List of rulers of Shan states

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The Shan State, a state of Myanmar (also known as Burma), was once made up of a large number of traditional monarchies or fiefdoms. These are collectively known as 'Shan States'.

Ranks of rulers[edit]

Three ranks of chiefs were recognized by the King of Burma and later by the British administration. These ranks were:

  1. Saopha (Shan for king or chieftain) or Sawbwa (in Burmese)
  2. Myosa (Myoza), "duke" or chief of town.
  3. Ngwegunhmu, silver revenue chief.

Hierarchy and precedence[edit]

The distinction in the titles dates from the days of the Burmese monarchy although the same states have not continued to hold the same titles for their chiefs during the centuries -- changes took place according to royal favour, results of battles and later, the decisions of the British authorities. The privileges and titles were so much a matter of royal ordinance that every one of a Sawbwa's symbols of power was laid down in a special book of dispensations granted by the higher court. His regalia and clothes, the guilding and jewel decoration of betel boxes, spittoons, fly-whisks and such articles of use, the dress of ministers, the umbrellas, spears and horses in procession, the caparisoning of the royal elephant, the instruments for processional music, the gateways and the style of residence, all were rigidly prescribed to ensure that the dignity kept up accordance with the status of a royal chieftain, yet did not encroach on the special privileges reserved for the court of Ava itself. The British, whose success in administration was largely bound up with observance, of precedence in a hierarchy, listed states also as Sawbaships, Myosaships and Ngwegunhmuships.

The following lists the Sawbwas in order of the precedence, at the time of the British annexation of the Shan States.

State Area (sq. mi) Classical Name Notes
Sawbwas
Kengtung 12,400 Khemarata Tungaburi
Hsipaw 4,524 Dutawadi
Mongnai 2,717 Saturambha/Nandapwa
Yawnghwe 1,392 Kambawsarata
Tawngpeng 800 Pappatasara
South Hsenwi 2,400 Siwirata or Kawsampi Also known as Mongyai
North Hsenwi 6,330 Siwirata or Kawsampi
Mongmit 3,733 Gandhalarata
Mongpai 730
Lawksawk 2,362 Hansawadi?
Laikha 1,560 Hansawadi
Mawkmai 2,557 Lawkawadi
Mongpan 2,988 Dhannawadi
Mongpawn 366 Rajjawadi
Manglun Jambularata
Kantarawadi 3,015
Samka 314
Mongkung 1,593 Lankawadi
Mongkawng Udigirirata Kingdom of Nora(Mogaung)
Mongyang Ahluwipurata
Myosas
Nawngwawn 28 Pokkharawadi Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
Mongnawng 1,646 Nandawadi
Mongsit
Kehsi-bansam 551
Mawnang Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1934
Loilong (Pinlaung) 1,098
Hsahtung 471
Wanyin 219
Hopong 212
Namkhok 108 Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
Sakoi 82
Mongshu 470 Hansawadi
Kenglun 54 Amalgamated with Kehsh Bansam, 1926
Bawlake 565
Kyetbogyi 700
Hsamongkham 449
Baw 741
Pwehla 178
Ngwegunhmus
Yengan (Ywangan) 359
Pangtara (Pindaya) 86
Pangmi 30
Loi-ai 156 Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1930
Kyaukku 76 Amalgamated with Pwehla, 1928
Loimaw 48 Amalgamated with Yawnghwe, 1928
Kyone 24
Namtok 14 Amalgamated with Loilong, 1931

Shan states[edit]

Maw (Baw)[edit]

Last Sawbwa – Sao Hkun Aung

Hopong (Hopon)[edit]

Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu)

  • 1783–1818 Hkun Kya
  • 1818–1833 Hkun Sin
  • 1833–184 Hkun Nun
  • 1845 Hkun La
  • 1845–1851 Hkun Lin
  • 1851–1885 Hkun Ti

Rulers (title Myoza)

  • 1885–1893 Hkun Wara
  • 1893–1900 Hkun Tse
  • 1900–1952 Hkun Law (b. 1896 - d. ....)

Hsahtung (Thaton)[edit]

  • 1781-? Hkun Samu
  •  ? Descendants of Hkun Samu
  • 1839 – ? Hkun Kyaw Le
  •  ?
  •  ? – 1905 Hkun Law
  • 1905–1930 Sao Hkun Sing
  • 1930–1957 Sao Hkun Kyi
  • 1957–1959 Sao Aung Myint

Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)[edit]

Founded before 1700 and under a Myosa, its known rulers were:

  • 1807–18.. Maung Shwe Pon
  • 1825–1834 Maung Shwe E (1st time)
  • 1834–18.. Maung Me (1st time)
  • 18..–1847 Maung Shwe E (2nd time)
  • 1847–1848 Maung Me (2nd time)
  • 1848–1867 Maung Shwe Min (1st time)
  • 1867 Maung Lin (1st time)
  • 1867–18.. Maung Tha U
  • 18..–1876 Maung Kyi
  • 1876–18.. Maung Lin (2nd time)
  • 18..–1885 Maung Su Ka
  • 1885–1886 Maung Shwe Min (2nd time)
  • 1886–19.. Maung Hpo

Last – Sao Htun Aye aka. Aungban Sawbwa

Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)[edit]

Founded before 1858 under a Saopha, it ceased to exist in 1893. The rulers were:

  • x-x Sao Aung Ba
  • 1858?–1880 Sao Shwe Maung
  • 1880–1893 Sao Kan Mun

Hsenwi (Theinni)[edit]

Hsenwi sets its legendary foundation before 650. It was ruled by a Saopha and ceased to exist in March 1888, when it was split into North Hsenwi and South Hsenwi. The rulers were:

  • 1778–1800 Sao Hswe Cheng (Kon)
  • 1800–1815 Sao Hsö Kaw
  • 1815–1819 Mogaung Wun -Regent
  • 1819–1821 Sao Naw Möng
  • 1821–1824 Hkun Hkam Hkawt
  • 1824–1827 Sao Hkam Pak
  • 1827–1831 Sao Hkam Nan
  • 1831–1838 Sao Hkun Maung Lek
  • 1838–1845 Sao Hkam Leng (Hsö Hkan Hpa)
  • 1845–1848 Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (1st time)
  • 1848–1853 Vacant
  • 1853–1855 Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (2nd time)
  • 1855–1858 Vacant
  • 1858–1860 Sao Hpa Mawng Hpa (1st time)
  • 1860–1863 Vacant
  • 1863–1864 Sao Hpa Mawng Hpa (2nd time)
  • 1864–1866 Shwe Pyi Bo
  • 1866–1867 U Ma Nga
  • 1867–1869 Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (3rd time)
  • 1869–1873 Vacant
  • 1873–1874 Win Hmu
  • 1874–1875 Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (4th time)
  • 1875–1876 Natsu Letya
  • 1876–1879 Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (5th time)
  • 1879–1888 Hkun Hsang Ton Hong

North Hsenwi[edit]

Created in March 1888 from Hsenwi state. the main state was split into two, North and South Hsenwi.

  • Mar 1888 -x Hkun Hsang Ton Hong
  • 1927–1959 Sao Hom Hpa

South Hsenwi[edit]

Created in March 1888 by the splitting of the Hsenwi state. The state is also known as Mong Yai. The rulers were:

  • 1888–1913 Sao Naw Möng
  • 1913–1946 Sao Song
  • 1946–1959 Sao Hso Hom

Hsihkip (Thigyit)[edit]

Founded before 600, it ceased to exist in 1886, when it was incorporated into Yawnghwe. It was ruled by a Myosa and the rulers were:

  • 1800? Hkun Chok
  • 18..–18.. Hkun Hpe
  • 18..–18.. Hkun Daw
  • 18..–18.. Maung Paw
  • 18..–18.. Maung Paik
  • 18..–18.. Hkun Hmom
  • 18..–18.. Hkam Lin -Regent
  • 184.–184. Hkun Nyun
  • 184.–1848 Twet Kye -Regent
  • 1848–1851 Hkun Ywe
  • 1851–1862 Hkun Ton
  • 1863–1870 Son Hkun Hpon
  • 1870–1886 Maung Hnya

Hsipaw (Thibaw)[edit]

Founded, according to legend, in 58 BC, it was ruled by a Saopha. Its formal name was Dutawadi. For the state capital see Thibaw.

  • 1788–1809 Sao Hswe Kya
  • 1809–1843 Sao Hkun Hkwi
  • 1843–1853 Sao Hkun Paw
  • 1853–1866 Sao Kya Htun
  • 1866–18.. Sao Kya Hkeng
  • 1886–1902 Hkun Saing
  • 1902–1928 Sao Hke
  • 1928–1938 Sao On Kya
  • 1938–1947 Under direct British administration
  • 1947–1959 Sao Kya Seng

Kehsi Mansam (Kyithi Bansan)[edit]

  • 1860–1881 Hkun Yawt
  • 1881–.... Hkun Yawt Seng

Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)[edit]

  • 1813–18xx Hpaya Möng Hkon

Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)[edit]

Myosas:

  • 1811–1854 Bodaw Sao Hkam Yi
  • 1855–1864 Sao Hkun Mwe
  • 1864–1870 Naw Hkam Leng
  • 1870–1874 Incorporated into Möngnai
  • 1874–1878 Sao Hkun Long
  • 1878–1882 Incorporated into Möngnai
  • 1882–188. Sao Naw Süng
  • 188.–19.. Hkun Un

Kenglön (Kyainglon)[edit]

Myosas:

  • 1857–1873 Maung Pwin
  • 1873–1874 Naw Hkam U
  • 1874–1888 Hkun Tawn
  • 1888–19.. Hkun Mawng

Kengtung (Kyaingtong)[edit]

For the state capital see Kengtung.

  • 1243–1247 Mang Kun (Delegate of Mang Rai, founder of Kengtung State)
  • 1247–1253 Mang Kyin
  • 1253–1264 A son of Mang Rai with a monk in joint charge
  • 1264–1317 Sao Nam Nam
  • 1317–1324 Sao Hsam Mun Hwe
  • 1324–1342 Sao Lak
  • 1342–1360 Sao Hsai Nan
  • 1360–1370 Sao Yu
  • 1379–1387 Sao Sit Pan Tu
  • 1387–1390 Sao Ai Awn
  • 1390–1403 Ai Wu Hsa
  • 1403–1460 Yi Hkam Hka
  • 1416–1441 Sao Hsam
  • 1441–1456 Sao Hsam si-li
  • 1456–1474 Ai Lao Hkam
  • 1474–1501 Ai Lao
  • Sao Naw Kiao (son of Ai Lao Hkam)
  • Hsai Hkaw (son of Ai Lao Hkam)
  • Hsai Hpom (son of Ai Lao Hkam)
  • Sao Hsam (son of Ai Lao Hkam)
  • Sao Kham Mu (son of Ai Lao Hkam)
  • 1523–1560 Hpaya Kiao (a monk called to rule)
  • 1560–1598 Sao Mong Hka
  • 1598–1620 Sao Hkam Tao
  • 1620–1637 Sao Mong Hkak
  • Sao On
  • Sao In Hkam
  • Sao Awk
  • Sao Mong Saik
  • Sao Hsam Hpi
  • 1730–1740 Maung Nyo (Yawnghwe Shan sent from Ava)
  • Sao Mong Sin
  • Sao Mong Hsam
  • 1787–1804 Sao Kawng Tai
  • 1813–1857 Sao Maha Hkanan
  • 1857–1876 Sao Maha Hpom
  • 1876–1881 Sao Hkam Hseng
  • 1881–1886 Sao Kawng Tai
  • 1886–1897 Sao Kawng Hkam
  • 1895–1935 Sao Kawng Kiao Intaleng
  • 1935–1937 Sao Kawng Tai
  • 1937–1959 Sao Sai Long

Kokang[edit]

Ruled and founded by the Yang dynasty, it was founded in 1739 by Yang Shien Tsai, Chief of Shin Da Hu. Later his successor Yang Wei Shin expanded his territory and renamed it Kho Kan Shan. Yang Yon Gen then finally renamed it to Kokang. The first 2 reigned as chiefs, the 3rd assumed the title of Heng which was to be held until Yang Chun Yon assumed the Myosa title. Colonel Sao Yang Wen Pin assumed the title of Saopha, after the British recognised Kokang in 1947 as a state for services in the Second World War; it lasted until the state ceased to exist in 1959. The rulers were:

  • 1739–1758 Yang Shien Tsai, Chief of Shin Da Hu
  • 1758–1795 Yang Wei Shin, Chief of Kho Kan Shan
  • 1795–1840 Yang Yon Gen, Heng of Kokang
  • 1840–1874 Yang Guo Hwa, Heng of Kokang
  • 1874–1916 Yang Guo Zhen, Heng of Kokang
  • 1916–1927 Yang Chun Yon, Heng and Myosa of Kokang
  • 1927–1949 Colonel Sao Yang Wen Pin, Saopha of Kokang
  • 1949–1959 Sao Edward Yang Kyein Tsai, Saopha of Kokang.

Kyon[edit]

Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus:

  • 1783–1820 Nga Kaw Tha
  • 1820–1821 Nga Thi Ri
  • 1821–1843 Nga Chit Win
  • 1844–1852 Nga Shwe Maung I (1st time)
  • 1852–1856 Nga Shwe Yit -Regent
  • 1856–1863 Nga Shwe Maung I (2nd time)
  • 1863–1865 Nga Yan Kon -Regent
  • 1865–1873 Nga San
  • 1873–1874 Nga Shwe Maung II -Regent
  • 1874–1876 Nga Tha U -Regent
  • 1876–1877 Nga Tun -Regent
  • 1877–1893 Nga Thaing

Laihka (Lègya)[edit]

Myosas:

  • 1794–1803 Law Na
  • 1803–1807 La Hkam
  • 1807–18xx Hkun Lek
  • 18xx–1854 Hkun Lek
  • 1854–1856 Shwe Ok Hka (Shwe Taung Kyaw)
  • 1856–1860 Hkun Long
  • 1860–1862 Sao Hkam Mawng (1st time)
  • 1862–1866 Hkun Hkawt
  • 1866–1868 .... (female)
  • 1868–1879 Sao Hkam Mawng (2nd time)
  • 1879–1882 Vacant
  • 1882–1928 Hkun Lai
  • 1928–1952 Sao Num

Lawksawk (Yatsauk)[edit]

Saophas

  • 1791–1811 Hkun Sam Lik
  • May 1812 – 1813 On Gaing
  • 1813–1850 Hkun Shwe Ek
  • 1850 – Dec 1854 Vacant
  • Dec 1854 – 1881 Sao Waing (1st time)
  • 1886 – Jan 1887 Sao Waing (2nd time)
  • Jan 1887 – Oct 1887 Bo Saing -Regent
  • 9 Oct 1887 – 1900 Hkun Nu
  • 1900–1946 Hkun Hsuik (d.o.b. 1863)
  • 1943–1958 Hkun Hsa (d.o.b 1895)

Loi-ai (Lwe-e)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus

  • ....–1814 Paw Kyi
  • 1814–1834 Maung Shwe
  • 1834–1864 Kaw Thaw
  • 1864–1868 Maung Kaing
  • 1868–1870 Vacant
  • 1870–.... Hkun Shwe Kya

Loilong (Lwelong) Loilong (Pinlaung)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus

  • ....–1854 Hkun Na (died 1854)
  • 1854–1856 Hkun San Da (died 1856)
  • 1856–1880 Hkun Pu (La Mu) (died 1882)

Myosas

  • 1880–1882 Hkun Pu (La Mu) (died 1882)
  • 1882–1938 Hkun Hkam Chok (died 16 November 1938)

Loimaw (Lwemaw)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus:

  • ....–1834 Maung Hpo Gok
  • 1834–1844 Maung Hpo Saw
  • 1844–1847 Maung Lok
  • 1847 Maung Shwe Daung
  • 1847–1874 Maung Shwe Pyi (1st time)
  • 1874–1876 Vacant
  • 1876–1877 Maung Kya
  • 12 February 1878 – 1880 Maung Meik
  • 1880–1886 Maung Chit
  • 1886 Maung At
  • 1886–19.. Maung Shwe Pyi (2nd time)

Manglon[edit]

Saophas (sawbwas):

  • 1814–1822 Hsö Hkam (Ta Awng) (died 1822)
  • 1822–1852 Sao Hkun Sang
  • 1852–1853 Uyaraza (died 1853)
  • 1853–1860 Naw Hpa (died 1860)
  • 1860–1881? Tön Hsang
  • 1877–1892 Sao Maha (in West Manglön)
  • 1892–1919 Tön Hsang Hang
  • 1919–1946 Saw Hka Nan (lived 1892–1946)
  • 1946–1952 Sao Man Laik (born 1922)

Monghsu[edit]

Monglin[edit]

Saopha of Monglin

  • 1946–1959 Sao Hman Lek (died 1998)

Mongleam[edit]

Saopha of MongLeam Sao Mwamp Fa

Mongtorm[edit]

Myosa

  • 1926–1952 Sao Khun Gee (died 1969)

Mawkmai (Maukme)[edit]

Saophas:

  • 1800–1818 Hsai Kyaw
  • 1818–1824 Awk Hkun
  • 1824–1831 Let To
  • 1831–1844 Hkam U
  • 1844–1867 Ko Lan (1st time)
  • 1867–1868 Hkum Hmôm I
  • 1868–1887 Ko Lan (2nd time)
  • 1887–1888 Hkun Hmôm II (1st time)
  • March 1888 – 1888 Hkun Noi Kyu
  • 1888–1915 Hkun Hmôm II (2nd time)
  • 1915–1952 Hkun Hkaing

Mawnang (Bawnin)[edit]

Myosas

  • 1774–.... Maung Myat (2nd time)
  • ....–.... Naw Hkam Lin
  • ....–.... Maung Kaung
  • ....–.... Maung Pot
  • ....–.... Maung Maung
  • ....–1883 Hkun Hkam
  • 1883–1886 Hkun Shwe Hkam -Regent
  • 1886–.... ....

Mawsön (Bawzaing)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus:

  • 1784–.... Maung Pwe
  • ....–.... Maung Kyaw
  • ....–.... Maung Waing
  • ....–.... Maung Nyun
  • 1878–.... Maung Kya Ywet

Möngkawng (Mogaung)[edit]

Mong kong Mong Yawng(1st-Möngkawng)is situated in Hukawng valley, near the Uyu river. Some Tai Leng manuscripts, also, mention about the establishment of Bein Kawng(2nd-Möngkawng) on the west bank of Nam Kawng, near the Kaming but lists of Saophas has not given. 3rd-Möngkawng is situated at a distance of about 9 miles from Mogaung.

Saophas:

  • 603–633 Hkun Su (Youngest son of Hkun Lu)1st-Möngkawng
  • 633–653 Sao Hsen Sau (Son of Hkun Su)
  • 653–667 Sao Hkun Kyaw
  • 667–678 Sao Hkun Kyun
  • 938–9?? Sao Hkaw Pha(2nd-Möngkawng)
  • ---- – ---- Chow Pya Ho Seng
  • ---- – ---- Chow Sue Kap Ha
  • 134?–13?? Chow Sam Long Khu Mong(Sao Sam Long Pha)(3rd-Möngkawng)
  • 1432/3–1445 Sao Ngan Pha
  • 1445–1449 Sao Hsi Pha
  • 1449–14?? Sao Pu Pha
  • 1495–14?? Sao Ka Pha
  • 1498–1532 Kywansisa(Chow Long or Mogaung Mintayagyi)
  • 1532–15?? Brother of Kywansisa
  • 155?–156? Sao Peng
  • 156?–1577 Son of Sao Peng
  • 1577–1590 Panlesa
  • 1590–1590 Mositsa
  • 16??–1629 Chow Seng Long
  • 175?–17?? Chow Ta Khuen Meng
  • 1761–1777 Saw Haw Seng(Hkaw Seng)
  • 1777–1779 Saw Khine (Brother of Saw Haw Seng)
  • 1779–1791 Vacant
  • 1791–1795 Khun Kawng Seng (4th-Möngkawng)

Myowuns:

  • 1795–1797 Mye Swane Wunmin
  • 1797–1799 Nga Sout Wunmin
  • 1799–1804 Ekkabat Myinwun
  • 1804–1806 Nemyo Thiri Sithu
  • 1806–1807 Shwedaung Letwel Kyaw
  • 1807–1808 Maha Nawrahta
  • 1808–1809 Maung Hsuan
  • 1809–1811 Yegaung Seintathu
  • 1811–1812 Shwedaung Thainkhathu and Yegaung Nawrahta
  • 1812–1813 Thiri Nawrahta
  • 1813–1814 Shwedaung Letwel Kyaw(2nd times)
  • 1814–1818 Nemyo Theidi Kyawdin
  • 1818–1819 Yedin Kyawdin
  • 1819–1820 Yegaung Thura
  • 1820–1822 Nemyo Mindin
  • 1822–1824 Nemyo Yegaung Nawrahta
  • 1824–1826 Nemyo Htinmin
  • 1826–1827 Maha Nanda Raza, Saopha of Thonze and Nemyo Zeya Kyawgaung
  • 1827–1828 Nemyo Minhla
  • 1828–1832 Nemyo Nanda Nawrahta, Mingyi Maha Thilawa and Nemyo Zeya Kyawgaung(2nd times)
  • 1832–1835 Maha Thiri Kyawdin
  • 1835–1836 Nemyo Thiri Thihathu
  • 1836–1837 Nemyo Minhtin Sithu
  • 1837–1839 Saopha of Thonze(2nd times)
  • 1839–1840 U Mann
  • 1840–1841 U Than Twe
  • 1841–1845 Brother of Queen Bhamo
  • 1845–1846 U Than Twe(2nd times)
  • 1846–1848 U Mann(2nd times)
  • 1848–1852 U Kyan
  • 1852–1854 U Mann(3rd times)
  • 1854–1858 U Hla Paw Gyi
  • 1858–1859 U Yama and U Shin Gyi(Son of U Yama)
  • 1859–1864 U Lat
  • 1864–1866 U Maung
  • 1866–1867 U Kyae
  • 1867–1867 U Lat(2nd times)
  • 1867–1868 U Yan Shin
  • 1868–1871 U Tha Hton
  • 1871–1873 U Moe
  • 1873–1875 U Shwe Aung
  • 1875–1877 U Hla Paw Kalay(Son of U Shwe Aung)
  • 1877–1882 U Boe
  • 1882–1883 U Si
  • 1883–1885 U Shwe Tha(Father of Waing Hso Saopha)
  • 1885–1886 U Kala(Amat of Mogaung)
  • 1886–1887 U Pho Saw(Son of U kala)

Mongkung[edit]

Myosa

  • 1835–1860 Hkun Long

Möngleng (Mohlaing)[edit]

Myosas:

  • 1840? Kya U
  • 18..–1887 Hkam Leng

Mönglong[edit]

Myosas

  • 1813?- 1842 Hsö Han Hpa
  • 1842–1854 Hsö San Hpa (Hkun Hsa)
  • 1854–1866 Hsö Kawn Kyawng
  • 1866–18.. Hkun Nyon
  • 18..–1880 Hkun Yawt
  • 1880–188. Heng Nga Maung
  • 188.–1888 Hkun Saing (Hsawng)
  • 1888–1894 Hkun Hsa
  • 1894–.... Sao Hke

Möngmit (Momeik)[edit]

Saophas:

  • 60?–6?? Hkun Has (6th son of Hkun Lu)
  • 939–9?? Sao Ngan Pha
  • 1830? Maung Hmaing
  • 1837? Maung E Pu (1st time)
  • 1850–1851 Maung E Pu (2nd time)
  • 1851–1858 Hkun Te
  • 1858–1861 Haw Kyin
  • 1862–18.. Maung Yo
  • 18..–1874 Hkam Mo
  • 1874–1886 Vacant
  • 1886–1887 Hkam Leng
  • 1887–1937 Sao Kin Maung
  • Feb 1937 – 1952 Sao Hkun Hkio (born 1912)

Mong Nai (Monè)[edit]

Saophas:

  • 1850–1875 Hkun Nu Nom
  • 1875–1914 Hkun Kyi
  • 6 May 1914 – 1928 Hkun Kyaw Sam
  • 1928–1952 Hkun Kyaw Ho
  • 1952-1962 Sao Pyae (last Saopha of Mone')

Mongnawng[edit]

Myosas:

  • 1851–1866 Heng Awn
  • 1866–1868 Hkun Hkang
  • 1868–19.. Hkun Tun

Mong Pai (Mobye)[edit]

Saophas:

  • ....–1803  ?
  • 1803–1805 Hkun Pya (2nd time)
  • 1805–1808 Hkam Maung
  • 1808–1820 Hkam Hlaing (1st time)
  • 1820–1823 Nga Kyi -Regent
  • 1823 – Jul 1836 Hkam Hlaing (2nd time)
  • 1836 – Feb 1891 Hkun Yon
  • 1891–1908 Hkun ....
  • 1908–1952 Sao Pin Nya

Möngpan[edit]

Myosas:

  • ....–1808 Naw Hkam
  • 1809–1823 Mana Ne Myo
  • 1823–1858 Maung Shwe Hkam
  • 1858–1867 Hkun Tun U

Saophas

  • 1867–1886 Hkun Tun U
  • 1886–.... Hkun Leng
  • 1918–1952 Hkun On

Mong Pawn (Maing Pun)[edit]

Myosas:

  • 1816–1860 Hkun Lek
  • 1860–1880 Hkun Ti

Saophas:

  • 1880–1928 Hkun Ti
  • 1928 – 19 Jul 1947 Sao Sam Htun (died 1947)
  • 1947–1952 Ba Choe

Möngping (Maingpyin)[edit]

After 1842 this state was occupied by Lawksawk.

Rulers :

  • 1835–1842 Hkam Hlaing
  • 1842–.... Hkam Kaw

Möngsit (Maingseik)[edit]

Myosas

  • 1816–18.. ....
  • 18..–1857 Sao Haw Pik
  • 1857–18.. Hkun Kyaw San
  • 18..–1873 Hkun Lu
  • 1873–1876 ....
  • 1876–1880 ....
  • 1880–1883 Vacant
  • 1883–.... Hkam Pwin

Möngtung (Maington)[edit]

This state was occupied by Hsenwi between 1886 and 1888.

Myosas:

  • ....–.... Hkun Sang Kang
  • ....–.... Hkun Kyaw Htam
  • ....–1886 Hkun Hsa
  • 1888–1896 Hkun Lun
  • 1896–19.. Haw Yawt

Möngyang (Mohnyin)[edit]

State existed before 1400 and after 1604 .

Saophas:

  • 60?–6?? Hkun Hpa (2nd son of Hkun Lu)
  • 940–9?? Sao Hkyan Pha

Myowuns:

  • 1853–18?? Nemyo Minhtin Themanta Yaza (Six Myowuns – Mohnyin, Kawng Ton, Shwegu, Moe Ta, Yin khia, Kat Hsa)

Möngyawng[edit]

Myosas:

  • 17..–.... Inta Wasai
  • ....–.... ?
  • ....–.... Hsen Sulin (Surin Pumintha)
  • ....–.... Hsai Ya Kuman
  • ....–.... Sao Yawt

Namhkai (Nanke)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus:

  • 1808–18.. Nga Dammaa
  • 18..–1867 Hkun Pe (died 1867)
  • 1867–1874 Hkun Pan (1st time) (died 1891)
  • 1874–1876 Vacant
  • 1876–1888 Hkun Hwaing
  • 1888 – 13 Jan 1891 Hkun Pan (2nd time)
  • 1891–19.. Hkun Kye

Namhkok (Nankok)[edit]

Myosas: ....–.... ....

Namhkom (Nankon)[edit]

Rulers: ....–.... ....

Namtok (Nantok)[edit]

Rulers:

  • ....–.... Maung Shwe Tha
  • ....–1816 Tha Zan (died 1816)
  • 1816–18.. Maung Yi

Ngegunhmus:

  • 18..–18.. Maung Yi
  • 18..–18.. Hkun Taw
  • 18..–18.. Hkun Pwe
  • 18..–18.. Hkun Pwang
  • 18..–18.. Hkun Hmam
  • 18.. – 9 Oct 1892 Hkun Pu (died 1892)
  • 1892–.... Hkun Maung

Namkhok-Nawngwawn[edit]

Sao Tun Yean WW2 Sao Noi Nyin

Panglawng[edit]

Pangmi[edit]

Sao Khun Min

Pangtara (Pindara)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus:

  • Latest Sao Win Kyi (died 2007)
  • 1796–1802 Maung Than
  • 1802–1809 Maung Pe I
  • 1809–1819 Maung Khan U
  • 1819–1843 Maung Shwe Min
  • 1843–184. Mi Thit (f)
  • 184.–184. Mi Sit (f)
  • 184.–1850 Maung Hpo Eik
  • 1850–1851 Maung Shwe Thi -Regent
  • 1851–1857 Maung Myat Hpu
  • 1857–1859 Maung Pe II
  • 1859–1860 Maung Lun Ya (1st time)
  • 1860–1861 Maung Hpo
  • 1862–1868 Maung Than (1st time) -Regent
  • 1868–1869 Maung Lun Ya (2nd time)
  • 1869–1871 Maung Than (2nd time)
  • 1871–1877 Vacant
  • 1877–1878 Maung Lun Ya (3rd time)
  • 1878–1880 Vacant
  • 1880–188. Maung Lun Ya (4th time)
  • 188.–1888 Vacant
  • 1888 – 6 Jan 1897 Maung Hpo Hkin (died 1897)
  • 1897–1938 HKun Sun Nyo (died 9 November 1938)

Poila (Pwehla)[edit]

Myosas: Khun Soe Min

Sakoi[edit]

Myosas:

  • ....–1877 Hkun ....
  • 1877–.... Hkun Ton

Samka[edit]

Myosas:

  • ....–1838 Hkun Ye
  • 1838–1858 Hkun Sun (1st time)
  • 1858–1860 Hkun Noi (1st time)
  • 1860–1872 Hkun Sun (2nd time)
  • 1873–1876 Sao Sein Bu (1st time)
  • 1876–1883 Hkun Noi (2nd time)
  • 1883–1885 Hkun Pwin
  • December 1885 – 1915 Sao Sein Bu (2nd time)
  • 1915–1952 Hkun Kyi

Saophas (Kyamine-prince):

  • 1915–1952 Sao Soe Kyi

Tawngpeng[edit]

Saophas:

  • 1753–1759 Ta Dwe Ba
  • 1760–1764 Ba Hkun Mya
  • 1764–1775 Ba Hkun Saing
  • 1775–1781 Ba Dwe Taw
  • 1781 Ba Loi Lio
  • 1781–1819 Ba Hkun Kein Möng
  • 1819–1837 Ba Hkun Hso
  • 1837–1846 Ba Hkun Tan Möng
  • 1847 – 4 Sep 1856 Shwe Ok Hka (Shwe Taung Kyaw)
  • 1856–1865 Hkun Hsa (Ba Hkam Hkun Shinye)
  • 1865–1868 Aung Tha
  • 1868–1877 Kwan Kon
  • 1877–1887 Hkun Hkam Möng
  • 1888–1897 Hkam Tan Möng (Hkun Kyan)
  • 1897–1926 Hkun Hsan Gawn
  • Aug 1926 – 1952 Hkun Pan Sing

Wanmaw (Bhamo)[edit]

This state existed 1470–1772, when it was incorporated into Burma.

Saophas:

  • 15??–1601 Sao Sein
  • 1601–16?? Sao Seng Long
  • 1685 - 1706 Sao Pi Hpa
  • 1706 - 1719 Sao Tun Hpa
  • 1719 - 1720 Hpo U
  • 1720 - 1727 Sao Mong Hpa
  • 1727 - 1734 Sao Tung Ngai I (d. 1734)
  • 1734 - 1735 Vacant
  • 1735 - 1742 KitHaw
  • 1742 - 1770 Sao Tung Ngai II
  • 1770 - c.1772 Sao Myut Aung (b. 1690 - d. c.1772)

Myowuns:

  • 1772–17?? Mingyi Wailuthaya (U Shwe Ye)
  • 1853–18?? Mingyi Maha Minhtin Yaza
  • 1878–18?? U Pho Hla

Wanyin (Banyin)[edit]

Rulers:

  • 1865–1874 Hkun Saw

Myosas:

  • 1874–1893 Hkun Saw
  • 1893 – Jul 1897 Hkun Long
  • 1897–19.. Hkun Han

Waing Hso (Wynn Tho)[edit]

Saophas:

  • 941–9?? Sao Hon Pha
  • 1382–13?? Paung Ke
  • 1434–14?? Saw Nyi
  • 1583–1592 Minkadu
  • 1592–1599 Tho Ye
  • 1599–1619 Tein-nyin-sa Saing Hkan
  • 1619–16?? Thakin Kaw Nyo
  • 16??–1647 Saw Nin Mein
  • 1647–1671 Sit Naing (Myosa of Mosit)
  • 1671–16?? Kye Möng U Kyaw (Son of Sit Naing)
  • 1697–1697 Maung Kyin Baw
  • 1697–1702 Maung Sun
  • 1702–1714 Kyaung Phu
  • 1714–17?? Myat Kawng (Son of U Kyaw)
  • 1756–1778 Aung Nyo (Brother of Myat Kawng)
  • 1778–1780 Maung Tin
  • 1780–1781 Aung Tha (Brother of Maung Tin)
  • 1781–1866 Vacant
  • 1866–1878 U Shwe Tha
  • 1882–1890 U Aung Myat(Son of U Shwe Tha) – Last Saopha of Waing Hso

Myothugyi

  • 1781–1798 Maung Taw Zan
  • 1798–1827 Maung Tha Ywe
  • 1827–18?? Thwin Pyu
  • 18??–18?? Maung Kwe
  • 18??–1833 Maung Shwe Tha(Son of Maung Tha Ywe)
  • 1833–1849 Shwe Thi
  • 1849–1852 San Tit
  • 1852–1866 Shwe Tha

Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe)[edit]

The formal and the ritual name of the state was Kambosarattha, in short term Kanbawza. The rulers full titular style was Kambawsarahta Thiri Pawaramahawuntha Thudamaraza. For the state capital see Nyaung Shwe.

  • 1762–1815 Sao Yun
  • 1815–1852 Sao U
  • 1852–1858 Sao Se Hom
  • 1858–1864 Sao Naw Hpa
  • 23 Oct 1864 – 1886 Sir Saw Maung (1st time)
  • 1886–1897 Sao On
  • 1897 – Dec 1926 Sir Saw Maung (2nd time) (32nd Saopha)
  • Sep 1927 – 1952 Sao Shwe Thaike (33rd Saopha) (The First President of Burma)

Yengan (Ywangan)[edit]

Ngwegunhmus:

  • c.1857 - 1860 Maung Htun Lin (d. c.1864)
  • 1861 - 1886 Maung Nyo Sein (d. 1886)
  • 1886 Maung Thu Daw (1st time) (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
  • 1886 (10 days) Mi Thaung (f)
  • 1896 (25 days) Maung Chit + Heng Yin Yo
  • 1887 - 19.. Maung Thu Daw (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1887 - May 1898 .... -Regent

Hkam Ti (Zinkaling)[edit]

Saophas:

  • 1820–1844 Saw Nyi Kawng
  • 1844–1853 Saw Ai
  • 1853–1882 Saw Hi
  • 1887–1892 Saw Ni Taung
  • 1892–1898 Saw Hon(Po Hlaing)(Cousin of Saw Ni Taung)
  • 1898–19?? Ma Pu(Sister of Saw Hon)
  • 19??–1952 Saw Mya Sein(Last Saopha)

Bibliography & External links[edit]

  • Sao Sāimöng, The Shan States and the British Annexation. Cornell University, Cornell, 1969 (2nd ed.)
  • Sao Sāimöng Mangrāi, The Pādaeng Chronicle and the Jengtung State Chronicle Translated. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1981
  • J. G. Scott, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States. 5 vols. Rangoon, 1900–1901
  • J. G. Scott, Burma: a handbook of practical information. London, 1906
  • Shan States and Karenni List of Chiefs and Leading Families (corrected up to 1939), Government of India Press, Simla, 1943
  • E. R. Leach (1954). The Political System of Highland Burma.