List of Solar System probes

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For a list of active probes only, see List of active Solar System probes. For a list of landers only, see Landings on other planets.

This is a list of all space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination. It includes planetary probes, solar probes, and probes to asteroids and comets, but excludes manned lunar spacecraft (listed separately at List of Apollo missions). Flybys (such as gravity assists) that were incidental to the main purpose of the mission are also included. Confirmed future probes are included, but missions that are still at the concept stage, or which never progressed beyond the concept stage, are not.

Key[edit]

Colour key:

     – Mission or flyby completed successfully (or partially successfully)         Failed or cancelled mission
     – Mission en route or in progress (including mission extensions)     Planned mission
  • means "tentatively identified", as classified by NASA.[1] These are Cold War-era Soviet missions, mostly failures, about which few or no details have been officially released. The information given may be speculative.
  • Date is the date of:
  • closest encounter (flybys)
  • impact (impactors)
  • orbital insertion to end of mission, whether planned or premature (orbiters)
  • landing to end of mission, whether planned or premature (landers)
  • launch (missions that never got underway due to failure at or soon after launch)
In cases which do not fit any of the above, the event to which the date refers is stated. Note that as a result of this scheme missions are not always listed in order of launch.
  • Some of the terms used under Type:
  • Flyby: The probe flies by an astronomical body, but does not orbit it
  • Orbiter: Part of a probe that orbits an astronomical body
  • Lander: Part of a probe that descend to the surface of an astronomical body
  • Rover: Part of a probe that acts as a vehicle to move on the solid-surface of an astronomical body
  • Penetrator: Part of a probe that impacts an astronomical body
  • Atmospheric probe or balloon: Part of a probe that descend through or floats in the atmosphere of an astronomical body
  • Sample return: Parts of the probe return back to Earth with physical samples
  • Under Status, in the case of flybys (such as gravity assists) that are incidental to the main mission, "success" indicates the successful completion of the flyby, not necessarily that of the main mission.

Solar probes[edit]

While the Sun is not physically explorable with current technology, the following solar observation probes have been designed and launched to operate in heliocentric orbit or at one of the Earth–Sun Lagrangian points – additional solar observatories were placed in Earth orbit and are not included in this list:

1960–1969[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 5 United States NASA/
No image.svg DOD
March–April 1960 orbiter success measured magnetic field phenomena, solar flare particles, and ionization in the interplanetary region Pioneer-5.jpg 1960-001A
Pioneer 6 United States NASA December 1965 – still contactable in 2000 orbiter success network of solar-orbiting "space weather" monitors, observing solar wind, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields Pioneer-6-9.jpg 1965-105A
Pioneer 7 United States NASA August 1966 – still contactable in 1995 orbiter success 1966-075A
Pioneer 8 United States NASA December 1967 – still contactable in 2001 orbiter success 1967-123A
Pioneer 9 United States NASA November 1968 – May 1983 orbiter success 1968-100A
Pioneer-E United States NASA 27 August 1969 orbiter failure intended as part of the Pioneer 6–9 network; failed to reach orbit Pioneer-6-9.jpg PIONE

1974–1997[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Helios A United States NASA/
West Germany BWF
November 1974 – 1982 orbiter success observations of solar wind, magnetic and electric fields, cosmic rays and cosmic dust between Earth and Sun Helios spacecraft.jpg 1974-097A
Helios B United States NASA/
West Germany BWF
January 1976 – 1985? orbiter success 1976-003A
ISEE-3 United States NASA 1978–1982 orbiter success observed solar phenomena in conjunction with earth-orbiting ISEE-1 and ISEE-2; later renamed International Cometary Explorer (ICE) and directed to Comet Giacobini-Zinner ISEE-3.gif 1976-003A
Ulysses
(first pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
1994 orbiter success south polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
1995 north polar observations
WIND United States NASA November 1994 — still returning data (as of June 2015)[2] orbiter success solar wind measurements Wind probe.jpg 1994-071A
SOHO European Union ESA/
United States NASA
May 1996 – mission extended until 31 December 2016[3] orbiter success investigation of Sun's core, corona, and solar wind; comet discoveries 1995-065A
ACE United States NASA August 1997 – still returning data (as of June 2015)[4] orbiter success solar wind observations Advanced Composition Explorer.jpg 1997-045A

2000–present[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ulysses
(second pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
2000 orbiter success south polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
2001 north polar observations
Genesis United States NASA 2001–2004 orbiter/
sample return
success solar wind sample return; crash landed on return to Earth, much data salvaged Genesis in collection mode.jpg 2001-034A
STEREO A United States NASA December 2006 –
(still returning data as of September 2016)[5][6]
orbiter success stereoscopic imaging of coronal mass ejections and other solar phenomena STEREO spacecraft.gif 2006-047A
STEREO B United States NASA December 2006 – October 2014
August 2016 –
(communication lost on October 1, 2014, re-established on August 21, 2016, full recovery of the spacecraft underway)[7][6]
orbiter success 2006-047B
Ulysses
(third pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
2007 orbiter success south polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
2008 partial success north polar observations; some data returned despite failing power and reduced transmission capacity
DSCOVR United States NOAA February 2015 – orbiter success solar wind and coronal mass ejection monitoring, as well as Earth climate monitoring DSCOVR rendering (transparent bg).png 2015-007A [8]

Proposed[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Solar Orbiter European Union ESA 2018 orbiter planned solar and heliospheric physics [9]
Solar Probe Plus United States NASA 2018[10] orbiter planned close-range coronal observations [11]
Intergelio-Zond Russia RKA 2019 orbiter planned close-range solar observations [12]
Aditya India ISRO 2017-2018 orbiter planned to study Solar Corona [13]

Mercury probes[edit]

Mercury Probes (List)
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 10 United States NASA 29 March 1974 flyby success minimum distance 704 km Mariner 10.jpg 1973-085A
21 September 1974 48,069 km
16 March 1975 327 km
MESSENGER United States NASA 14 January 2008 flyby success minimum distance 200 km Messenger.jpg 2004-030A
6 October 2008 minimum distance 200 km
29 September 2009 minimum distance 228 km
18 March 2011 –
30 April 2015
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Mercury; unavoidable impact on the surface at end of mission
BepiColombo European Union ESA/
Japan JAXA
April 2018 (launch) – 1 May 2026 (end of nominal mission) BEPICLMBO
   Mercury
Planetary Orbiter
European Union ESA 18 December 2024 (orbital insertion)
27 March 2025 (final MPO orbit)
orbiter under construction
Mercury Magnetospheric
Orbiter
Japan JAXA 18 December 2024 orbiter testing

Venus probes[edit]

Main article: Exploration of Venus

1961–1969[edit]

Venus Probes (List) [1961-1965]
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Sputnik 7 Soviet Union (USSR) 4 February 1961 lander failure failed to escape from Earth orbit 1961-002A
Venera 1 Soviet Union (USSR) 19 May 1961 –
20 May 1961
flyby failure contact lost 7 days after launch; first spacecraft to fly by another planet 1961-003A
Mariner 1 United States NASA 22 July 1962 flyby failure guidance failure shortly after launch MARIN1
Sputnik 19 Soviet Union (USSR) 25 August 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1962-040A
Sputnik 20 Soviet Union (USSR) 1 September 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1962-043A
Sputnik 21 Soviet Union (USSR) 12 September 1962 flyby failure third stage exploded 1962-045A
Mariner 2 United States NASA 14 December 1962 flyby success first successful Venus flyby; minimum distance 34,773 km Mariner 2.jpg 1962-041A
Cosmos 21 Soviet Union (USSR) 11 November 1963 flyby? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1963-044A
Venera 1964A Soviet Union (USSR) 19 February 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Venera 1964B Soviet Union (USSR) 1 March 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Cosmos 27 Soviet Union (USSR) 27 March 1964 flyby failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1964-014A
Zond 1 Soviet Union (USSR) 1964 flyby and possible lander failure contact lost en route 1964-016D
Cosmos 96 Soviet Union (USSR) 23 November 1965 lander failure exploded? 1965-094A
Venera 1965A Soviet Union (USSR) 26 November 1965 flyby failure launch vehicle failure? [1]
Venera 2 Soviet Union (USSR) 27 February 1966 flyby failure ceased to operate en route 1965-091A
Venera 3 Soviet Union (USSR) 1 March 1966 lander failure contact lost before arrival; first spacecraft to impact on the surface of another planet 1965-092A
Kosmos 167 Soviet Union (USSR) 17 June 1967 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1967-063A
Venera 4 Soviet Union (USSR) 18 October 1967 atmospheric probe success continued to transmit to an altitude of 25 km 1967-058A
Mariner 5 United States NASA 19 October 1967 flyby success minimum distance 5,000 km Mariner 5.jpg 1967-060A
Venera 5 Soviet Union (USSR) 16 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 53 minutes, to an altitude of about 26 km 1969-001A
Venera 6 Soviet Union (USSR) 17 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 51 minutes, to an altitude of perhaps 10–12 km 1969-002A

1970–1978[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Cosmos 359 Soviet Union (USSR) 22 August 1970 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1970-065A
Venera 7 Soviet Union (USSR) 15 December 1970 lander success first successful landing on another planet; signals returned from surface for 23 minutes 1970-060A
Cosmos 482 Soviet Union (USSR) 31 March 1972 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1972-023A
Venera 8 Soviet Union (USSR) 22 July 1972 lander success signals returned from surface for 50 minutes 1972-021A
Mariner 10 United States NASA 5 February 1974 flyby success minimum distance 5768 km, en route to Mercury; first use of gravity assist by an interplanetary spacecraft Mariner 10.jpg 1973-085A
Venera 9 Soviet Union (USSR) 1975 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Venus; communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies 1975-050A
22 October 1975 lander success first images from the surface; operated on surface for 53 minutes 1975-050D
Venera 10 Soviet Union (USSR) 1975 orbiter success communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies 1975-054A
23 October 1975 lander success transmitted from surface for 65 minutes 1975-054D
Pioneer Venus Orbiter United States NASA 4 December 1978 –
1992
orbiter success atmospheric and magnetic studies Pioneer Venus orbiter.jpg 1978-051A
Pioneer Venus Multiprobe United States NASA 9 December 1978 Pioneer Venus 2 inspection.jpg
bus probe transporter success deployed four atmospheric probes, then burnt up in Venusian atmosphere, continuing to transmit to 110 km altitude 1978-078A
large probe atmospheric probe success Largevenusprobe.gif 1978-078D
north probe atmospheric probe success Smallvenusprobe.gif 1978-078E
day probe atmospheric probe success survived impact and continued to transmit from surface for over an hour 1978-078G
night probe atmospheric probe success 1978-078F
Venera 12 Soviet Union SAS
flight platform 21 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1978-086A
descent craft 21 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 110 minutes; failure of some instruments 1978-086C
Venera 11 Soviet Union SAS identical to Venera 12
   flight platform 25 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1978-084A
descent craft 25 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 95 minutes; failure of some instruments 1978-084D

1982–1999[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venera 13 Soviet Union SAS
   bus 1 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1981-106A
descent craft 1 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 127 minutes 1981-106D
Venera 14 Soviet Union SAS identical to Venera 13
bus 5 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1981-110A
descent craft 5 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 57 minutes 1981-110D
Venera 15 Soviet Union SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping 1983-053A
Venera 16 Soviet Union SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping; identical to Venera 15 1983-054A
Vega 1 Soviet Union SAS 11 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet 1984-125A
lander failure instruments deployed prematurely 1984-125E
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours 1984-125F
Vega 2 Soviet Union SAS 15 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet 1984-128A
lander success transmitted from surface for 56 minutes 1984-128E
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours 1984-128F
Galileo United States NASA 10 February 1990 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 16,000 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
Magellan United States NASA 10 August 1990 –
12 October 1994
orbiter success global radar mapping Magellan at Kennedy Space Center.jpg 1989-033B [15]
Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
26 April 1998 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A [16]
24 June 1999

2006–present[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venus Express European Union ESA 11 April 2006 – 18 January 2015 orbiter success atmospheric studies; planetary imaging; magnetic observations Venus Express in orbit.jpg 2005-045A
MESSENGER United States NASA 24 October 2006 flyby success gravity assist only; minimum distance 2990 km Messenger.jpg 2004-030A
6 June 2007 success minimum distance 300 km; en route to Mercury
Akatsuki
(PLANET-C)
Japan JAXA 6 December 2010 (Venus flyby)
7 December 2015 (orbital insertion) –
orbiter success failed orbital insertion in 2010; success in 2015
science mission ongoing since May 2016
2010-020D
IKAROS Japan JAXA 8 December 2010 flyby[17] success solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration IKAROS solar sail.jpg 2010-020E [18]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
Japan UNISEC December 2010? flyby[19] failure contact lost shortly after launch 2010-020F [20][21]

Proposed[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venus orbiter mission India ISRO 2017–2020? orbiter + balloons proposed [22][23]
DAVINCI United States NASA 2021 atmospheric probe proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 DAVINCI Venus mission atmospheric probe.jpg [24]
VERITAS United States NASA 2021 orbiter proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 Veritas20150930.jpg [25]
Venus In Situ Explorer United States NASA 2024 lander or airplane proposed Venus In-Situ Explorer.png [26]
Venera-D Russia RKA 2025 orbiter proposed Venera-D.jpg [27][28]

Earth flybys[edit]

Main article: List of Earth flybys

These are probes that incidentally performed Earth flybys during missions to other bodies, often as part of gravity-assist orbital manoeuvres.

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Closest Approach Status Notes Image Ref
Giotto
(first pass)
European Union ESA 2 July 1990 flyby 22,730 km success first Earth flyby, en route to Comet Grigg–Skjellerup 1985-056A
Galileo
(first pass)
United States NASA 8 December 1990 flyby 301 km success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 960 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
Sakigake
(first pass)
Japan ISAS 8 January 1992 flyby 88,790 km success previously visited Halley's comet Sakigake.gif 1985-001A
Suisei Japan ISAS 20 August 1992 flyby failure failure previously visited Halley's comet; hydrazine depleted, further planned comet flybys abandoned Suisei.gif 1985-073A
Galileo
(second pass)
United States NASA 8 December 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 305 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
Sakigake
(second and third passes)
Japan ISAS 14 June 1993 flyby Sakigake.gif 1985-001A
28 October 1994 flyby out of fuel; telemetry contact lost November 1995
NEAR Shoemaker United States NASA 23 January 1998 flyby 540 km success gravity assist en route to Eros NEARCraft.jpg 1996-008A
Nozomi
(first pass)
Japan ISAS 20 December 1998 flyby 1000 km partial success gravity assist on planned mission to Mars; valve malfunction during flyby required extra burn, which later forced alternate trajectory plan 1998-041A
Giotto
(second pass)
European Union ESA 1 July 1999 flyby failure n/a already defunct 1985-056A
Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
August, 1999 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A
Stardust
(first pass)
United States NASA 15 January 2001 flyby 6000 km success gravity assist en route to comet 81P/Wild Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
Nozomi
(second pass)
Japan ISAS December, 2002 flyby 11,000 km success gravity assist en route to Mars 1998-041A
Nozomi
(third pass)
Japan ISAS 19 June 2003 flyby 1000 km success gravity assist en route to Mars 1998-041A
Hayabusa Japan ISAS 19 May 2004 flyby 20,000 km success en route to Itokawa Hayabusa(Muses-C) sampling.jpg 2003-019A
Rosetta
(first pass)
European Union ESA 4 March 2005 flyby 1950 km success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
MESSENGER United States NASA 2 August 2005 flyby 2348 km success gravity assist en route to Mercury Messenger.jpg 2004-030A
Stardust
(second pass)
United States NASA 15 January 2006 flyby success drop-off of sample return capsule Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
Rosetta
(second pass)
European Union ESA 13 November 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters 2004-006A
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (first pass) United States NASA 31 December 2007[29] flyby 15,567 success previously visited Comet 9P/Tempel; gravity assist en route to encounter with Comet 103P/Hartley Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (second pass) United States NASA December 2008[29][30] flyby 43,450 km success gravity assist Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
Stardust
(third pass)
United States NASA 14 January 2009 flyby 9200 km success[31] mission extension to Comet 9P/Tempel; minimum distance 9200 km Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
Rosetta
(third pass)
European Union ESA 13 November 2009 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters 2004-006A
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (third pass) United States NASA June 2009[29] distant flyby success Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (fourth pass) United States NASA December 2009[29][30] distant flyby success Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (fifth pass) United States NASA June 2010[29] flyby 36,900 km success Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
Juno United States NASA 9 October 2013 flyby 559 km success gravity assist en route to Jupiter Juno in front of Jupiter.jpg 2011-040A
Hayabusa 2 Japan JAXA 3 December 2015 flyby success gravity assist en route to Asteroid 162173 Ryugu 2014-076A
PROCYON Japan University of Tokyo/JAXA 3 December 2015[32] flyby success was en route to Asteroid 2000 DP107 but mission abandoned[33] 2014-076D
Shin'en 2 Japan Kyutech 4 December 2015[34] flyby success 2014-076B

Lunar probes[edit]

See List of lunar probes

1958–1964[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 0 United States DOD 17 August 1958 orbiter failure first attempted launch beyond Earth orbit; launch vehicle failure; maximum altitude 16 km Pioneer able.png ABLE1
Luna E-1 No.1 Soviet Union USSR 23 September 1958 impactor failure launch vehicle failure [5]
Pioneer 1 United States NASA/
No image.svg DOD
11 October 1958 orbiter failure second stage premature shutdown; maximum altitude 113,800 km; some data returned Pioneer I on the Launch Pad - GPN-2002-000204.jpg 1958-007A
Luna E-1 No.2 Soviet Union USSR 12 October 1958 impactor failure launch vehicle failure [6]
Pioneer 2 United States NASA/
No image.svg STL
8 November 1958 orbiter failure third stage failure; maximum altitude 1,550 km; some data returned Pioneer able.png PION2
Luna E-1 No.3 Soviet Union USSR 4 December 1958 impactor failure launch vehicle failure [7]
Pioneer 3 United States NASA/
No image.svg DOD
6 December 1958 flyby failure fuel depletion; maximum altitude 102,360 km; some data returned Pioneer-3-4.gif 1958-008A
Luna 1 Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959 flyby partial success first spacecraft in the vicinity of the Moon (flew within 5,995 km, but probably an intended impactor) 1959-012A
Luna E-1A No.1 Soviet Union USSR 18 June 1959 impactor failure failed to reach Earth orbit Luna 2 Soviet moon probe.jpg [8]
Pioneer 4 United States NASA/
No image.svg DOD
4 March 1959 flyby partial success achieved distant flyby; first US probe to enter solar orbit Pioneer-3-4.gif 1959-013A
Luna 2 Soviet Union USSR 14 September 1959 impactor success first impact on Moon Luna 2 Soviet moon probe.jpg 1959-014A
Pioneer P-1 United States NASA 24 September 1959? orbiter? failure designation sometimes given to a failed launch or launchpad explosion during testing; conflicting information between sources Pioneer-5.jpg
Luna 3 Soviet Union USSR 6 October 1959 flyby success first images from the lunar farside Lunik 3.jpg 1959-008A
Pioneer P-3 United States NASA 26 November 1959 orbiter failure disintegrated shortly after launch Pioneer-5.jpg PIONX
Luna 1960A Soviet Union USSR 15 April 1960 flyby failure failed to attain correct trajectory Lunik 3.jpg [1]
Luna 1960B Soviet Union USSR 16 April 1960 flyby failure launch vehicle failure Lunik 3.jpg [1]
Pioneer P-30 United States NASA 25 September 1960 orbiter failure second stage failure; failed to reach Earth orbit Pioneer-5.jpg PIONY
Pioneer P-31 United States NASA 15 December 1960 orbiter failure first stage failure Pioneer-5.jpg PIONZ
Ranger 3 United States NASA 28 January 1962 impactor failure missed target 1964 71392L.jpg 1962-001A
Ranger 4 United States NASA 26 April 1962 impactor failure hit the lunar farside; no data returned 1964 71394L.jpg 1962-012A
Ranger 5 United States NASA 21 October 1962 impactor failure power failure, missed target 1964 71395L-Ranger.jpg 1962-055A
Sputnik 25 Soviet Union USSR 5 January 1963 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1963-001A
Luna 1963B Soviet Union USSR 2 February 1963 lander? failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Luna 4 Soviet Union USSR 5 April 1963 lander? failure missed target, became Earth satellite 1963-008B
Ranger 6 United States NASA 2 February 1964 impactor partial success impacted, but no pictures returned due to power failure The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg 1964-007A
Luna 1964A Soviet Union USSR 21 March 1964 lander failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Luna 1964B Soviet Union USSR 20 April 1964 lander failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Ranger 7 United States NASA 31 July 1964 impactor success returned pictures up until impact The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg 1964-041A

1965–1969[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ranger 8 United States NASA 20 February 1965 impactor success returned pictures up until impact The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg 1965-010A
Cosmos 60 Soviet Union USSR 12 March 1965 lander failure failed to leave Earth orbit 1965-018A
Ranger 9 United States NASA 24 March 1965 impactor success TV broadcast of live pictures up until impact The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg 1965-023A
Luna 1965A Soviet Union USSR 10 April 1965 lander? failure failed to reach Earth orbit? [1]
Luna 5 Soviet Union USSR 12 May 1965 lander failure crashed into Moon 1965-036A
Luna 6 Soviet Union USSR 8 June 1965 lander failure missed Moon 1965-044A
Zond 3 Soviet Union USSR 20 July 1965 flyby success possibly originally intended as a Mars probe, but target changed after launch window missed 1965-056A
Luna 7 Soviet Union USSR 7 October 1965 lander failure crashed into Moon 1965-077A
Luna 8 Soviet Union USSR 6 December 1965 lander failure crashed into Moon 1965-099A
Luna 9 Soviet Union USSR 3 February 1966 –
6 February 1966
lander success first soft landing; first images from the surface 1966-006A
Cosmos 111 Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1966 orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit Luna-10.jpg 1966-017A
Luna 10 Soviet Union USSR 3 April 1966 –
30 May 1966
orbiter success first artificial satellite of the moon Luna-10.jpg 1966-027A
Luna 1966A Soviet Union USSR 30 April 1966 orbiter? failure failed to reach Earth orbit Luna-10.jpg [1]
Surveyor 1 United States NASA 2 June 1966 lander success first US soft landing; Surveyor program performed various tests in support of forthcoming manned landings Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg 1966-045A
Explorer 33 United States NASA 1 July 1966 –
15 September 1971
orbiter partial success studied interplanetary plasma, cosmic rays, magnetic fields and solar X rays; failed to attain lunar orbit as intended, but achieved mission objectives from Earth orbit IMP-D.jpg 1966-058A
Lunar Orbiter 1 United States NASA 14 August 1966 –
29 October 1966
orbiter success photographic mapping of lunar surface; intentionally impacted after completion of mission Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg 1966-073A
Luna 11 Soviet Union USSR 28 August 1966 –
1 October 1966
orbiter success gamma-ray and X-ray-based observations of Moon's composition; gravity, radiation and meteorite studies 1966-078A
Surveyor 2 United States NASA 23 September 1966 lander failure crashed into Moon Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg 1966-084A
Luna 12 Soviet Union USSR 25 October 1966 –
19 January 1967
orbiter success lunar surface photography 1966-094A
Lunar Orbiter 2 United States NASA 10 November 1966 –
11 October 1967
orbiter success photographic mapping of lunar surface; intentionally impacted after completion of mission Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg 1966-100A
Luna 13 Soviet Union USSR 24 December 1966 lander success TV pictures of lunar landscape; soil measurements 1966-116A
Lunar Orbiter 3 United States NASA 8 February 1967 –
9 October 1967
orbiter success photographic mapping of lunar surface; intentionally impacted after completion of mission Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg 1967-008A
Surveyor 3 United States NASA 20 April 1967 –
4 May 1967
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings Surveyor 3 on the Moon.jpg 1967-035A
Lunar Orbiter 4 United States NASA May–October 1967 orbiter success lunar photographic survey Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg 1967-041A
Explorer 35 United States NASA July 1967 –
24 June 1973
orbiter success studies of interplanetary plasma, magnetic fields, energetic particles and solar X rays IMP-E.jpg 1967-070A
Surveyor 4 United States NASA 17 July 1967 lander failure crashed into Moon Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg 1967-068A
Lunar Orbiter 5 United States NASA 5 August 1967 –
31 January 1968
orbiter success lunar photographic survey; intentionally impacted after completion of mission Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg 1967-075A
Surveyor 5 United States NASA 11 September 1967 –
17 December 1967
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg 1967-084A
Zond 1967A Soviet Union USSR 28 September 1967 failure lunar capsule test flight; launch failure Zond L1 drawing.png [1]
Surveyor 6 United States NASA 10 November 1967 –
14 December 1967
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg 1967-112A
Zond 1967B Soviet Union USSR 22 November 1967 failure lunar capsule test flight; launch failure Zond L1 drawing.png [1]
Surveyor 7 United States NASA 10 January 1968 –
21 February 1968
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings; fifth and final Surveyor mission to achieve soft landing Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg 1968-001A
Luna 1968A Soviet Union USSR 7 February 1968 orbiter? failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Zond 4 Soviet Union USSR 2 March 1968 (launch) lunar programme flight test, directed away from Moon, either intentionally or unintentionally Zond L1 drawing.png 1968-013A
Luna 14 Soviet Union USSR 10 April 1968 – ? orbiter success tests of radio communications technologies; lunar mascon studies 1968-027A
Zond 1968A Soviet Union USSR 23 April 1968 flyby? failure launch failure Zond L1 drawing.png [1]
Zond 5 Soviet Union USSR 18 September 1968 flyby success bioscience experiments; returned to soft landing on Earth Zond L1 drawing.png 1968-076A
Zond 6 Soviet Union USSR 14 November 1968 flyby success cosmic-ray, micrometeoroid and bioscience studies; returned to soft landing on Earth Zond L1 drawing.png 1968-101A
Zond 1969A Soviet Union USSR 20 January 1969 flyby failure launch aborted Zond L1 drawing.png [1]
Luna 1969A Soviet Union USSR 19 February 1969 rover failure launch vehicle failure Lunakod landing bus-Luna17.jpg [1]
Zond L1S-1 Soviet Union USSR 21 February 1969 orbiter failure launch vehicle failure Zond L1 drawing.png [1]
Luna 1969B Soviet Union USSR 15 April 1969 sample return? failure launch failure Luna-16.jpg [1]
Luna 1969C Soviet Union USSR 14 June 1969 sample return failure launch failure Luna-16.jpg [1]
Zond L1S-2 Soviet Union USSR 3 July 1969 orbiter failure launch failure Zond L1 drawing.png [1]
Luna 15 Soviet Union USSR 21 July 1969 sample return? failure? completed 52 lunar orbits then crash-landed Luna-16.jpg 1969-058A
Zond 7 Soviet Union USSR 11 August 1969 flyby success returned to soft landing on Earth Zond L1 drawing.png 1969-067A
Cosmos 300 Soviet Union USSR 23 September 1969 sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit Luna-16.jpg 1969-080A
Cosmos 305 Soviet Union USSR 22 October 1969 sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit Luna-16.jpg 1969-092A

1970–1983[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Luna 1970A Soviet Union USSR 6 February 1970 sample return? failure launch vehicle failure Luna-16.jpg [1]
Luna 1970B Soviet Union USSR 19 February 1970 orbiter? failure launch vehicle failure Luna-22.jpg [1]
Luna 16 Soviet Union USSR 20 September 1970 sample return success first robotic sample return Luna-16.jpg 1970-072A
Zond 8 Soviet Union USSR 24 October 1970 flyby success returned to soft landing on Earth Zond L1 drawing.png 1970-088A
Luna 17 Soviet Union USSR 17 November 1970 –
4 October 1971
lander success deployed rover Lunakod landing bus-Luna17.jpg 1970-095A
   Lunokhod 1 rover success first robotic rover; travelled over 10 km
Soyuz 7K-L1E No.1 Soviet Union USSR 26 June 1971 orbiter failure launch vehicle failure L2 (Lunar Orbit Module) (RP1357 p16, 31-220).svg [35]
Luna 18 Soviet Union USSR 11 September 1971 lander/sample return? failure crashed into Moon Luna-16.jpg 1971-073A
Luna 19 Soviet Union USSR 3 October 1971 –
October 1972
orbiter success Luna-22.jpg 1971-082A
Luna 20 Soviet Union USSR 21 February 1972 sample return success second successful robotic sample return Luna-16.jpg 1972-007A
Soyuz 7K-LOK No.1 Soviet Union USSR 23 November 1972 orbiter failure launch vehicle failure L2 (Lunar Orbit Module) (RP1357 p16, 31-220).svg [35]
Luna 21 Soviet Union USSR 15 January 1973 –
May 1973?
lander success deployed rover Lunakod landing bus-Luna17.jpg 1973-001A
   Lunokhod 2 rover success second robotic rover; travelled 37 km
Explorer 49 United States NASA 15 June 1973 –
June 1975
orbiter success radio astronomy observations; last US lunar mission until 1994 IMP-E.jpg 1973-039A
Mariner 10 United States NASA November 1973 flyby success en route to Venus and Mercury Mariner 10.jpg 1973-085A
Luna 22 Soviet Union USSR 2 June 1974 –
November 1974
orbiter success Luna-22.jpg 1974-037A
Luna 23 Soviet Union USSR 6 November 1974 sample return failure damaged on landing, sample return failed 1974-084A
Luna 1975A Soviet Union USSR 16 October 1975 sample return failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Luna 24 Soviet Union USSR 18 August 1976 sample return success third and final successful sample return in Luna programme 1976-081A
ICE (formerly ISEE3) United States NASA 22 December 1983 flyby success gravity assist en route to comet flybys ISEE-3.gif 1978-079A

1990–1999[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Hiten Japan ISAS March 1990 – October 1991 flyby (approached 10 times) success in Moon-crossing Earth orbit from January 1990, later transferred to lunar orbit after failure of Hagoromo; intentionally impacted on Moon at end of mission; first Japanese probe to enter lunar orbit Hiten.gif 1990-007A
February 1992 – April 1993 orbiter success
   Hagoromo Japan ISAS March 1990 orbiter failure released by Hiten into lunar orbit, but transmitter failed and orbit never confirmed
GEOTAIL Japan ISAS / United StatesNASA September 1992 – November 1994 flyby (approached 14 times) success gravity assist en route magnetotail around L2 / finally deployed into high Earth orbit 1992-044A [9]
Clementine United States BMDO/
No image.svg NASA
February – June 1994 orbiter partial success lunar and Earth observations and component testing; planned Geographos flyby failed Clementine Deployed.png 1994-004A
HGS-1 Hughes Global Services May/June 1998 errant communications satellite, flew within 6,200 kilometers of Moon during orbit correction manoeuvres 1997-086A
Lunar Prospector United States NASA January 1998 –
July 1999
orbiter success lunar surface mapping; intentionally impacted into polar crater at end of mission to test for liberation of water vapour (not detected) Lunar Prospector orbiter.jpg 1998-001A
Nozomi Japan ISAS 24 September 1998 flyby success gravity assists on planned mission to Mars 1998-041A
18 December 1998 flyby success

2000–2009[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
SMART-1 European Union ESA 13 November 2004 –
3 September 2006
orbiter success technology testbed and lunar geological studies; intentionally impacted at end of mission; first European probe to orbit the Moon 2003-043C
SELENE
(Kaguya)
Japan JAXA 3 October 2007 – 10 June 2009 orbiter success mineralogical, geographical, magnetic and gravitational observations H-IIA F13 launching KAGUYA.jpg 2007-039A
Okina
(Relay Star)
9 October 2007 – 12 February 2009 Kaguya subsatellite success relay for Kaguya's Far Side operations
Ouna
(VRAD)
12 October 2007 – 29 June 2009 Kaguya subsatellite success (still in orbit) Very Long Baseline Interferometry
Chang'e 1 China CNSA 5 November 2007 – 1 March 2009 orbiter success 3D lunar mapping and geological observations; first Chinese probe to orbit a body besides Earth Chang e 1.jpg 2007-051A
1 March 2009 impactor success collect data in preparation for future soft landing. [10]
Chandrayaan-1 India ISRO 8 November 2008 – 29 August 2009 orbiter partial success high resolution three-dimensional mapping, search water in polar region (first detected water, published Science paper jointly with NASA) and spectral analysis of the Moon's surface and inner compositions Chandrayaan-1.jpg 2008-052A [11]
Moon Impact Probe (MIP) 14 November 2008 impactor success test and demonstrate targeting technologies in anticipation of future soft landings, scientific observation of the Moon from close range [36]
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter United States NASA 23 June 2009 – orbiter success survey of lunar resources and identification of possible landing sites LRO 2006.jpg 2009-031A
   LCROSS 9 October 2009 impactor success analyzed upper-stage impact plume for traces of water liberated from the Moon's surface LCROSS separated.jpg 2009-031B [12]

2010–present[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Chang'e 2 China CNSA 1 October 2010 – 27 August 2011 orbiter success capture high resolution images of soft landing site for Chang'e 3, measure and analyze content of the surface 2010-050A
ARTEMIS P1 United States NASA 2 July 2011 – orbiter success to study the effect of the solar wind on the lunar surface 2007-004B
ARTEMIS P2 United States NASA 17 July 2011 – orbiter success to study the effect of the solar wind on the lunar surface 2007-004C
GRAIL A United States NASA 31 December 2011 – 17 December 2012 orbiter success mapped the Moon's gravitational field; intentionally impacted at end of mission 2011-046A
GRAIL B United States NASA 1 January 2012 – 12 December 2012 orbiter success mapped the Moon's gravitational field; intentionally impacted at end of mission 2011-046B
LADEE United States NASA 6 September 2013 – 18 April 2014 orbiter success study the lunar exosphere and dust; intentionally impacted at end of mission 2013-047A
Chang'e 3 China CNSA 6 December 2013 (orbital insertion) – 3 August 2016 (end of transmissions) lander + rover success soft landing on Moon with Yutu rover on 14 December 2013 Chang'E-3 lunar lander.jpg 2013-070A
Chang'e 5-T1 China CNSA 23 October 2014 orbiter in progress Engineering test article for reentry from lunar trajectory, carries secondary private payload 4M 2014-065A

Mars probes[edit]

1960–1969[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mars 1960A Soviet Union USSR 10 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit MARSNK1
Mars 1960B Soviet Union USSR 14 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit MARSNK2
Mars 1962A Soviet Union USSR 24 October 1962 flyby failure exploded in or en route to Earth orbit 1962-057A
Mars 1962B Soviet Union USSR 11 November 1962 (launch) lander failure broke up during transfer to Mars trajectory 1962-062A
Mars 1 Soviet Union USSR 19 June 1963 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within approximately 193,000 km of Mars 1962-061A
Mariner 3 United States NASA 5 November 1964 flyby failure protective shield failed to eject, preventing craft from attaining correct trajectory Mariner 3 and 4.jpg 1964-073A
Mariner 4 United States NASA 15 July 1965 flyby success first close-up images of Mars Mariner 3 and 4.jpg 1964-077A
Zond 2 Soviet Union USSR 6 August 1965 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within 1,500 km of Mars 1964-078C
Mariner 6 United States NASA 31 July 1969 flyby success Mariner 6and7.gif 1969-014A
Mariner 7 United States NASA 5 August 1969 flyby success Mariner 6and7.gif 1969-030A
Mars 1969A Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure MARS69A
Mars 1969B Soviet Union USSR 2 April 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure MARS69B

1971–1976[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 8 United States NASA 9 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure launch vehicle failure Mariner09.jpg MARINH
Kosmos 419 Soviet Union USSR 10 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1971-042A
Mariner 9 United States NASA 14 November 1971 –
27 October 1972
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit another planet Mariner09.jpg 1971-051A
Mars 2 Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter success first Russian spacecraft to orbit another planet 1971-045A
   Mars 2 Lander Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971 lander and short range rover failure crashed; first manmade object to reach surface of Mars 1971-045D
Mars 3 Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter partial success attained a different orbit than intended due to insufficient fuel 1971-049A
Mars 3 Lander Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971 lander and short range rover partial success first soft landing on Mars; contact lost 110 sec after soft landing 1971-049F
Mars 4 Soviet Union USSR 10 February 1974 orbiter failure orbit insertion failed, became flyby 1973-047A
Mars 5 Soviet Union USSR 12 February 1974 –
28 February 1974
orbiter success 1973-049A
Mars 6 Soviet Union USSR 12 March 1974 flyby success 1973-052A
Mars 6 Lander Soviet Union USSR 12 March 1974 lander failure contact lost 148 sec after parachute deployment (returned 224 seconds of atmospheric data)
Mars 7 Soviet Union USSR 9 March 1974 flyby success 1973-053A
Mars 7 Lander Soviet Union USSR 9 March 1974 lander failure missed Mars
Viking 1 Orbiter United States NASA 19 June 1976 –
17 August 1980
orbiter success 1975-075A
Viking 1 Lander United States NASA 20 July 1976 –
13 November 1982
lander success first images from surface Viking lander model.jpg 1975-075C
Viking 2 Orbiter United States NASA 7 August 1976 –
25 July 1978
orbiter success 1975-083A
Viking 2 Lander United States NASA 3 September 1976 –
11 April 1980
lander success Viking lander model.jpg 1975-083C

1988–1999[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 Soviet Union USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost en route to Mars Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-058A
Phobos 2 Soviet Union USSR 29 January 1989 –
27 March 1989
orbiter partial success Mars orbit acquired, but contact lost shortly before Phobos approach phase and deployment of Phobos landers Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-059A
Mars Observer United States NASA 25 September 1992 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost shortly before Mars orbit insertion 1992-063A
Mars 96 Russia RKA 16 November 1996 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1996-064A
lander Mars96 surface station.jpg MARS96B
lander MARS96C
penetrator Mars96 penetrator.gif MARS96D
penetrator MARS96E
Mars Pathfinder United States NASA 4 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
lander success 1996-068A
    Sojourner United States NASA 6 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
rover success first Mars rover Sojourner on Mars PIA01122.jpg MESURPR
Mars Global Surveyor United States NASA 12 September 1997 –
2 November 2006
orbiter success Mars global surveyor.jpg 1996-062A
Mars Climate Orbiter United States NASA 23 September 1999 orbiter failure Mars orbit insertion failed due to navigation error Mars Climate Orbiter during tests.jpg 1998-073A
Mars Polar Lander United States NASA 3 December 1999 lander failure contact lost just prior to entering Martian atmosphere Mars polar lander.jpg 1999-001A
Deep Space 2 "Amundsen" United States NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator DS-2 Components.jpg DEEPSP2
Deep Space 2 "Scott" United States NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator

2001–2009[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2001 Mars Odyssey United States NASA 24 October 2001 – orbiter success studying climate and geology; communications relay for Spirit and Opportunity rovers
longest surviving spacecraft in orbit around a planet other than Earth
2001 mars odyssey wizja.jpg 2001-014A
Nozomi Japan ISAS 14 December 2003 orbiter failure failed to attain Mars orbit, became flyby 1998-041A
Mars Express European Union ESA 25 December 2003 – orbiter success surface imaging and mapping; first European probe in Martian orbit Mars-express-volcanoes-sm.jpg 2003-022A
   Beagle 2 UK Space Agency.svg UK 25 December 2003 lander failure Deployed by the Mars Express; lost for 11 years and imaged by NASA's MRO in 2015[37] Beagle 2 replica.jpg 2003-022C
MER-A "Spirit" United States NASA 4 January 2004 – 22 March 2010 rover success became stuck in May 2009; then operating as a static science station until contact lost in March 2010 NASA Mars Rover.jpg 2003-027A
MER-B "Opportunity" United States NASA 25 January 2004 – rover success NASA Mars Rover.jpg 2003-032A
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter United States NASA 10 March 2006 – orbiter success surface imaging and surveying Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.jpg 2005-029A
Rosetta European Union ESA 25 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
Phoenix United States NASA 25 May 2008 –
10 November 2008
lander success collection of soil samples near the northern pole to search for water and investigate Mars' geological history and biological potential Phoenix Lander small.jpg 2007-034A [38]
Dawn United States NASA 17 February 2009 flyby success gravity assist en route to Vesta and Ceres Dawn Flight Configuration 2.jpg 2007-043A

2011–present[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Yinghuo-1 China CNSA 8 November 2011 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit; launched with Fobos-Grunt Phobos lander YINGHUO-1
MSL Curiosity United States NASA 6 August 2012 – rover success investigation of past and present habitability, climate and geology MSL concept February 2007 - PIA09201.jpg 2011-070A [39]
Mars Orbiter Mission India ISRO 24 September 2014 – orbiter success technology development; will study atmosphere & conduct mineralogical mapping. Mars Orbiter Mission - India - ArtistsConcept.jpg 2013-060A [40][41]
MAVEN United States NASA 25 September 2014 – orbiter success will study Martian atmosphere Maven spacecraft full.jpg 2013-063A [42]
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (ExoMars 2016) European Union ESA/
Russia RKA
19 October 2016 orbiter en route atmospheic gas analyzation, communication relay for surface probes ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter.jpg 2016-017A [43]
    Schiaparelli EDM lander European Union ESA/
Russia RKA
19 October 2016 lander en route landing test, meteorological observation

Proposed[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
InSight United States NASA 2018 lander planned Launch delayed from 2016 by instrument leak Artist's Concept of the InSight Lander.jpg [44]
Red Dragon United States SpaceX/
United States NASA
2018 lander planned First private lander to Mars [45]
ExoMars rover European Union ESA/
Russia RKA
2020 rover planned Exomars.jpg [46]
Mars 2020 United States NASA 2020 rover planned [47]
Mars 2022 orbiter United States NASA 2022 orbiter planned Laser communications relay, high-resolution mapping Mars 2022 orbiter.png [48]
Mars Sample Return Mission United States NASA/
European Union ESA
2024? orbiter, lander, rover, and sample return under study MSR-Artist Concept.jpg [49][50]

Phobos probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 Soviet Union USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) flyby failure contact lost en route to Mars Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-058A
   DAS Soviet Union USSR 2 September 1988 fixed lander failure never deployed
Phobos 2 Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1989 (contact lost) flyby failure attained Mars orbit; contact lost prior to deployment of lander Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-059A
   DAS Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1989 fixed lander failure never deployed
   "Frog" Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1989 mobile lander failure never deployed
Fobos-Grunt Russia RKA 8 November 2011 (launch) sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit; launched with Yinghuo-1 Mars orbiter 2011-065A [51]

Ceres probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Dawn United States NASA March 6, 2015 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; previously visited Vesta Dawn Flight Configuration 2.jpg 2007-043A

Asteroid probes[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
951 Gaspra Galileo United States NASA 29 October 1991 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 1900 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
243 Ida Galileo United States NASA 28 August 1993 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 2400 km; discovery of the first asteroid satellite Dactyl Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
1620 Geographos Clementine United States BMDO/
No image.svg NASA
1994 flyby failure flyby cancelled due to equipment malfunction Clementine Deployed.png 1994-004A
253 Mathilde NEAR
Shoemaker
United States NASA 27 June 1997 flyby success flew within 1200 km of 253 Mathilde en route to 433 Eros NEARCraft.jpg 1996-008A
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
United States NASA January 1999 orbiter failure became flyby due to software and communications problems (later attempt at orbit insertion succeeded; see below) NEARCraft.jpg 1996-008A
9969 Braille Deep Space 1 United States NASA 29 July 1999 flyby partial success no close-up images due to camera pointing error; went on to visit comet 19P/Borrelly Deep Space 1 using its ion engine.jpg 1998-061A
2685 Masursky Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
23 January 2000 distant flyby success en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
United States NASA February 2000 –
February 2001
orbiter, became lander success improvised landing by orbiter at end of mission NEARCraft.jpg 1996-008A
5535 Annefrank Stardust United States NASA November 2, 2002 distant flyby success went on to visit comet 81P/Wild Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa Japan ISAS 2005–07 sample return success landed on Itokawa in 2005 and returned to Earth in 2010 Hayabusa(Muses-C) sampling.jpg 2003-019A
    MINERVA Japan ISAS 12 November 2005 hopper failure missed target
132524 APL New Horizons United States NASA June 2006 distant flyby success flew past Pluto successfully 2006-001A
2867 Šteins Rosetta European Union ESA 5 September 2008 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
21 Lutetia Rosetta European Union ESA 11 July 2010 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
4 Vesta Dawn United States NASA 16 July 2011 – 5 September 2012 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; now orbiting Ceres Dawn Flight Configuration 2.jpg 2007-043A
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2 China CNSA 13 December 2012 flyby success 2010-050A
2000 DP107 PROCYON Japan University of Tokyo / JAXA 12 May 2016[32] flyby failure launched with Hayabusa 2 in 2014; mission abandoned after ion thruster failure [33]
162173 Ryugu Hayabusa 2 Japan JAXA July 2018 sample return en route orbital insertion in 2018, sample capture in 2019, return to Earth in 2020 Hayabusa2 rendezvous.jpg 2014-076A
    Minerva II-1A Japan JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    Minerva II-1B Japan JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    Minerva II-2 Japan JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    MASCOT Germany DLR/
France CNES
2018 mobile lander en route
101955 Bennu OSIRIS-REx United States NASA August 2018 sample return en route orbital insertion in 2018, sample capture in 2020, return to Earth in 2023 OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.png 2016-055A
16 Psyche Psyche United States NASA 2020 (launch)
2026 (arrrival)
orbiter proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 [52]
Jupiter trojans Lucy United States NASA 2021 (launch)
2027–2032 (flybys)
flyby of 3 Trojan asteroids + 1 binary proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 [53]

Jupiter probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 United States NASA 3 December 1973 flyby success first probe to cross the asteroid belt; first Jupiter probe; first man-made object on an interstellar trajectory; now in the outer regions of the Solar System but no longer contactable Pioneer 10 at Jupiter.gif 1972-012A
Pioneer 11 United States NASA 4 December 1974 flyby success went on to visit Saturn Pioneer 11 at Saturn.gif 1973-019A
Voyager 1 United States NASA 5 March 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn Voyager.jpg 1977-084A
Voyager 2 United States NASA 9 July 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Voyager.jpg 1977-076A
Ulysses
(first pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
February 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to inclined heliocentric orbit for solar polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
Galileo Orbiter United States NASA/
Germany DLR
7 December 1995 –
21 September 2003
orbiter success also flew by various of Jupiter's moons; intentionally flown into Jupiter at end of mission; first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter; first spacecraft to flyby an asteroid Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg 1989-084B
   Galileo Probe United States NASA/
Germany DLR
7 December 1995 atmospheric probe success first probe to enter Jupiter's atmosphere Galileo Probe.jpeg 1989-084E
Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
December 2000 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A
Ulysses
(second pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
2003–04 distant flyby success Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
New Horizons United States NASA 28 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to Pluto 2006-001A
Juno United States NASA 5 July 2016 – orbiter success First solar-powered Jupiter orbiter, first mission to achieve a polar orbit of Jupiter. Juno in front of Jupiter.jpg 2011-040A
JUICE European Union ESA 2022 (launch) orbiter planned mission to study Jupiter's three icy moons Callisto, Europa and Ganymede, eventually orbiting Ganymede as the first spacecraft to orbit a satellite of another planet JUICE spacecraft concept.jpg [54]
Europa Clipper United States NASA 2020s orbiter under study planned to orbit Jupiter and fly by Europa multiple times Europa Mission Spacecraft - Artist's Rendering.jpg [55]

Saturn probes[edit]

Main article: Exploration of Saturn
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 11 United States NASA 1 September 1979 flyby success previously visited Jupiter Pioneer 11 at Saturn.gif 1973-019A
Voyager 1 United States NASA 12 November 1980 flyby success previously visited Jupiter Voyager.jpg 1977-084A
Voyager 2 United States NASA 5 August 1981 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, went on to visit Uranus and Neptune Voyager.jpg 1977-076A
Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
1 July 2004 – 15 September 2017 (planned disposal into Saturn) orbiter success also performed flybys of a number of Saturn's moons, and deployed the Huygens Titan lander; first spacecraft to orbit Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A

Titan probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Huygens European Union ESA 14 January 2005 atmospheric probe, lander success deployed by Cassini; first probe to land on a satellite of another planet 1997-061C
Titan Saturn System Mission European Union ESA/
United States NASA
October 2029 orbiter, montgolfière, lander under study

Uranus probes[edit]

Main article: Exploration of Uranus
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 United States NASA 24 January 1986 flyby success previously visited Jupiter and Saturn; went on to visit Neptune Voyager.jpg 1977-076A

Neptune probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 United States NASA 25 August 1989 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus Voyager.jpg 1977-076A

Pluto probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
New Horizons United States NASA 14 July 2015 flyby success will flyby Kuiper belt object 2014 Mu69 on January 1, 2019 when it is 43.4 AU from the Sun. New Horizons Transparent.png 2006-001A

Comet probes[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
21P/Giacobini-Zinner ICE (formerly ISEE3) United States NASA 11 September 1985 flyby success previously solar monitor ISEE3; went on to observe Halley's Comet ISEE-3.gif 1978-079A
1P/Halley Vega 1 Soviet Union SAS 6 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus 1984-125A
1P/Halley Suisei Japan ISAS 8 March 1986 flyby success 151,000 km Suisei.gif 1985-073A
1P/Halley Vega 2 Soviet Union SAS 9 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus 1984-128A
1P/Halley Sakigake Japan ISAS March 1986 distant flyby partial success minimum distance 6.99 million km Sakigake.gif 1985-001A
1P/Halley Giotto European Union ESA 14 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 596 km; went on to visit comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Giotto spacecraft.jpg 1985-056A
1P/Halley ICE (formerly ISEE3) United States NASA 28 March 1986 distant obser-
vations
success minimum distance 32 million km; previously visited comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner ISEE-3.gif 1978-079A
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Giotto European Union ESA 10 July 1992 flyby success previously visited Halley's Comet Giotto spacecraft.jpg 1985-056A
45P/
Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova
Sakigake Japan ISAS 1996 flyby failure contact lost; previously visited Halley's Comet Sakigake.gif 1985-001A
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Sakigake Japan ISAS 1998 flyby failure
55P/Tempel-Tuttle Suisei Japan ISAS 1998 flyby failure abandoned due to lack of fuel; previously visited Halley's Comet Suisei.gif 1985-073A
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Suisei Japan ISAS 1998 flyby failure
19P/Borrelly Deep Space 1 United States NASA 22 September 2001 flyby success previously visited asteroid 9969 Braille Deep Space 1 using its ion engine.jpg 1998-061A
2P/Encke CONTOUR United States NASA 2003 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch CONTOUR pre-launch.jpg 2002-034A
81P/Wild Stardust United States NASA 2 January 2004 flyby, sample return success sample returned January 2006; also visited asteroid 5535 Annefrank Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
9P/Tempel Deep Impact United States NASA July 2005 flyby success Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
    Impactor United States NASA 4 July 2005 impactor success
73P/
Schwassmann-Wachmann
CONTOUR United States NASA 2006 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch CONTOUR pre-launch.jpg 2002-034A
6P/d'Arrest CONTOUR United States NASA 2008 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch CONTOUR pre-launch.jpg 2002-034A
103P/Hartley Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) United States NASA 4 November 2010 flyby success mission extension (target changed from comet Boethin) Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
9P/Tempel Stardust (redesignated NExT) United States NASA 14 February 2011 flyby success mission extension Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
67P/Churyumov–
Gerasimenko
Rosetta European Union ESA 6 August 2014 – 30 September 2016 (planned crash-landing) orbiter success flybys of asteroids 2867 Šteins and 21 Lutetia completed Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
    Philae European Union ESA 12 November 2014 – 9 July 2015 lander success 2004-006C

Kuiper Belt probes[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2014 Mu69 New Horizons United States NASA 1 January 2019 flyby en route Extended mission to explore Kuiper Belt objects approved in July 2016.[56] New Horizons Transparent.png 2006-001A

Probes leaving the Solar System[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 United States NASA Left Jupiter in December 1973. Mission ended March 1997. Last contact January 23, 2003. Craft now presumed dead; no further contact attempts planned. Pioneer 10 at Jupiter.gif 1972-012A
Pioneer 11 United States NASA Left Saturn in September 1979. Last contact September 1995. The craft's antenna cannot be maneuvered to point to Earth, and it is not known if it is still transmitting. No further contact attempts are planned. Pioneer 11 at Saturn.gif 1973-019A
Voyager 1 United States NASA Left Saturn in November 1980. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of December 2014). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. Voyager.jpg 1977-084A
Voyager 2 United States NASA Left Neptune in August 1989. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of December 2014). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. Voyager.jpg 1977-076A
New Horizons United States NASA Left Pluto July 14, 2015; Pluto mission to last until early 2016, proposed Kuiper Belt missions to begin in 2018/2019. New Horizons Transparent.png 2006-001A

Other probes to leave Earth orbit[edit]

For completeness, this section lists probes that have left (or will leave) Earth orbit, but are not targeted at any of the above bodies.

Spacecraft Organization Date Location Status Notes Image Ref
WMAP United States NASA 30 June 2001 (launch) – to October 2010 (end)[57] Sun-Earth L2 point success cosmic background radiation observations; sent to graveyard orbit after 9 years of use.[57] WMAP2.jpg 2001-027A
Spitzer Space Telescope United States NASA 25 August 2003 (launch) – still active (as of December 2010) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit success infrared astronomy 2003-038A
Chang'e 2 China CNSA 25 August 2011(arrive) to 15 April 2012(end) Sun-Earth L2 point success Left the point on 15 April 2012, then flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis 2010-050A
Kepler United States NASA 6 March 2009 (launch) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit operational search for extrasolar planets Kepler Space Telescope.png 2009-011A [58]
Herschel Space Observatory European Union ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed study of formation and evolution of galaxies and stars Herschel Space Observatory.jpg 2009-026A
Planck European Union ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed (2009-2013) cosmic microwave background observations 2009-026B
IKAROS Japan JAXA 20 May 2010 (launch) Earth-Venus transfer heliocentric orbit operational solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration IKAROS solar sail.jpg 2010-020E [18]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
Japan UNISEC failure technology development; contact lost shortly after launch[21] 2010-020F [20]
Gaia European Union ESA 19 December 2013 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point success astrometry mission to measure the position and motion of 1 billion stars 2013-074A [59]
LISA Pathfinder European Union ESA 3 December 2015 (launch)[60] Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L1 point success test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory 2015-070A [61]
James Webb Space Telescope United States NASA
European Union ESA
Canada CSA
October 2018 (launch) Sun-Earth L2 point planned infrared astronomy James Webb Space Telescope.jpg [62]
Euclid European Union ESA Q4, 2020 (launch)[63] Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point planned measure the rate of expansion of the Universe through time to better understand dark energy and dark matter Euclid telescope.jpg [64]

Cancelled probes and missions[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mercury BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element European Union ESA lander cancelled
Moon LUNAR-A Japan JAXA orbiter, penetrators cancelled originally scheduled for 1995, cancelled 2007 LUNAR-A
Mars Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander United States NASA 2001 lander cancelled Slander med.jpg MS2001L
Mars Beagle 2: Evolution 2004 lander cancelled
Mars NetLander France CNES/
European Union ESA
lander cancelled [65]
Mars Mars Telecommunications Orbiter United States NASA 2010 orbiter cancelled Mission could be fulfilled by the proposed Mars 2022 orbiter PIA07500.jpg [66]
Phobos Aladdin United States NASA sample return not selected [67]
Europa Europa Orbiter United States NASA orbiter cancelled [68]
Europa, Ganymede, Callisto Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter United States NASA 2021 orbiter cancelled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter 2.jpg [69]
Pluto Pluto Fast Flyby United States NASA 2010 flyby cancelled Re-proposed as Pluto Kuiper Express
Pluto Pluto Kuiper
Express
United States NASA 2012 flyby cancelled Replaced by New Horizons Pluto express.jpg PLUTOKE
4660 Nereus Hayabusa Japan ISAS sample return cancelled rerouted to 25143 Itokawa Hayabusa(Muses-C) sampling.jpg 2003-019A
3840 Mimistrobell Rosetta European Union ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
4979 Otawara Rosetta European Union ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
4660 Nereus Near Earth Asteroid Prospector SpaceDev sample return cancelled [70]
46P/Wirtanen Rosetta European Union ESA 2011 orbiter cancelled rerouted to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]