa initiative, will कर्ष karṣa pulling, obtaining, mastering (√kṛṣ)
kartika star (poetic) कृत्तिका
कार्त्तिक
kṛttikā
kārttika
Pleiades, corresponding month (Oct-Nov)
karunia blessing करुण karuṇa compassion
karya work, oeuvre, product कार्य kārya work see kerja.
kasturi Tapeinochilos ananassae कस्तूरी kastūrī 1. musk,
2. Hibiscus abelmoschus,
3. Amaryllis zeylanica
kasuari cassowary कास्सोवारिस् kās'sōvāris cassowary
kata word कथा kathā speech, talk, story
kati a hundred thousand कोटि koṭi ten million
kelahi quarrel, fight कलह kalaha quarrel, fight
keling Indian, black-skinned कालिङ्ग kāliṅga related to Kalinga
keluarga family कुल
वर्ग
kula
varga
kula: family, race, tribe or caste, kin.
varga: group
see also, warga.
kemala, gemala, kumala jade, gemstone कोमल komala gracious, charming
kencana gold, golden, grand, glorious काञ्चन kāñcana gold
kendi water-pitcher कुण्ड
कुण्डी
kuṇḍa
kuṇḍī
jar, pitcher kuṇḍī: fem. form of kuṇḍa
kepala head कपाल kapāla skull, cranium
keranda coffin करण्ड karaṇḍa basket, box
kerja work कार्य kārya the work, the manifest products see karya.
ketika moment, when घट ghaṭa G'har'í or Indian clock
kian become more, as much (many) as कियत् kiyān how much
kirana 1. ray (lit.)
2. beautiful
किरण kiraṇa ray of light
kosakata vocabulary कोश
कथा
kośa
kathā
kośa:dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary
kata: speech, talk, story
kota city, town कोट्ट koṭa stronghold
krida 1. action
2. sport
क्रीडा krīḍā sport, play, amusement
ksatria warrior, knight क्षत्रिय kṣatriya military, reigning, princely caste, supremacy
kuasa power वश vaśa power, control, dominion
kuat strong उत्ताल uttāla strong
kuda horse घोटकः ghōṭakaḥ horse
kumba pot कुंभ kuṃbha pot, jar
kunci key कुञ्चिका kuñcikā key
kungkuma saffron कुंकुम kuṅkuma saffron
kurnia mercy कारुण्य kāruṇya compassion, praiseworthy, excellent
kusta leprosy कुष्ठ kuṣṭha leprosy
kusuma, kasuma, kesuma flower कुसुम kusuma flower, blossom, bud
labu gourd अलाबु alābu gourd
lagu song लघु laghu gentle (sound)
laksa ten thousand लक्ष lakṣa ten thousand, lakh
laksana 1. like, as if
2. good sign (classical)
लक्षण lakṣaṇa indirect indication, favourable mark
laksamana admiral लक्ष्मण lakṣmaṇa Lakshmana
laksmi beautiful, Lakshmi लक्ष्मी lakṣmī Lakshmi, beautiful
lata crawling, creeping animal (usually snake) लता latā creeping plants, see vine
lawang door, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.), Nutmeg (Myristica sp.) लवंग lavaṅga Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
lela graceful movement, elegant लीला līlā play
lena sleep soundly लीन līna lying or resting on
lencana seal, emblem, badge लाञ्छन lāñchana mark, sign, vestige
lingga lingam लिङ्गम् liṅgam lingam
loba greedy लोभ lobha greed
loka world, place, realm, abode लोक loka space, room, place, world
madu honey
co-wife
मधु madhu sweet food or drink, incld. honey, milk, wine, etc.
madya, madia middle मध्य madhya middle
maha great, super, hyper, very महा mahā great
mahadewa supreme god mahā+deva supreme god
mahadewi supreme goddess mahā+devi supreme goddess
maha esa all-mighty महेश maheśa = mahā+īśa supreme lord īśa (ईश): owning, possessing, powerful, supreme, capable, lord
mahaguru professor mahā+guru great teacher
maharaja emperor महाराज mahārāja great king
maharani queen mahārani see rani.
mahasiswa (male) college/university student महा
शिष्यः
mahā-śiṣyah great-student (masc.)
mahasiswi (female) college/university student महा
शिष्यः
mahā-śiṣyāh great-student (fem.)
mahesa, mahisa buffalo महिषः mahiṣaḥ buffalo
mahkota crown मुकुट mukuṭa crown
mala stain, dirt मल mala dirt, filth, impurity
malapetaka calamity, disaster महा
पातक
mahā
pātaka
great
sin or collapse
manakala when māna-kāla in honor of time
mandiri autonomous, independent mandhiri
mani sperm मणि maṇi 1. pearls, gem, jewel,
2. glans penis
manik bead, sequin, jewel मणि maṇi 1. pearls, gem, jewel,
2. glans penis
mantra, mantera mantra मन्त्र mantra mantra
manusia human मनुष्य mānuṣa human being
marga road मार्गः mārgaḥ road
matra measurement unit, of length, height, depth मात्रा mātrā measurement unit
maya illusion माया māyā Maya (illusion)
menteri minister (head of a government department) मन्त्रि mantri king's counsellor, minister
merdeka freedom, liberty महा
ऋद्धि
mahā
ṛddhi-ka
great
prosperity
merdu sweet, melodius मृदु mṛdu soft
merica pepper मरीचम् marīcam spices
mitra partner मित्र mitra friend
muda young मूढ mūḍha stupid, silly, simple
mudah easy मूढ mūḍha stupid, silly, simple
muka face मुख mukha face
mula to start, to begin मूल mūla origin
mulia noble, honorable मूल्य mūlya worth
nadi blood vessel नदि nadi stream, river
naga dragon, nāga नाग nāga serpent deities
nama name नामन् nāman name
nawa- (b.m.) nine नव nava nine
negara country नगर nagara city
negeri city (lit.) नगरी nagarī city (fem.)
neraca scale, balance नाराच nārāca metre
neraka hell, underworld नरक naraka naraka
nirwana an ideal condition of harmony or joy निर्वाण nirvana nirvana
niskala amorph, abstract निश्चल niścala immovable; steady; unal terable, immutable
nusa island (poetic) नूस nūsa
nyata 1. clearly shown,
2. real,
3. proven
नियत niyata Constant, Ascertained, Positive
paduka foot, footwear पादुक pāduka shoe, slipper
paduka honorary title for official, nobility, or king पादुका pādukā impression of the feet of a god or a holy person for the idea, see Ciaruteun inscription.
pahala merit, reward (for moral conduct) फल phala fruits, of results
paksa to force पक्ष pakṣa side, faction, partisan, adherent, army, position
pala Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) फल phala fruits, of results see pahala.
panca- (b.m.) five पञ्च pañca five
pandu scout, guide पाण्डु pāṇḍu the Pandavas
pariwisata tourism परि
विशति
pari
viśati
around
enter
to enter around
patih, -pati 1. obidient, submissive
2. Lord (government)
पति pati master, owner see bupati.
pekerti character, nature प्रकृति prakṛti origin, character, nature, pattern
pendapa, pendopo hall मण्डप maṇḍapa open hall, pavilion, temple through Javanese pendhapa
pendeta priest पण्डित paṇḍita learned, scholar, skilled
percaya believe प्रत्ययः pratyayaḥ familiarity
perdana first प्रधान pradhāna first, chief
perkara problem, affairs प्रकार prakāra difference, similitude
perkasa powerful, forceful, manly प्रकाश prakāśa shining, manifest, renowned
perkosa rape प्रकाश prakāśa shining, manifest, renowned
perpustakaan library पुस्तक pustaka book, manuscript see pustaka with circumfix per⟩...⟨an'
pertama first प्रथम prathama first
pertiwi Mother Earth पृथ्वी pṛthvī
pṛthivī
Prithvi, Hindu earth deity
perwira high-ranked military official प्रवीर pravīra brave or eminent man, hero, chief
pra (b.m.) pre- प्रा pra before, forward to, in front of, on, forth
prabu king (title) प्रभु prabhu master, lord, king
prakarya handworks प्रकार्य prakārya to be manifested
praja city, state प्रजा prajā people, subject (of prince), child
pria man/men प्रिय priya beloved, dear
prihatin concerned prḥatin concerned
puasa fasting उपवास upavāsa fasting, abstinence
puja worship, adore पूजा pūjā worship, respect, homage of superiors or adoration of the gods
puji praise पूजा pūjā worship, respect, homage of superiors or adoration of the gods see puja
pundak shoulder स्कंध pūndhāk shoulder see bahu
punya have, possessive verb पुण्य puṇya merit, virtue
pura Hindu temple, city पुर pura city/walled enclosure
purba ancient पूर्व pūrva former, ancient, old, etc.
puri palace पुर pura city/walled enclosure
purna- (b.m.) complete, finished पूर्ण pūrṇa finished, complete, satisfied see also sempurna, purnama
purnama full moon, a month पूर्णमा pūrṇamā full-moon (day)
pustaka book पुस्तक pustaka book, manuscript
puspa flower (poetic) पुष्प puṣpa flower
putra, putera son, prince पुत्र putra son
putri, puteri daughter, princess पुत्री putrī princess
raga body राग rāga color, feeling, beauty
rahasia secret रहस्यं rahasya secret
raja king राजन् rāja king
rajalela rage, raging, at large, rampant राज
लीला
raja
līlā
king
play
raksasa giant, monster राक्षस rākṣasa beast-like demon
rambu sign rāmbū sign
randa, rangda widow रण्डा raṇḍā widow see janda.
rani queen राज्ञी
राणी
rājñī
rāṇī
queen rāṇī (राणी) is corruption of rājñī (राज्ञी).
rasa emotion, feeling, taste रस rasa to love, flavor, taste
ratna jewel, gemstone (poetic) रत्न ratna jewel, gem
resmi official रश्मि raśmi string, leash, ray of light in Sanskrit, रश्मि (raśmi) is synonym of पक्ष (pakṣa).
rupa look, appearance रूप rūpa form, likeness
sabda proclamation (poetic) शब्दः śabda voice, speech
sadu best साधु sādhu good, excellent
sahaya servant साहाय्य sāhāyya help, assistance
saksi witness साक्षिन् sākṣin witness
sakti powerful शक्ति śakti power, energy
sama same सम sama same, equal
samudra ocean समुद्र samudra ocean
sandi sandhi संधि saṃdhí joining
sandiwara drama sāndīvara drama
sangga 1. monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns), see Sangha.
2. smallest unit in Scouting
संघ saṃgha association, clerical community, brotherhood of monks
sapta- (b.m.) seven सप्त sapta seven
sarira body शरीरं śarīraṃ body via Javanese word sarira
sasana training hall शासन śāsana teaching, order, ruling
sastra literature शास्त्र śāstra scripture, teaching, order, book
satwa fauna, animals सत्त्व sattva sentint being, "that which is", existence
sederhana simple साधारण sādhāraṇa common, ordinary
seka wipe, rub निषेक niṣēka wash
semadi, samadi, semedi, samedi meditation, contemplation समाधि samādhi deep meditation, silenece, religious vow
semesta whole, total समस्त samasta united, whole, all
sempurna perfect सम्पूर्ण sampūrṇa entirely, complete
sengsara suffering संसार saṃsāra continuous flow of reincarnation
senjata weapon, arms जट jaṭa
senopati general, military leader (archaic) सेनापति senāpati senā "military" + pati "leader"
serakah greedy śraka greedy
serba all, everything, complete सर्व sarva all or everything
seru to call loudly श्रु śru to be heard
seteru enemy शत्रु śatru enemy
setia loyal, truthful सत्य
सती
satya
satī
truth, correct, sincere, faithful
faithful wife
sila base, courtesy, moral शील śīla habit, custom, usage, character, moral precept can mean cross-legged sitting or refined order
singa lion सिंहः siṃha lion, breavest, king, ruler
singgasana throne सिंहासन siṃhāsana the lion throne Lion is allusion to king.
siswa (school) student शिष्यः śiṣyah student for tertiary education student, see mahasiswa.
sri title for king श्री śrī 1. Prefix to the names,
2. Fortune, prosperity, success, thriving,
3. Light
stupa stupa स्तूप stūpa heap, a pile of earth
suami husband स्वामि svāmī master, lord, husband
suara sound स्वर svara sound, voice, accent, musical tone or note
suci clean, holy शुचि śuci clean, pure, correct
suka like, happy सुख sukha easy, pleasant, comfortable, happy
sukma soul सूक्ष्म sūkṣma subtle, atomic
sunyi quiet (situation) शून्य śūnya zero, nothing
surga heaven स्वर्ग svarga heaven
surya sun (poetic), solar सूर्य sūrya Surya, Hindu sun god
susila modesty, appropriate सुशील suśīla good character
swa- (b.m.) do something by oneself स्व sva- self, own
tapa asceticism, meditation, self-discipline तप tapa tapas
tata order, to arrange तथा tathā thus, in that manner
tenaga energy, power तानयति tānáyati to extend
tri- (b.m.) three (cardinal) त्रि tri three
ubah change उभा ubhā erect
udara air उदार udāra rising fog or vapour, raising, sublime
upacara ceremony उपचार upacāra ceremony, religious ritual
usaha effort उत्साह utsāha effort, thread, happiness, firmness
usia age आयुष āyuṣa life-span
utama ultimate, the most important, foremost उत्तम uttama upmost, highest, first or best
utara north उत्तर uttara north
wacana verbal communication, conversation वचन vacana speech
wadah container आधारः ādhāraḥ container
wahana ride, vehicle वहन vahana conducting, carrying, bearing
wana forest (poetic) वन vana forest
wangsa dynasty, royal house वंश vaṁśa lineage
wanita woman, lady वनिता vanitā wife, woman
waras sane varās healthy
warga 1. members of family, society, etc.,
2. social stratification (uncommon)
वर्ग varga class, tribe, club
warna colour वर्ण varṇa colour
warta news वार्ता varta news see berita.
warta berita news broadcast वार्ता varta news
wibawa 1. authority, influence,
2. power
विभवः vibhavaḥ power
widyaiswara teacher विद्या
ईश्वर
vidya
īshvara
learning
master
wihara Buddhist Temple विहार vihāra Buddha or Jaina convent see biara.
wira hero, brave वीर vīra heroic, brave
wisesa supreme leader, supreme power विशेष viśēṣa excellence, superiority
wreda, werda 1. old age, geriatric
2. experienced
वृद्ध vṛddha 1. old,
2. wise
yoga Yoga योगः yoga Yoga
yudha war, battle (poetic) युद्ध yuddha battle

References[edit]

  1. ^ Becoming Indian: The Unfinished Revolution of Culture and Identity by Pavan K. Varma p.125