List of Sapindaceae genera

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The fruits of Sapindus saponaria, western or wingleaf soapberry, give the family its vernacular name.

This is a list of genera in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae, which includes the soapberries (Sapindus), maples (Acer), and paullinias, amongst others. As currently circumscribed, the family contains approximatively 1900 species into over 140 genera classified into 4 subfamilies.[1]

Current understanding[edit]

The current circumscription of Sapindaceae encompasses the traditional Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae as tribes in subfamily Hippocastanoideae. Although the classification at subfamilial level is fairly well-established, the circumscription at tribal and generic level remains only partially resolved, especially in the larger subfamily Sapindoideae, which has led the most recent revision to treat the majority of these genera without placing them in a tribe.[1] Another recent study hints at even more incongruity between traditional circumscription and molecular evidence.[2]

Recent changes have included the synonymization of Distichostemon with Dodonaea,[3] and Neotina and Tinopsis with Tina.[4] Additionally, not all authors agree about the broad circumscription that ensues from placing Xanthoceras as the sister group to the three traditional families as the resulting Sapindaceae sensu lato, unlike the traditional families, is difficult to characterize.[1][5] As a result, the elevation of Xanthoceroideae to family level was recently proposed, which would remove from Sapindaceae those six genera currently placed in that subfamily and Hippocastanoideae.[5]

This list follows Acevedo-Rodríguez et al.[1] as modified by more recent research.[3][4][6][7][8][9]

Genera[edit]

Genus
Authority
Year Classification Type species # of species Distribution
Xanthoceras
Bunge[10][N 1]
1833 Xanthoceroideae Xanthoceras sorbifolia
Bunge
1 China
Acer
L.[11]
1753 Acer pseudoplatanus
L.
120+ Temperate northern hemisphere
Dipteronia
Oliv.[12]
1898 Dipteronia sinensis
Oliv.
2 China
Aesculus
L.[11]
1753 Aesculus hippocastanum
13 Temperate Northern hemisphere
Billia
Peyr.[13]
1858 Billia hippocastanum
Peyr.
2 Mexico to South America
Handeliodendron
Rehder[14]
1935 Handeliodendron bodinieri
Rehder
1 China
Arfeuillea[N 2]
Pierre ex Radlk.[15]
1895 Arfeuillea arborescens
Pierre ex Radlk.
1 Thailand and Laos
Averrhoidium
Baill.[16]
1874 Averrhoidium gardnerianum
Baill.
4 Mexico,
Tropical South America
Cossinia
Comm. ex Lam.[17]
1786 Cossinia pinnata
Comm. ex Lam.
3 Mauritius, New Caledonia
Diplokeleba
N.E.Br.[18]
1894 Diplokeleba floribunda
N.E.Br.
2 South America
Diplopeltis
Endl.[19]
1837 Diplopeltis huegelii
Endl.
5 Australia
Dodonaea
Mill.[20]
1754 Dodonaea viscosa
Jacq.
60+ Pantropical
Euphorianthus[N 3]
Radlk.[21]
1879 Euphorianthus euneurus
Radlk.
1 Eastern Malesia
Eurycorymbus
Hand.-Mazz.[22]
1922 Eurycorymbus austrosinensis[N 4]
Hand.-Mazz.
1 China
Harpullia
Roxb.[23]
1824 Harpullia cupanioides
Roxb.
26 India and China to Australasia
Llagunoa
Ruiz & Pav.[24]
1796 Llagunoa nitida
Ruiz & Pav.
3 or 4 Andes
Loxodiscus
Hook.f.[25]
1857 Loxodiscus coriaceus
Hook.f.
1 New Caledonia
Magonia
A.St.-Hil.[26][N 5]
1824 None designated 1[N 6] Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay
Majidea
J.Kirk ex Oliv.[27]
1871 Majidea zanguebarica
J.Kirk ex Oliv.
4 or 5 Africa and Madagascar
Doratoxylon
Thouars ex Hook.f.[28]
1862 Doratoxylon diversifolium
(A.Juss.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex B.D.Jacks.
6 Mauritius, Madagascar
Euchorium[N 7]
Ekman & Radlk.[29]
1925 Euchorium cubense
Ekman & Radlk.
1 Cuba
Exothea
Macfad.[30]
1837 Exothea oblongifolia
Macfad.
3 West Indies, Central America
Filicium[N 8]
Thwaites ex Benth.[28]
1862 Filicium decipiens
(Wight & Arn.) Thwaites
3 or 4 Madagascar, East Africa to
India and Sri Lanka
Ganophyllum
Blume[31]
1850 Ganophyllum falcatum
1 or 2 Paleotropics
Hippobromus
Eckl. & Zeyh.[32]
1836 Hippobromus alatus
(Thunb.) Eckl. & Zeyh.
1 Africa
Hypelate
P.Browne[33]
1756 Hypelate trifoliata
Sw.
1 West Indies, Florida
Zanha
Hiern[34]
1896 Zanha golungensis
Hiern
23 Southern Africa, Madagascar
Allophylastrum
Acev.-Rodr.[6]
2011 Allophylastrum frutescens
Acev.-Rodr.
1 Brazil, Guyana
Allophyllus
L.[11]
1753 Allophylus zeylanicus
L.
 ?[N 9] Pantropical
Athyana
Radlk.[35]
1887
("1888")
Athyana weinmannifolia
Radlk.
1 Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Balsas
J.Jiménez Ram. & K.Vega[7]
2011 Balsas guerrerensis
Cruz Durán & K.Vega
1 Mexico
Bridgesia
Bertero ex Cambess.[36]
1834 Bridgesia incisifolia
Bertero ex Cambessèdes
1 Chile
Cardiospermum
L.[11]
1753 Cardiospermum halicacabum
L.
15 Pantropical
Diatenopteryx
Radlk.[37]
1878 Diatenopteryx sorbifolia
Radlk.
2 Southern South America
Guindilia
Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.[38]
1833 Guindilia trinervis
Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.
3 Southern South America
Houssayanthus
Hunz.[39]
1978 Houssayanthus macrolophus
(Radlk. Hunz.)
5 Central and Southern America
Lophostigma
Radlk.[40]
1897 Lophostigma plumosum
Radlk.
2 Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
Paullinia
L.[11]
1753 Paullinia pinnata
L.
c. 190 Neotropics and
one African species
Serjania
Mill.[20]
1754 Serjania
Mill.
c. 230 Neotropics
Thinouia
Triana & Planch.[41]
1862 Thinouia myriantha
Triana & Planch.
c. 12 Central and South America
Thouinia
Poit.[42]
1804 Thouinia simplicifolia
Poit.
c. 30 West indies, Central America
Urvillea
Kunth[43]
1821 Urvillea ulmacea
Kunth
c. 15 Central and South America
Melicoccus
P.Browne[33]
1756 Melicoccus bijugatus
Jacq.
10 Dominican Republic,
South America
Talisia
Aubl.[44]
1775 Talisia guianensis
Aubl.
52 Southern Mexico to
South America
Alatococcus
Acev.-Rodr.[9]
2012
Alatococcus siqueirae
Acev.-Rodr.
1 Brazil
Alectryon
Gaertn.[45]
1788
Alectryon excelsus
Gaertn.
25 Malesia, Australasia and Micronesia
Amesiodendron
Hu[46]
1936
Amesiodendron chinense
(Merr.) Hu
1–3 Southern China to Sumatra
Aporrhiza
Radlk.[37]
1878
Aporrhiza paniculata
Radlk.
4–6 Tropical Africa
Arytera
Blume[47]
1847
Arytera littoralis
Blume
c. 28 India, Southeast Asia to
Australasia
Atalaya
Blume[47]
1847
Atalaya salicifolia
(DC.) Blume
12 South Africa, Australia, Malesia
Beguea
Capuron[48]
1969
Beguea apetala
Capuron
1 Madagascar
Bizonula
Pellegr.[49]
1925
("1924")
Bizonula le-testui
1 Gabon
Blighia
K.D.Koenig[50]
1806
("1805")
Blighia sapida
K.D.Koenig
3 Tropical Africa
Blighiopsis
Van der Veken[51]
1960
Blighiopsis pseudostipularis
Van der Veken
1 Central Africa
Blomia
Miranda[52]
1953
Blomia cupanioides[N 10]
Miranda
1 Mexico, Guatemala and Belize
Camptolepis
Radlk.[53]
1907
("1908")
Camptolepis ramiflora
(Taub.) Radlk.
4 East Africa, Madagascar
Castanospora
F.Muell.[54]
1875
Castanospora alphandii
(F.Muell.) F.Muell.
1 Australia
Chouxia
Capuron[48]
1969
Chouxia sorindeioides
6 Madagascar
Chytranthus
Hook.f.[28]
1862
Chytranthus mannii
Hook.f.
25+ Western tropical Africa
Cnesmocarpon
Adema[55]
1993
Cnesmocarpon dasyantha
(Radlk.) Adema
1 Australia, Papua New Guinea
Conchopetalum
Radlk.[35]
1887
("1888")
Conchopetalum madagascariense
Radlk.
2 Madagascar
Cubilia
Blume[47]
1847
Cubilia cubili[N 11]
(Blanco) Adelb.
1 Malesia
Cupania
L.[11]
1753
Cupania americana
c. 50 Neotropical
Cupaniopsis
Radlk.[21]
1879
Cupaniopsis anacardioides
(A.Rich.) Radlk.
60 Malesia to Australasia
Deinbollia
Schumach.[56]
1827
Deinbollia pinnata
(Poir.) Schumach. & Thonn.
c. 38 Southern Africa,
Madagascar, Mascarene
Delavaya
Franch.[57][N 12]
1887
("1886")
Delavaya toxocarpa
Franch.
1 China
Dictyoneura
Blume[47]
1847
Dictyoneura acuminata
Blume
2–3 Malesia, Philippines, Australia
Dilodendron
Radlk.[37]
1878
Dilodendron bipinnatus
Radlk.
3 Neotropical
Dimocarpus
Lour.[58]
1790
Dimocarpus lichi
Lour.
6 Southern Asia to Australia
Diploglottis
Hook.f.[28]
1862
Diploglottis cunninghamii[N 13]
(Hook.) Hook.f. ex Benth.[N 14]
12 Australia, Papua New Guinea
Elattostachys
(Blume) Radlk.[59]
1879
Elattostachys zippeliana
(Blume) Radlk.
c. 20 Malesia, Australasia
Eriocoelum
Hook.f.[28]
1862
None designated[N 15] 10+ Tropical Africa
Erythrophysa[N 16]
E.Mey. ex Arn.[60]
1841
Erythrophysa undulata[N 17]
E.Mey. ex Sond.
5 South Africa, Madagascar
Erythrophysopsis
Verdc.[61]
1962
Erythrophysopsis aesculina
(Baill.) Verdc.
1 Madagascar
Gereaua
Buerki & Callm.[8]
2010
Gereaua perrieri
(Capuron) Buerki & Callm.
1 Madagascar
Glenniea
Hook.f.[28]
1862
Glenniea unijuga
(Thwaites) Radlk.
8 Paleotropical
Gloeocarpus
Radlk.[62]
1914
("1913")
Gloeocarpus crenatus[N 18]
Radlk.
1 Philippines
Gongrodiscus
Radlk.[21]
1879
Gongrodiscus sufferrugineus
Radlk.
3 New Caledonia
Gongrospermum
Radlk.[62]
1914
(1913)
Gongrospermum philippinense
Radlk.
3 Philippines
Guioa
Cav.[63]
1798
("1797")
Guioa lentiscifolia
Cav.
c. 64 Southeastern Asia to
Australasia
Haplocoelopsis
F.G.Davies[64]
1997
Haplocoelopsis africana
F.G.Davies
1 Central and East Africa
Haplocoelum
Radlk.[37]
1878
Haplocoelum inoploeum
Radlk.
c. 7 Tropical Africa and Madagascar
Hornea
Baker[65]
1877
Hornea Mauritiana
Baker
1 Mauritius
Jagera
Blume[47]
1847
Jagera speciosa[N 19]
Blume
2 Moluccas, New Guinea,
Australia
Koelreuteria
Laxm.[66]
1772
("1771")
Koelreuteria paniculata
Laxm.
c. 4 Eastern Asia
Laccodiscus
Radlk.[21]
1879
Laccodiscus ferrugineus
(Baker) Radlk.
c. 6 West Africa
Lecaniodiscus
Planch. ex Benth.[67]
1849
Lecaniodiscus cupanioides
Planch. ex Benth.
2 Tropical Africa
Lepiderema
Radlk.[59]
1879
Lepiderema papuana
Radlk.
8 Australia, New Guinea
Lepidopetalum
Blume[47]
1847
Lepidopetalum perrottetii
Blume
6 Malesia, Australia
Lepisanthes
Blume[68]
1825
Lepisanthes montana
Blume
c. 24 Paleotropics, Australia
Litchi
Sonn.[69][N 20]
1782
Litchi sinensis
1 Southeastern China to
Malesia
Lychnodiscus
Radlk.[37]
1878
Lychnodiscus reticulatus
Radlk.
c. 7 Tropical Africa
Macphersonia
Blume[47]
1847
Macphersonia madagascariensis
Blume
8 Aldabra, Madagascar,
West Tropical Africa
Matayba
Aubl.[44]
1775
Matayba guianensis
c. 50 Neotropical
Mischarytera
(Radlk.) H.Turner[70]
1995
Mischarytera lautereriana
(F.M.Bailey) H.Turner
3 Australia, Papua New Guinea
Mischocarpus
Blume[68]
1825
Mischocarpus sundaicus
Blume
c. 15 Southeastern Asia to Australia
Molineae
Comm. ex Juss.[71]
1789
Molinaea arborea
J.F.Gmel.
c. 10 Madagascar and
Mascarenes Islands
Namataea
D.W.Thomas & D.J.Harris[72]
1999
Namataea simplicifolia
D.W.Thomas & D.J.Harris
1 Cameroon
Nephelium
L.[73][N 21]
1767
Nephelium lappaceum
L.
c. 16 Southeastern Asia to Malesia
Otonephelium[N 22]
Radlk.[74]
1890
Otonephelium stipulaceum
Radlk.
1 Southern India
Pancovia
Willd.[75]
1799
Pancovia Bijuga
Willd.
10–12 West Africa
Pappea
Eckl. & Zeyh.[32]
1834
Pappea capensis
Eckl. & Zeyh.
1 Southern Africa
Paranephelium
Miq.[76]
1861
("1861")
Paranephelium xestophyllum
Miq.
4 Yunnan to Malesia
Pavieasia
Pierre[77][N 23]
1895
Pavieasia anamensis
(Pierre) Pierre
1–3 China
Pentascyphus
Radlk.[21]
1879
Pentaschyphus thyrsiflorus
Radlk.
1 French Guiana, Surinam, Brazil
Phyllotrichum
Thorel ex Lecomte[78]
1911
Phyllotrichum mekongense
Lecomte
1 Laos
Placodiscus
Radlk.[37]
1878
Placodiscus turbinatus
Radlk.
c. 10 Tropical Africa
Plagioscyphus
Radlk.[37]
1878
Plagioscyphus cauliflorus
Radlk.
c. 10 Madagascar
Podonephelium
Baill.[16]
1874
Podonephelium deplanchei[N 24]
Baill.
4 New Caledonia
Pometia
J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.[79]
1775
Pometia pinnata
J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
2 India and Pacific Islands
Porocystis
Radlk.[37]
1878
Porocystis toulicioides
Radlk.
2 Brazil, French Guiana
Pseudima
Radlk.[80]
1878
Pseudima frutescens
(Aubl.) Radlk.
1 Continental neotropics
Pseudopancovia
Pellegr.[81]
1955
Pseudopancovia heterophylla
Pellegr.
1 West Equatorial Africa
Pseudopteris
Baill.[16]
1874
Pseudopteris decipiens
Baill.
3 Madagascar
Radlkofera
Gilg[82]
1898
Radlkofera calodendron
Gilg
1 Western Africa
Rhysotoechia
Radlk.[59]
1879
Rhysotoechia mortoniana
(F.Muell.) Radlk.
c. 14 Australia, Malesia
Sapindus
L.[11]
1753
Sapindus saponaria
L.
c. 10 Circumtropical
Sarcopteryx
Radlk.[59]
1879
Sarcopteryx squamosa
(Roxb.) Radlk.
12 or 13 Australia, Moluccas,
New Guinea
Sarcotoechia
Radlk.[21]
1879
Sarcotoechia cuneata
Radlk.
c. 11 Australia, Moluccas,
New Guinea
Schleichera
Willd.[75]
1806
Schleichera trijuga[N 25]
Willd.
1 Sri Lanka and India to Malesia
Scyphonychium
Radlk.[37]
1878
Scyphonychium multiflorum
(Mart.) Radlk.
1 Brasil, French Guiana
Sinoradlkofera
F.Meyer[83]
1977
Sinoradlkofera minor
(Hemsl.) F.Meyer
1 China
Sisyrolepis
Radlk.[84]
1905
Sisyrolepis siamensis[85]
Radlk.
1 Thailand and Cambodia
Smelophyllum
Radlk.[37]
1878
Smelophyllum capense
(Sond.) Radlk.)
1 South Africa
Stadmania
Lam.[86]
1793
Stadmania oppositifolia
Lam.
6 East Tropical Africa,
Madagascar, Mauritius
Stocksia
Benth.[87]
1853
Stocksia brahuica
Benth.
1 Persia, Afghanistan
Storthocalyx
Radlk.[21]
1879
None designated 4 New Caledonia
Synima
Radlk.[21]
1879
Synima cordieri
Radlk.
2 Australia, New Guinea
Thouinidium
radlk.[37]
1878
None designated 6 Central America and
Greater Antilles
Tina
Schult.[88]
1819
Tina thouarsiana
(Cambess.) Capuron
19 Madagascar
Toechima
Radlk.[59]
1879
Toechima erythrocarpum
(F.Muell.) Radlk.
c. 8 Australia, New Guinea
Toulicia
Aubl.[44]
1775
Toulicia guianensis
Aubl.
12 South America
Trigonachras
Radlk.[59]
1879
Not designated 8 Non-Javanese Malesia
and Lesser Sunda
Tripterodendron
Radlk.[74]
1890
Tripterodendron filicifolium
Radlk.
1 Brazil
Tristira
Radlk.[59]
1879
None designated 1 Philippines, Moluccas, Celebes
Tristiropsis
Radlk.[35]
1887
("1888")
Tristiropsis acutangula
Radlk.
3 Malesia and Australasia
Tsingya
Capuron[48]
1969
Tsingya bemarana
Capuron
1 Madagascar
Ungnadia
Endl.[89]
1833
Ungnadia speciosa
Endl.
1 Mexico, Texas
Vouarana
Aubl.[44]
1775
Vouarana guianensis
Aubl.
2 Costa Rica to Brazil
Xerospermum
Blume[47]
1847
Xerospermum noronhianum
(Blume) Blume
2 Bangladesh, Indochina,
Eastern Malesia
Zollingeria
Kurz[90]
1872
Zolligeria macrocarpa
Kurz
3 or 4 Indochina, Borneo
Chonopetalum[N 26]
Radlk.[91]
1920
  • Incertae sedis
Chonopetalum stenodictyum
Radlk.
1 Equatorial Guinea
Hirania[N 27]
Thulin[92]
2007
  • Incertae sedis
Hirania rosea
Thulin
1 Somalia

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This preprint eventually appeared as Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 2:75–147 (1835).
  2. ^ The genus might not be distinct from Majidea (Acevedo-Rodríguez et al., 2011, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 10:375)
  3. ^ A replacement name for Radlkofer's own Euphoriopsis (Actes Congr. Bot. Amsterdam 1877:128, 1877) which was preoccupied by a genus of fossil Sapindaceae named by Abramo Bartolommeo Massalongo (Sapind. Foss. Monogr.:12, 1852).
  4. ^ Correctly treated as Eurycorymbus cavaleriei (H.Lév.) Rehder & Hand.-Mazz.
  5. ^ Not Hist. Pl. Remarq. Brésil:239: although the title page for that work gives the year of publication as 1824, the relevant part was not issued before late 1825 (Stafley & Cowan, Taxon. Lit., ed. 2 4:1067).
  6. ^ Saint-Hilaire originally described two species, now treated as one, but a generic type has yet to be defined.
  7. ^ Because its fruit has not been described in the literature, this genus' tribal placement is not entirely clear (Acevedo-Rodríguez et al., 2011, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 10:378).
  8. ^ Thwaites had originally (Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 6:65. 1854) named the genus Pterophyllum, but that name had already been applied by Siebold et Zuccarini to a genus of Papaveraceae in 1843 (Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 3(3):719).
  9. ^ The definition of species in the genus is a difficult matter, and species number have ranged from 250 to a single polymorphic one. Since the latter proposal by Pieter Willem Leenhouts (Blumea 15(2):313. 1967), "no progress in an understanding of the systematic structure of Allophylus has been made" (Acevedo-Rodríguez et al., 2011, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 10:380).
  10. ^ The correct name for the species is Blomia prisca (Standl.) Lundell. Lundell described Tikalia (based on Cupania prisca) in 1961, before noting two years later that the genera "Appeared to be the same" (Wrightia 3(1):9).
  11. ^ Blume, believing that not doing so would result in a tautonym, originally renamed Blanco's original Euphoria cubili to Cubilia blancoi. This was not corrected until 1948 (Blumea 6(1):325)
  12. ^ The paper was issued in two part, the first (pp. 358–368) was included with the November 1886 issue containing proceedings of the society's July meeting. the rest was published in March 1887 alongside the proceedings of the November meeting (Leussink, 1986, Taxon 35(2):256).
  13. ^ The correct name is Diploglottis australis (G.Don) Radlk.
  14. ^ Not "(Hook.) Hook.f.", as Joseph Dalton Hooker failed to properly create the combination.
  15. ^ Hooker did not place species into the genus, which is "in need of revision" (Harris & Wortley, Kew Bull. 61(2):277, 2006).
  16. ^ Arnott published the name as Erythrophila, which Otto Wilhelm Sonder later (Fl. Cap. 1:237, 1860) "corrected" to Erythrophysa. Nonetheless, the original spelling is correct under the ICBN (Vienna, 2005, art. 60); the need to conserved the corrected spelling was noted as early as 1962 (Verdcourt, J. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 58(372):201), but no formal proposal was published.
  17. ^ Now known as Erythrophysa alata (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Hutch.
  18. ^ Synonym of Gloeocarpus patentivalvis (Radlk.) Radlk.
  19. ^ An illegitimate name for Jagera javanica (Blume) Blume ex Kalkman
  20. ^ The first book was published in several edition, the in-octavo edition, vol. 3, p. 255 is often cited.
  21. ^ The Mantissa Plantarum (Mat. Pl.:125) is often also cited. This was a work published simultaneously as an appendix to volume 2 of the Systema Naturae's 12th and 13th editions. The link is to an online scan of the 13th edition (without the Mantissa), a page-for-page reprint done in Vienna missing only the third volume's errata. See Stafleu & Cowan (1981; Taxon. Lit. 3:106–108) for further details and references.
  22. ^ According to Acevedo-Rodríguez et al. (2011, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 10:396), the difference from Dimocarpus is "doubtful".
  23. ^ According to Stafleu & Cowan (1983; Taxon. Lit. 4:273), different copies may be bound differently. Other sources cite "1894" as the year of publication.
  24. ^ Now treated as a synonym of Podonephelium homei (Seem.) Radlk.
  25. ^ Treated as Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken.
  26. ^ Acevedo-Rodríguez et al. (2011, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 10:396) characterise the genus as "insufficiently known" and do not assign it to any family.
  27. ^ Acevedo-Rodríguez et al. (2011, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 10:396) note that the original description, which includes and intrastaminal disk, would possibly place the genus outside Sapindaceae.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Acevedo-Rodríguez, P.; et al. (2011). "Sapindaceae". In Klaus Kubitzki. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 10. Berlin: Springer. pp. 357–407. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14397-7_17. ISBN 978-3-642-14397-7. 
  2. ^ Buerki, Sven; Forest, Félix; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; et al. (2009). "Plastid and nuclear DNA markers reveal intricate relationships at subfamilial and tribal levels in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 51 (2): 238–258. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.01.012. 
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