List of Solar System extremes

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This article describes extreme locations of the Solar System. Entries listed in bold are Solar System-wide extremes.

By feature[edit]

Record Data Feature Ref.
Largest canyon Valles Marineris, Mars [1]
Largest mountain Rheasilvia central peak, Vesta [2][3]
Largest volcano Olympus Mons, Mars [4]
Largest scarp Verona Rupes, Miranda, Uranus [5]
Largest impact crater 2,700 km (1,700 mi) North Polar Basin, Mars [6]

By class[edit]

Type Average density Average temperature Average surface gravity
Lowest Highest Lowest Highest Lowest Highest
Star 1.4 g/cm3
Sun
[7][8]
5778 K
Sun
[9][10]
274 m/s2
Sun
[11]
Major planet 0.7 g/cm3
Saturn
[12][13]
5.51 g/cm3
Earth
[14][15]
73 K
Neptune
[16][17][18]
733 K
Venus
[19]
3.70 m/s2
Mercury
[18]
23.1 m/s2
Jupiter
[18]
Dwarf planet 2 g/cm3
Pluto
3 g/cm3
Haumea
30 K
Makemake
167 K
Ceres
0.27 m/s2
Ceres
0.8 m/s2
Eris
Major moon of major or dwarf planet [NB 1] 0.98 g/cm3
Tethys
3.53 g/cm3
Io
[20][21]
38 K
Triton
[22]
250 K
Moon
[23]
0.064 m/s2
Mimas
1.796 m/s2
Io
Type Escape velocity Mass Volume
(Radius)
Lowest Highest Lowest Highest Lowest Highest
Star 617.7 km/s
Sun
[11]
332,830 MEarth
Sun
[24][25]
695,000 km
Sun
[25]
Major planet 4.3 km/s
Mercury
[18]
59.5 km/s
Jupiter
[18]
0.055 MEarth
Mercury
[26]
318 MEarth
Jupiter
[24]
2500 km
Mercury
[27]
69911 km
Jupiter
[26]
Dwarf planet 0.51 km/s
Ceres
1.3 km/s
Eris
0.0002 MEarth
Ceres
0.0028 MEarth
Eris
487.3 km
Ceres
1187 km
Pluto
Major moon of major or dwarf planet [NB 1] 0.16 km/s
Mimas
2.74 km/s
Ganymede
0.000006 MEarth
Mimas
0.0250 MEarth
Ganymede
[28]
198 km
Mimas
2634 km
Ganymede
[20][28]
Extreme characteristic Star Major planet Dwarf planet Major moon
(of a major or dwarf planet) [NB 1]
Densest atmosphere Venus [NB 2]
[29][30]
Pluto Titan
[29]

By object[edit]

Astronomical Body Elevation
(height above/below datum)
Elevation
(height above/below base)
Surface Temperature
Highest Lowest Highest Lowest Highest Lowest
Sun N/A 100,000,000 K
In a solar flare
[31]
1240 K
In a sunspot
[32]
Mercury 3 kilometres (1.9 mi)
Caloris Montes, northwest Caloris Basin rim mountains
[33][34]
723 K
Dayside of Mercury
[35]
89 K
Permanently shaded polar craters
[36]
Venus 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)
Maxwell Montes, Ishtar Terra
[37][38][39][40]
3 kilometres (1.9 mi)
Diana Chasma, Aphrodite Terra
[40][41]
755 K
lowlands of Venus
[36]
644 K
Maxwell Montes, Ishtar Terra
[36]
Earth 8,848 metres (29,029 ft)
Mount Everest, Nepal - Tibet, China
[42]
10,971 metres (35,994 ft)
Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean
[43]
10,200 metres (33,500 ft)
Mauna Kea, Hawaii, United States of America
[42]
7 kilometres (4.3 mi)
Marianas Trench, Pacific Ocean
[44]
330 K
Furnace Creek Ranch,
Death Valley, United States
(more info)
184 K
Vostok Station, Antarctica
(more info)
Mars 27 kilometres (17 mi)
Olympus Mons, Tharsis

[42]
6 kilometres (3.7 mi)
Hellas Planitia
[45]
24 kilometres (15 mi)
Olympus Mons, Tharsis

[46]
9 kilometres (5.6 mi)
Melas Chasma, Valles Marineris
[47]
293 K
Martian equator in midsummer day
[48]
120 K
Martian poles in the depths of winter night
[48]
Jupiter N/A 152 K

[49]
110 K

[49]
Saturn N/A 143 K

[50]
82 K

[50]
Uranus N/A 68 K

[51]
59 K

[51]
Neptune N/A 53 K

[52]
50 K

[52]
Moon 10,786 metres (35,387 ft)
5.4125° , 201.3665°
[53][54]
9.06 kilometres (5.63 mi)
Antoniadi Crater (-172.58°E, 70.38°S)
400 K
midday on the equator
[55]
26 K
Permanently shadowed southwestern edge of the northern polar zone Hermite Crater in winter solstice
[55]
Io 17.3 kilometres (10.7 mi)
Boosaule Montes
[56][57]
Europa 2 kilometres (1.2 mi)
conical mountain (34.5N, 169.5W)
[58]
132 K
Subsolar temperature
[59]
Ganymede 156 K
Subsolar temperature
[59]
80 K
Nighttime temperature
[60]
Callisto 168 K
Subsolar temperature
[59]
80 K
Predawn nighttime temperature
[61]
Titan 2 km (1.2 mi)
Mithrim Montes, Xanadu[62]
Mimas
Enceladus 110 K
Tiger Stripes
[63]
Tethys
Dione
Rhea
Iapetus 20 kilometres (12 mi)
Voyager Mountains, equatorial ridge and bulge
[64][65][66]
Ariel
Umbriel
Titania
Oberon
Miranda
20 kilometres (12 mi) 20 kilometres (12 mi)
Verona Rupes
[5]
Triton
Nereid
Proteus
Charon
Ceres 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi)
Ahuna Mons

[67][68]
235 K

[69]
Pluto 3.4 km (2.1 mi)
Norgay Montes, Tombaugh Regio[70]
45 K

[71]
35 K

[71]
Eris 41 K

[72]
25 K

[72]
Makemake
Haumea
The bodies included in this table are: (1) planemos; (2) major planets, dwarf planets, or moons of major or dwarf planets, or stars; (3) hydrostatically round so as to be able to provide a geodetic datum line;

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c A major moon is a moon that is hydrostatically round.
  2. ^ As the transition from atmosphere to other is unclear for the giant planets, they are not included in this

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

See also[edit]