List of Solar System probes

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For a list of active probes only, see List of active Solar System probes. For a list of landers only, see Landings on other planets.

This is a list of space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination. It includes planetary probes, solar probes, and probes to asteroids and comets, but excludes lunar missions, which are listed separately at List of lunar probes and List of Apollo missions. Flybys (such as gravity assists) that were incidental to the main purpose of the mission are also included. Flybys of Earth are listed separately at List of Earth flybys. Confirmed future probes are included, but missions that are still at the concept stage, or which never progressed beyond the concept stage, are not.

Key[edit]

Colour key:

     – Mission or flyby completed successfully (or partially successfully)         Failed or cancelled mission
     – Mission en route or in progress (including mission extensions)     Planned mission
  • means "tentatively identified", as classified by NASA.[1] These are Cold War-era Soviet missions, mostly failures, about which few or no details have been officially released. The information given may be speculative.
  • Date is the date of:
  • closest encounter (flybys)
  • impact (impactors)
  • orbital insertion to end of mission, whether planned or premature (orbiters)
  • landing to end of mission, whether planned or premature (landers)
  • launch (missions that never got underway due to failure at or soon after launch)
In cases which do not fit any of the above, the event to which the date refers is stated. Note that as a result of this scheme missions are not always listed in order of launch.
  • Some of the terms used under Type:
  • Flyby: The probe flies by an astronomical body, but does not orbit it
  • Orbiter: Part of a probe that orbits an astronomical body
  • Lander: Part of a probe that descend to the surface of an astronomical body
  • Rover: Part of a probe that acts as a vehicle to move on the solid-surface of an astronomical body
  • Penetrator: Part of a probe that impacts an astronomical body
  • Atmospheric probe or balloon: Part of a probe that descend through or floats in the atmosphere of an astronomical body
  • Sample return: Parts of the probe return back to Earth with physical samples
  • Under Status, in the case of flybys (such as gravity assists) that are incidental to the main mission, "success" indicates the successful completion of the flyby, not necessarily that of the main mission.

Solar probes[edit]

While the Sun is not physically explorable with current technology, the following solar observation probes have been designed and launched to operate in heliocentric orbit or at one of the Earth–Sun Lagrangian points – additional solar observatories were placed in Earth orbit and are not included in this list:

1960–1969[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 5 United States NASA/
No image.svg DOD
March–April 1960 orbiter success measured magnetic field phenomena, solar flare particles, and ionization in the interplanetary region Pioneer-5.jpg 1960-001A
Pioneer 6 United States NASA December 1965 – still contactable in 2000 orbiter success network of solar-orbiting "space weather" monitors, observing solar wind, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields Pioneer-6-9.jpg 1965-105A
Pioneer 7 United States NASA August 1966 – still contactable in 1995 orbiter success 1966-075A
Pioneer 8 United States NASA December 1967 – still contactable in 2001 orbiter success 1967-123A
Pioneer 9 United States NASA November 1968 – May 1983 orbiter success 1968-100A
Pioneer-E United States NASA 27 August 1969 orbiter failure intended as part of the Pioneer 6–9 network; failed to reach orbit Pioneer-6-9.jpg PIONE

1974–1997[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Helios A United States NASA/
West Germany DFVLR
November 1974 – 1982 orbiter success observations of solar wind, magnetic and electric fields, cosmic rays and cosmic dust between Earth and Sun Helios spacecraft.jpg 1974-097A
Helios B United States NASA/
West Germany DFVLR
January 1976 – 1985? orbiter success 1976-003A
ISEE-3 United States NASA 1978–1982 orbiter success observed solar phenomena in conjunction with earth-orbiting ISEE-1 and ISEE-2; later renamed International Cometary Explorer (ICE) and directed to Comet Giacobini-Zinner ISEE-3.gif 1976-003A
Ulysses
(first pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
1994 orbiter success south polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
1995 north polar observations
WIND United States NASA November 1994 – still active as of October 2016[2] orbiter success solar wind measurements Wind probe.jpg 1994-071A
SOHO European Union ESA/
United States NASA
May 1996 – extended to 31 December 2016[3] orbiter success investigation of Sun's core, corona, and solar wind; comet discoveries NASA SOHO spacecraft.png 1995-065A
ACE United States NASA August 1997 – still active as of October 2016[4] orbiter success solar wind observations Advanced Composition Explorer.jpg 1997-045A

2000–present[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ulysses
(second pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
2000 orbiter success south polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
2001 north polar observations
Genesis United States NASA 2001–2004 orbiter/
sample return
success solar wind sample return; crash landed on return to Earth, much data salvaged Genesis in collection mode.jpg 2001-034A
STEREO A United States NASA December 2006 –
still active as of September 2016[5][6]
orbiter success stereoscopic imaging of coronal mass ejections and other solar phenomena STEREO spacecraft.gif 2006-047A
STEREO B United States NASA December 2006 – October 2014
August 2016 –
(communication lost between October 1, 2014 and August 21, 2016)[7][6]
orbiter success 2006-047B
Ulysses
(third pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
2007 orbiter success south polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
2008 partial success north polar observations; some data returned despite failing power and reduced transmission capacity
DSCOVR United States NOAA February 2015 – orbiter success solar wind and coronal mass ejection monitoring, as well as Earth climate monitoring DSCOVR rendering (transparent bg).png 2015-007A [8]

Proposed[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Solar Orbiter European Union ESA 2018 orbiter planned solar and heliospheric physics [9]
Solar Probe Plus United States NASA 2018[10] orbiter planned close-range coronal observations [11]
Intergelio-Zond Russia RKA 2019 orbiter planned close-range solar observations [12]
Aditya India ISRO 2017-2018 orbiter planned to study Solar Corona [13]

Mercury probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 10 United States NASA 29 March 1974 flyby success minimum distance 704 km Mariner 10.jpg 1973-085A
21 September 1974 48,069 km
16 March 1975 327 km
MESSENGER United States NASA 14 January 2008 flyby success minimum distance 200 km Messenger.jpg 2004-030A
6 October 2008 minimum distance 200 km
29 September 2009 minimum distance 228 km
18 March 2011 –
30 April 2015
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Mercury; unavoidable impact on the surface at end of mission
BepiColombo European Union ESA/
Japan JAXA
April 2018 (launch) – 1 May 2026 (end of nominal mission) BEPICLMBO
   Mercury
Planetary Orbiter
European Union ESA 18 December 2024 (orbital insertion)
27 March 2025 (final MPO orbit)
orbiter under construction
Mercury Magnetospheric
Orbiter
Japan JAXA 18 December 2024 orbiter testing

Venus probes[edit]

Main article: Exploration of Venus

1961–1969[edit]

Venus Probes (List) [1961-1965]
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Sputnik 7 Soviet Union (USSR) 4 February 1961 lander failure failed to escape from Earth orbit 1961-002A
Venera 1 Soviet Union (USSR) 19 May 1961 –
20 May 1961
flyby failure contact lost 7 days after launch; first spacecraft to fly by another planet 1961-003A
Mariner 1 United States NASA 22 July 1962 flyby failure guidance failure shortly after launch MARIN1
Sputnik 19 Soviet Union (USSR) 25 August 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1962-040A
Sputnik 20 Soviet Union (USSR) 1 September 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1962-043A
Sputnik 21 Soviet Union (USSR) 12 September 1962 flyby failure third stage exploded 1962-045A
Mariner 2 United States NASA 14 December 1962 flyby success first successful Venus flyby; minimum distance 34,773 km Mariner 2.jpg 1962-041A
Cosmos 21 Soviet Union (USSR) 11 November 1963 flyby? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1963-044A
Venera 1964A Soviet Union (USSR) 19 February 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Venera 1964B Soviet Union (USSR) 1 March 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Cosmos 27 Soviet Union (USSR) 27 March 1964 flyby failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1964-014A
Zond 1 Soviet Union (USSR) 1964 flyby and possible lander failure contact lost en route 1964-016D
Cosmos 96 Soviet Union (USSR) 23 November 1965 lander failure exploded? 1965-094A
Venera 1965A Soviet Union (USSR) 26 November 1965 flyby failure launch vehicle failure? [1]
Venera 2 Soviet Union (USSR) 27 February 1966 flyby failure ceased to operate en route 1965-091A
Venera 3 Soviet Union (USSR) 1 March 1966 lander failure contact lost before arrival; first spacecraft to impact on the surface of another planet 1965-092A
Kosmos 167 Soviet Union (USSR) 17 June 1967 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1967-063A
Venera 4 Soviet Union (USSR) 18 October 1967 atmospheric probe success continued to transmit to an altitude of 25 km 1967-058A
Mariner 5 United States NASA 19 October 1967 flyby success minimum distance 5,000 km Mariner 5.jpg 1967-060A
Venera 5 Soviet Union (USSR) 16 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 53 minutes, to an altitude of about 26 km 1969-001A
Venera 6 Soviet Union (USSR) 17 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 51 minutes, to an altitude of perhaps 10–12 km 1969-002A

1970–1978[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Cosmos 359 Soviet Union (USSR) 22 August 1970 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1970-065A
Venera 7 Soviet Union (USSR) 15 December 1970 lander success first successful landing on another planet; signals returned from surface for 23 minutes 1970-060A
Cosmos 482 Soviet Union (USSR) 31 March 1972 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1972-023A
Venera 8 Soviet Union (USSR) 22 July 1972 lander success signals returned from surface for 50 minutes 1972-021A
Mariner 10 United States NASA 5 February 1974 flyby success minimum distance 5768 km, en route to Mercury; first use of gravity assist by an interplanetary spacecraft Mariner 10.jpg 1973-085A
Venera 9 Soviet Union (USSR) 1975 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Venus; communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies "Венера-10".jpg 1975-050A
22 October 1975 lander success first images from the surface; operated on surface for 53 minutes 1975-050D
Venera 10 Soviet Union (USSR) 1975 orbiter success communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies "Венера-10".jpg 1975-054A
23 October 1975 lander success transmitted from surface for 65 minutes 1975-054D
Pioneer Venus Orbiter United States NASA 4 December 1978 –
1992
orbiter success atmospheric and magnetic studies Pioneer Venus orbiter.jpg 1978-051A
Pioneer Venus Multiprobe United States NASA 9 December 1978 Pioneer Venus 2 inspection.jpg
bus probe transporter success deployed four atmospheric probes, then burnt up in Venusian atmosphere, continuing to transmit to 110 km altitude 1978-078A
large probe atmospheric probe success Largevenusprobe.gif 1978-078D
north probe atmospheric probe success Smallvenusprobe.gif 1978-078E
day probe atmospheric probe success survived impact and continued to transmit from surface for over an hour 1978-078G
night probe atmospheric probe success 1978-078F
Venera 12 Soviet Union SAS
flight platform 21 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1978-086A
descent craft 21 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 110 minutes; failure of some instruments 1978-086C
Venera 11 Soviet Union SAS identical to Venera 12
   flight platform 25 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1978-084A
descent craft 25 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 95 minutes; failure of some instruments 1978-084D

1982–1999[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venera 13 Soviet Union SAS
   bus 1 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1982 CPA 5278.jpg 1981-106A
descent craft 1 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 127 minutes 1981-106D
Venera 14 Soviet Union SAS identical to Venera 13
bus 5 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1982 CPA 5278.jpg 1981-110A
descent craft 5 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 57 minutes 1981-110D
Venera 15 Soviet Union SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping 1983-053A
Venera 16 Soviet Union SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping; identical to Venera 15 1983-054A
Vega 1 Soviet Union SAS 11 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet Vega model - Udvar-Hazy Center.JPG 1984-125A
lander failure instruments deployed prematurely 1984-125E
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours Russian "Vega" balloon mission to Venus on display at the Udvar-Hazy museum.jpg 1984-125F
Vega 2 Soviet Union SAS 15 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet Vega model - Udvar-Hazy Center.JPG 1984-128A
lander success transmitted from surface for 56 minutes 1984-128E
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours Russian "Vega" balloon mission to Venus on display at the Udvar-Hazy museum.jpg 1984-128F
Galileo United States NASA 10 February 1990 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 16,000 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
Magellan United States NASA 10 August 1990 –
12 October 1994
orbiter success global radar mapping Magellan at Kennedy Space Center.jpg 1989-033B [15]
Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
26 April 1998 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A [16]
24 June 1999

2006–present[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venus Express European Union ESA 11 April 2006 – 18 January 2015 orbiter success atmospheric studies; planetary imaging; magnetic observations Venus Express in orbit.jpg 2005-045A
MESSENGER United States NASA 24 October 2006 flyby success gravity assist only; minimum distance 2990 km Messenger.jpg 2004-030A
6 June 2007 success minimum distance 300 km; en route to Mercury
Akatsuki
(PLANET-C)
Japan JAXA 6 December 2010 (Venus flyby)
7 December 2015 (orbital insertion) –
orbiter success failed orbital insertion in 2010; success in 2015
science mission ongoing since May 2016
Akatsuki.png 2010-020D
IKAROS Japan JAXA 8 December 2010 flyby[17] success solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration IKAROS solar sail.jpg 2010-020E [18]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
Japan UNISEC December 2010? flyby[19] failure contact lost shortly after launch 2010-020F [20][21]

Proposed[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
ISRO Venus orbiter mission India ISRO 2017–2020? orbiter + balloons proposed [22][23]
DAVINCI United States NASA 2021 atmospheric probe proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 DAVINCI Venus mission atmospheric probe.jpg [24]
VERITAS United States NASA 2021 orbiter proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 Veritas20150930.jpg [25]
Venus In Situ Explorer United States NASA 2024 lander or airplane proposed Venus In-Situ Explorer.png [26]
Venera-D Russia RKA 2025 orbiter proposed Venera-D.jpg [27][28]

Earth flybys[edit]

See List of Earth flybys

Lunar probes[edit]

See List of lunar probes

Mars probes[edit]

1960–1969[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mars 1960A Soviet Union USSR 10 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit MARSNK1
Mars 1960B Soviet Union USSR 14 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit MARSNK2
Mars 1962A Soviet Union USSR 24 October 1962 flyby failure exploded in or en route to Earth orbit 1962-057A
Mars 1962B Soviet Union USSR 11 November 1962 (launch) lander failure broke up during transfer to Mars trajectory 1962-062A
Mars 1 Soviet Union USSR 19 June 1963 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within approximately 193,000 km of Mars 1962-061A
Mariner 3 United States NASA 5 November 1964 flyby failure protective shield failed to eject, preventing craft from attaining correct trajectory Mariner 3 and 4.jpg 1964-073A
Mariner 4 United States NASA 15 July 1965 flyby success first close-up images of Mars Mariner 3 and 4.jpg 1964-077A
Zond 2 Soviet Union USSR 6 August 1965 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within 1,500 km of Mars 1964-078C
Mariner 6 United States NASA 31 July 1969 flyby success Mariner 6and7.gif 1969-014A
Mariner 7 United States NASA 5 August 1969 flyby success Mariner 6and7.gif 1969-030A
Mars 1969A Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure MARS69A
Mars 1969B Soviet Union USSR 2 April 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure MARS69B

1971–1976[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 8 United States NASA 9 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure launch vehicle failure Mariner09.jpg MARINH
Kosmos 419 Soviet Union USSR 10 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1971-042A
Mariner 9 United States NASA 14 November 1971 –
27 October 1972
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit another planet Mariner09.jpg 1971-051A
Mars 2 Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter success first Russian spacecraft to orbit another planet 1971-045A
   Mars 2 Lander Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971 lander and short range rover failure crashed; first manmade object to reach surface of Mars 1971-045D
Mars 3 Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter partial success attained a different orbit than intended due to insufficient fuel 1971-049A
Mars 3 Lander Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971 lander and short range rover partial success first soft landing on Mars; contact lost 110 sec after soft landing 1971-049F
Mars 4 Soviet Union USSR 10 February 1974 orbiter failure orbit insertion failed, became flyby 1973-047A
Mars 5 Soviet Union USSR 12 February 1974 –
28 February 1974
orbiter success 1973-049A
Mars 6 Soviet Union USSR 12 March 1974 flyby success 1973-052A
Mars 6 Lander Soviet Union USSR 12 March 1974 lander failure contact lost 148 sec after parachute deployment (returned 224 seconds of atmospheric data)
Mars 7 Soviet Union USSR 9 March 1974 flyby success 1973-053A
Mars 7 Lander Soviet Union USSR 9 March 1974 lander failure missed Mars
Viking 1 Orbiter United States NASA 19 June 1976 –
17 August 1980
orbiter success 1975-075A
Viking 1 Lander United States NASA 20 July 1976 –
13 November 1982
lander success first images from surface Viking lander model.jpg 1975-075C
Viking 2 Orbiter United States NASA 7 August 1976 –
25 July 1978
orbiter success 1975-083A
Viking 2 Lander United States NASA 3 September 1976 –
11 April 1980
lander success Viking lander model.jpg 1975-083C

1988–1999[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 Soviet Union USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost en route to Mars Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-058A
Phobos 2 Soviet Union USSR 29 January 1989 –
27 March 1989
orbiter partial success Mars orbit acquired, but contact lost shortly before Phobos approach phase and deployment of Phobos landers Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-059A
Mars Observer United States NASA 25 September 1992 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost shortly before Mars orbit insertion 1992-063A
Mars 96 Russia RKA 16 November 1996 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1996-064A
lander Mars96 surface station.jpg MARS96B
lander MARS96C
penetrator Mars96 penetrator.gif MARS96D
penetrator MARS96E
Mars Pathfinder United States NASA 4 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
lander success 1996-068A
    Sojourner United States NASA 6 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
rover success first Mars rover Sojourner on Mars PIA01122.jpg MESURPR
Mars Global Surveyor United States NASA 12 September 1997 –
2 November 2006
orbiter success Mars global surveyor.jpg 1996-062A
Mars Climate Orbiter United States NASA 23 September 1999 orbiter failure Mars orbit insertion failed due to navigation error Mars Climate Orbiter during tests.jpg 1998-073A
Mars Polar Lander United States NASA 3 December 1999 lander failure contact lost just prior to entering Martian atmosphere Mars polar lander.jpg 1999-001A
Deep Space 2 "Amundsen" United States NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator DS-2 Components.jpg DEEPSP2
Deep Space 2 "Scott" United States NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator

2001–2009[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2001 Mars Odyssey United States NASA 24 October 2001 – orbiter success studying climate and geology; communications relay for Spirit and Opportunity rovers
longest surviving spacecraft in orbit around a planet other than Earth
2001 mars odyssey wizja.jpg 2001-014A
Nozomi Japan ISAS 14 December 2003 orbiter failure failed to attain Mars orbit, became flyby 1998-041A
Mars Express European Union ESA 25 December 2003 – orbiter success surface imaging and mapping; first European probe in Martian orbit Mars-express-volcanoes-sm.jpg 2003-022A
   Beagle 2 UK Space Agency.svg UK 25 December 2003 lander failure Deployed by the Mars Express; lost for 11 years and imaged by NASA's MRO in 2015[29] Beagle 2 replica.jpg 2003-022C
MER-A "Spirit" United States NASA 4 January 2004 – 22 March 2010 rover success became stuck in May 2009; then operating as a static science station until contact lost in March 2010 NASA Mars Rover.jpg 2003-027A
MER-B "Opportunity" United States NASA 25 January 2004 – rover success NASA Mars Rover.jpg 2003-032A
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter United States NASA 10 March 2006 – orbiter success surface imaging and surveying Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.jpg 2005-029A
Rosetta European Union ESA 25 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
Phoenix United States NASA 25 May 2008 –
10 November 2008
lander success collection of soil samples near the northern pole to search for water and investigate Mars' geological history and biological potential Phoenix Lander small.jpg 2007-034A [30]
Dawn United States NASA 17 February 2009 flyby success gravity assist en route to Vesta and Ceres Dawn Flight Configuration 2.jpg 2007-043A

2011–present[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Yinghuo-1 China CNSA 8 November 2011 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit; launched with Fobos-Grunt Phobos lander YINGHUO-1
MSL Curiosity United States NASA 6 August 2012 – rover success investigation of past and present habitability, climate and geology MSL concept February 2007 - PIA09201.jpg 2011-070A [31]
Mars Orbiter Mission India ISRO 24 September 2014 – orbiter success technology development; study of atmosphere; mineralogical mapping. Mars Orbiter Mission - India - ArtistsConcept.jpg 2013-060A [32][33]
MAVEN United States NASA 25 September 2014 – orbiter success studying Martian atmosphere Maven spacecraft full.jpg 2013-063A [34]
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (ExoMars 2016) European Union ESA/
Russia RKA
19 October 2016 – orbiter in orbit atmospheric gas analysis; communication relay for surface probes ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter.jpg 2016-017A [35]
    Schiaparelli EDM lander European Union ESA/
Russia RKA
19 October 2016 lander contact lost shortly before landing; likely crashed[36] landing test, meteorological observation Maquette EDM salon du Bourget 2013 DSC 0192.JPG

Proposed[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
InSight United States NASA 2018 lander planned Launch delayed from 2016 by instrument leak Artist's Concept of the InSight Lander.jpg [37]
Red Dragon United States SpaceX/
United States NASA
2018 lander planned First private lander to Mars [38]
ExoMars rover European Union ESA/
Russia RKA
2020 rover planned Exomars.jpg [39]
Mars 2020 United States NASA 2020 rover planned [40]
Mars 2022 orbiter United States NASA 2022 orbiter planned Laser communications relay, high-resolution mapping Mars 2022 orbiter.png [41]
Mars Sample Return Mission United States NASA/
European Union ESA
2024? orbiter, lander, rover, and sample return under study MSR-Artist Concept.jpg [42][43]

Phobos probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 Soviet Union USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) flyby failure contact lost en route to Mars Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-058A
   DAS Soviet Union USSR 2 September 1988 fixed lander failure never deployed
Phobos 2 Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1989 (contact lost) flyby failure attained Mars orbit; contact lost prior to deployment of lander Phobos Marte.jpg 1988-059A
   DAS Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1989 fixed lander failure never deployed
   "Frog" Soviet Union USSR 27 March 1989 mobile lander failure never deployed
Fobos-Grunt Russia RKA 8 November 2011 (launch) sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit; launched with Yinghuo-1 Mars orbiter 2011-065A [44]

Ceres probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Dawn United States NASA March 6, 2015 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; previously visited Vesta Dawn Flight Configuration 2.jpg 2007-043A

Asteroid probes[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
951 Gaspra Galileo United States NASA 29 October 1991 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 1900 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
243 Ida Galileo United States NASA 28 August 1993 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 2400 km; discovery of the first asteroid satellite Dactyl Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [14]
1620 Geographos Clementine United States BMDO/
No image.svg NASA
1994 flyby failure flyby cancelled due to equipment malfunction Clementine Deployed.png 1994-004A
253 Mathilde NEAR
Shoemaker
United States NASA 27 June 1997 flyby success flew within 1200 km of 253 Mathilde en route to 433 Eros NEARCraft.jpg 1996-008A
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
United States NASA January 1999 orbiter failure became flyby due to software and communications problems (later attempt at orbit insertion succeeded; see below) NEARCraft.jpg 1996-008A
9969 Braille Deep Space 1 United States NASA 29 July 1999 flyby partial success no close-up images due to camera pointing error; went on to visit comet 19P/Borrelly Deep Space 1 using its ion engine.jpg 1998-061A
2685 Masursky Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
23 January 2000 distant flyby success en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
United States NASA February 2000 –
February 2001
orbiter, became lander success improvised landing by orbiter at end of mission NEARCraft.jpg 1996-008A
5535 Annefrank Stardust United States NASA November 2, 2002 distant flyby success went on to visit comet 81P/Wild Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa Japan ISAS 2005–07 sample return success landed on Itokawa in 2005 and returned to Earth in 2010 Hayabusa(Muses-C) sampling.jpg 2003-019A
    MINERVA Japan ISAS 12 November 2005 hopper failure missed target
132524 APL New Horizons United States NASA June 2006 distant flyby success flew past Pluto successfully 2006-001A
2867 Šteins Rosetta European Union ESA 5 September 2008 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
21 Lutetia Rosetta European Union ESA 11 July 2010 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
4 Vesta Dawn United States NASA 16 July 2011 – 5 September 2012 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; now orbiting Ceres Dawn Flight Configuration 2.jpg 2007-043A
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2 China CNSA 13 December 2012 flyby success 2010-050A
2000 DP107 PROCYON Japan University of Tokyo / JAXA 12 May 2016[45] flyby failure launched with Hayabusa 2 in 2014; mission abandoned after ion thruster failure [46]
162173 Ryugu Hayabusa 2 Japan JAXA July 2018 sample return en route orbital insertion in 2018, sample capture in 2019, return to Earth in 2020 Hayabusa2 rendezvous.jpg 2014-076A
    Minerva II-1A Japan JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    Minerva II-1B Japan JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    Minerva II-2 Japan JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    MASCOT Germany DLR/
France CNES
2018 mobile lander en route
101955 Bennu OSIRIS-REx United States NASA August 2018 sample return en route orbital insertion in 2018, sample capture in 2020, return to Earth in 2023 OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.png 2016-055A
16 Psyche Psyche United States NASA 2020 (launch)
2026 (arrrival)
orbiter proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 [47]
Jupiter trojans Lucy United States NASA 2021 (launch)
2027–2032 (flybys)
flyby of 3 Trojan asteroids + 1 binary proposed Semifinalist for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program; finalist selection expected by January 2017 [48]

Jupiter probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 United States NASA 3 December 1973 flyby success first probe to cross the asteroid belt; first Jupiter probe; first man-made object on an interstellar trajectory; now in the outer regions of the Solar System but no longer contactable Pioneer 10 at Jupiter.gif 1972-012A
Pioneer 11 United States NASA 4 December 1974 flyby success went on to visit Saturn Pioneer 11 at Saturn.gif 1973-019A
Voyager 1 United States NASA 5 March 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn Voyager.jpg 1977-084A
Voyager 2 United States NASA 9 July 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Voyager.jpg 1977-076A
Ulysses
(first pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
February 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to inclined heliocentric orbit for solar polar observations Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
Galileo Orbiter United States NASA/
Germany DLR
7 December 1995 –
21 September 2003
orbiter success also flew by various of Jupiter's moons; intentionally flown into Jupiter at end of mission; first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter; first spacecraft to flyby an asteroid Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg 1989-084B
   Galileo Probe United States NASA/
Germany DLR
7 December 1995 atmospheric probe success first probe to enter Jupiter's atmosphere Galileo Probe.jpeg 1989-084E
Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
December 2000 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A
Ulysses
(second pass)
European Union ESA/
United States NASA
2003–04 distant flyby success Ulysses spacecraft.jpg 1990-090B
New Horizons United States NASA 28 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to Pluto 2006-001A
Juno United States NASA 5 July 2016 – orbiter success First solar-powered Jupiter orbiter, first mission to achieve a polar orbit of Jupiter. Juno in front of Jupiter.jpg 2011-040A
JUICE European Union ESA 2022 (launch) orbiter planned mission to study Jupiter's three icy moons Callisto, Europa and Ganymede, eventually orbiting Ganymede as the first spacecraft to orbit a satellite of another planet JUICE spacecraft concept.jpg [49]
Europa Clipper United States NASA 2020s orbiter under study planned to orbit Jupiter and fly by Europa multiple times Europa Mission Spacecraft - Artist's Rendering.jpg [50]

Saturn probes[edit]

Main article: Exploration of Saturn
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 11 United States NASA 1 September 1979 flyby success previously visited Jupiter Pioneer 11 at Saturn.gif 1973-019A
Voyager 1 United States NASA 12 November 1980 flyby success previously visited Jupiter Voyager.jpg 1977-084A
Voyager 2 United States NASA 5 August 1981 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, went on to visit Uranus and Neptune Voyager.jpg 1977-076A
Cassini United States NASA/
European Union ESA/
Italy ASI
1 July 2004 – 15 September 2017 (planned disposal into Saturn) orbiter success also performed flybys of a number of Saturn's moons, and deployed the Huygens Titan lander; first spacecraft to orbit Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg 1997-061A

Titan probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Huygens European Union ESA 14 January 2005 atmospheric probe, lander success deployed by Cassini; first probe to land on a satellite of another planet 1997-061C
Titan Saturn System Mission European Union ESA/
United States NASA
October 2029 orbiter, montgolfière, lander under study

Uranus probes[edit]

Main article: Exploration of Uranus
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 United States NASA 24 January 1986 flyby success previously visited Jupiter and Saturn; went on to visit Neptune Voyager.jpg 1977-076A

Neptune probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 United States NASA 25 August 1989 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus Voyager.jpg 1977-076A

Pluto probes[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
New Horizons United States NASA 14 July 2015 flyby success will flyby Kuiper belt object 2014 Mu69 on January 1, 2019 when it is 43.4 AU from the Sun. New Horizons Transparent.png 2006-001A

Comet probes[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
21P/Giacobini-Zinner ICE (formerly ISEE3) United States NASA 11 September 1985 flyby success previously solar monitor ISEE3; went on to observe Halley's Comet ISEE-3.gif 1978-079A
1P/Halley Vega 1 Soviet Union SAS 6 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus Vega model - Udvar-Hazy Center.JPG 1984-125A
1P/Halley Suisei Japan ISAS 8 March 1986 flyby success 151,000 km Suisei.gif 1985-073A
1P/Halley Vega 2 Soviet Union SAS 9 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus Vega model - Udvar-Hazy Center.JPG 1984-128A
1P/Halley Sakigake Japan ISAS March 1986 distant flyby partial success minimum distance 6.99 million km Sakigake.gif 1985-001A
1P/Halley Giotto European Union ESA 14 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 596 km; went on to visit comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Giotto spacecraft.jpg 1985-056A
1P/Halley ICE (formerly ISEE3) United States NASA 28 March 1986 distant obser-
vations
success minimum distance 32 million km; previously visited comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner ISEE-3.gif 1978-079A
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Giotto European Union ESA 10 July 1992 flyby success previously visited Halley's Comet Giotto spacecraft.jpg 1985-056A
45P/
Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova
Sakigake Japan ISAS 1996 flyby failure contact lost; previously visited Halley's Comet Sakigake.gif 1985-001A
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Sakigake Japan ISAS 1998 flyby failure
55P/Tempel-Tuttle Suisei Japan ISAS 1998 flyby failure abandoned due to lack of fuel; previously visited Halley's Comet Suisei.gif 1985-073A
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Suisei Japan ISAS 1998 flyby failure
19P/Borrelly Deep Space 1 United States NASA 22 September 2001 flyby success previously visited asteroid 9969 Braille Deep Space 1 using its ion engine.jpg 1998-061A
2P/Encke CONTOUR United States NASA 2003 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch CONTOUR pre-launch.jpg 2002-034A
81P/Wild Stardust United States NASA 2 January 2004 flyby, sample return success sample returned January 2006; also visited asteroid 5535 Annefrank Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
9P/Tempel Deep Impact United States NASA July 2005 flyby success Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
    Impactor United States NASA 4 July 2005 impactor success
73P/
Schwassmann-Wachmann
CONTOUR United States NASA 2006 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch CONTOUR pre-launch.jpg 2002-034A
6P/d'Arrest CONTOUR United States NASA 2008 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch CONTOUR pre-launch.jpg 2002-034A
103P/Hartley Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) United States NASA 4 November 2010 flyby success mission extension (target changed from comet Boethin) Deep Impact.jpg 2005-001A
9P/Tempel Stardust (redesignated NExT) United States NASA 14 February 2011 flyby success mission extension Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg 1999-003A
67P/Churyumov–
Gerasimenko
Rosetta European Union ESA 6 August 2014 – 30 September 2016 orbiter success flybys of asteroids 2867 Šteins and 21 Lutetia completed; intentionally impacted at end of mission Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
    Philae European Union ESA 12 November 2014 – 9 July 2015 lander success Philae lander (transparent bg).png 2004-006C

Kuiper Belt probes[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2014 Mu69 New Horizons United States NASA 1 January 2019 flyby en route Extended mission to explore Kuiper Belt objects approved in July 2016.[51] New Horizons Transparent.png 2006-001A

Probes leaving the Solar System[edit]

Spacecraft Organization Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 United States NASA Left Jupiter in December 1973. Mission ended March 1997. Last contact January 23, 2003. Craft now presumed dead; no further contact attempts planned. Pioneer 10 at Jupiter.gif 1972-012A
Pioneer 11 United States NASA Left Saturn in September 1979. Last contact September 1995. The craft's antenna cannot be maneuvered to point to Earth, and it is not known if it is still transmitting. No further contact attempts are planned. Pioneer 11 at Saturn.gif 1973-019A
Voyager 1 United States NASA Left Saturn in November 1980. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of December 2014). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. Voyager.jpg 1977-084A
Voyager 2 United States NASA Left Neptune in August 1989. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of December 2014). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. Voyager.jpg 1977-076A
New Horizons United States NASA Left Pluto July 14, 2015; Pluto mission to last until early 2016, will flyby Kuiper belt object 2014 Mu69 on January 1, 2019 when it is 43.4 AU from the Sun. New Horizons Transparent.png 2006-001A

Other probes to leave Earth orbit[edit]

For completeness, this section lists probes that have left (or will leave) Earth orbit, but are not targeted at any of the above bodies.

Spacecraft Organization Date Location Status Notes Image Ref
WMAP United States NASA 30 June 2001 (launch) – to October 2010 (end)[52] Sun-Earth L2 point success cosmic background radiation observations; sent to graveyard orbit after 9 years of use.[52] WMAP2.jpg 2001-027A
Spitzer Space Telescope United States NASA 25 August 2003 (launch) – still active (as of December 2010) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit success infrared astronomy 2003-038A
Chang'e 2 China CNSA 25 August 2011(arrive) to 15 April 2012(end) Sun-Earth L2 point success Left the point on 15 April 2012, then flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis 2010-050A
Kepler United States NASA 6 March 2009 (launch) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit operational search for extrasolar planets Kepler Space Telescope.png 2009-011A [53]
Herschel Space Observatory European Union ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed study of formation and evolution of galaxies and stars Herschel Space Observatory.jpg 2009-026A
Planck European Union ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed (2009-2013) cosmic microwave background observations 2009-026B
IKAROS Japan JAXA 20 May 2010 (launch) Earth-Venus transfer heliocentric orbit operational solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration IKAROS solar sail.jpg 2010-020E [18]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
Japan UNISEC failure technology development; contact lost shortly after launch[21] 2010-020F [20]
Gaia European Union ESA 19 December 2013 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point success astrometry mission to measure the position and motion of 1 billion stars Gaia spacecraft.jpg 2013-074A [54]
LISA Pathfinder European Union ESA 3 December 2015 (launch)[55] Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L1 point success test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory LISA Pathfinder (14257775333).jpg 2015-070A [56]
James Webb Space Telescope United States NASA
European Union ESA
Canada CSA
October 2018 (launch) Sun-Earth L2 point planned infrared astronomy James Webb Space Telescope.jpg [57]
Euclid European Union ESA Q4, 2020 (launch)[58] Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point planned measure the rate of expansion of the Universe through time to better understand dark energy and dark matter Euclid telescope.jpg [59]

Cancelled probes and missions[edit]

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mercury BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element European Union ESA lander cancelled
Moon LUNAR-A Japan JAXA orbiter, penetrators cancelled originally scheduled for 1995, cancelled 2007 LUNAR-A
Mars Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander United States NASA 2001 lander cancelled Slander med.jpg MS2001L
Mars Beagle 2: Evolution 2004 lander cancelled
Mars NetLander France CNES/
European Union ESA
lander cancelled [60]
Mars Mars Telecommunications Orbiter United States NASA 2010 orbiter cancelled Mission could be fulfilled by the proposed Mars 2022 orbiter PIA07500.jpg [61]
Phobos Aladdin United States NASA sample return not selected [62]
Europa Europa Orbiter United States NASA orbiter cancelled [63]
Europa, Ganymede, Callisto Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter United States NASA 2021 orbiter cancelled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter 2.jpg [64]
Pluto Pluto Fast Flyby United States NASA 2010 flyby cancelled Re-proposed as Pluto Kuiper Express
Pluto Pluto Kuiper
Express
United States NASA 2012 flyby cancelled Replaced by New Horizons Pluto express.jpg PLUTOKE
4660 Nereus Hayabusa Japan ISAS sample return cancelled rerouted to 25143 Itokawa Hayabusa(Muses-C) sampling.jpg 2003-019A
3840 Mimistrobell Rosetta European Union ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
4979 Otawara Rosetta European Union ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A
4660 Nereus Near Earth Asteroid Prospector SpaceDev sample return cancelled [65]
46P/Wirtanen Rosetta European Union ESA 2011 orbiter cancelled rerouted to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta.jpg 2004-006A

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]