List of Smithsonian museums
The Smithsonian museums are the most widely visible part of the United States' Smithsonian Institution and consist of nineteen museums and galleries as well as the National Zoological Park. Seventeen of these collections are located in Washington D.C., with eleven of those located on the National Mall. The remaining ones are in New York City and Chantilly, Virginia. As of 2010, one museum, the Arts and Industries Building, is closed in preparation for a substantial renovation, and its newest museum building, the National Museum of African American History and Culture, opened in 2016.
The birth of the Smithsonian Institution can be traced to the acceptance of James Smithson's legacy, willed to the United States in 1826. Smithson died in 1829, and in 1836, President Andrew Jackson informed Congress of the gift, which it accepted. In 1838, Smithson's legacy, which totaled more than $500,000, was delivered to the United States Mint and entered the Treasury. After eight years, in 1846, the Smithsonian Institution was established.
The Smithsonian Institution Building (also known as "The Castle") was completed in 1855 to house an art gallery, a library, a chemical laboratory, lecture halls, museum galleries, and offices. During this time the Smithsonian was a learning institution concerned mainly with enhancing science and less interested in being a museum. Under the second secretary, Spencer Fullerton Baird, the Smithsonian turned into a full-fledged museum, mostly through the acquisition of 60 boxcars worth of displays from the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The income from the exhibition of these artifacts allowed for the construction of the National Museum, which is now known as the Arts and Industries Building. This structure was opened in 1881 to provide the Smithsonian with its first proper facility for public display of the growing collections.
The Institution grew slowly until 1964 when Sidney Dillon Ripley became secretary. Ripley managed to expand the institution by eight museums and upped admission from 10.8 million to 30 million people a year. This period included the greatest and most rapid growth for the Smithsonian, and it continued until Ripley's resignation in 1984. Since the completion of the Arts and Industries Building, the Smithsonian has expanded to twenty separate museums with roughly 137 million objects in their collections, including works of art, natural specimens, and cultural artifacts. The Smithsonian museums are visited by over 25 million people every year.
Eleven of the 19 Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries are at the National Mall in Washington D.C., the open-area national park in Washington, D.C running between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol, with the Washington Monument providing a division slightly west of the center. Five other Smithsonian museums and the National Zoo are located elsewhere in Washington. Two more Smithsonian museums are located in New York City and one is located in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian also holds close ties with 171 museums in 41 states, as well as Panama and Puerto Rico. These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliates. Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long-term loans from the Smithsonian. These long-term loans are not the only Smithsonian exhibits outside the Smithsonian museums. The Smithsonian also has a large number of traveling exhibitions. Each year more than 50 exhibitions travel to hundreds of cities and towns all across the United States.
Year museum moved to current building
- Facts about the Smithsonian Institution. newsdesk.si.edu (Pressroom of the Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved February 19, 2011
- Building The Museum, Overview. National Museum of African American History and Culture. Retrieved January 10, 2010
- History. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved November 19, 2011
- The Smithsonian Building: A Building Worthy of Smithson's Gift. From Smithson to Smithsonian: The Birth of an Institution. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 11, 2010
- Baird and the Centennial Exposition. Spencer F. Baird's Vision for a National Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 16, 2010
- Molotsky, Irvin, S. Dillon Ripley Dies at 87; Led the Smithsonian Institution During Its Greatest Growth. The New York Times. March 13, 2001, Retrieved March 16, 2010
- Maps and Directions. The Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved February 21, 2011
- Mission and History Anacostia Community Museum. Retrieved December 6, 2009
- History of the Galleries. Freer and Sackler Galleries. Retrieved December 6, 2009
- Arts and Industries Building. The Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- About The Museum. Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. Retrieved December 6, 2009
- History of the Hirshhorn. Hirshorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Retrieved December 6, 2009
- National Air and Space Museum Chronology. National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved December 6, 2009
- Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved February 25, 2010
- About Us. National Museum of African American History and Culture. Retrieved February 25, 2010
- Brenson, Michael (September 8, 1987). "Beneath Smithsonian, Debut for 2 Museums". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
- Mission and History. National Museum of American History. Retrieved December 6, 2009
- About the National Museum of the American Indian. National Museum of the American Indian. Retrieved February 25, 2010
- 20,000 American Indians March at National Museum Opening. National Geographic News. September 21, 2004. Retrieved December 29, 2009
- Visitor Information New York, NY. National Museum of the American Indian. Retrieved December 29, 2009
- A Brief History. National Museum of Natural History Museum History. Retrieved February 21, 2011
- Visiting the Museum, A Brief Overview: History with Personality. National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved February 25, 2010
- Visiting the Museum, Building Chronology. National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved December 29, 2009
- History of the Smithsonian National Postal Museum. National Postal Museum. Retrieved December 29, 2009
- About the American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery, History of the Museum Collection. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved December 29, 2009
- Smithsonian Institution Building (The Castle). Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved February 21, 2011
- History of the National Zoo. National Zoological Park. Retrieved December 29, 2009