List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene

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This is a list of extinct animals of South America, animals that became extinct in the Holocene Epoch in South America.

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric mammal extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 C.E.)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image|-
Antifer
Antifer crassus
11,000 Argentina, Brazil and Chile --
Arctotherium
Arctotherium sp.
11,000 South America Arctotherium bonariense
Canis nehringi
8,000 South America --
Cuvieronius
Cuvieronius sp.
4,000 South America Cuvieronius
Dire wolf
Aenocyon dirus
11,000 South America Dire wolf
Ground sloths
Catonyx
Eremotherium
Glossotherium
Lestodon
Megatherium
Mylodon
Nematherium
Nothrotherium
Scelidotherium
Scelidodon
6,000 South America Eremotherium
Glyptodonts
Doedicurus
Eleutherocercus
Glyptodon
Hoplophorus
Lomaphorus
Panochthus
11,000 South America Glyptodon
Hippidion
10,000 South America Hippidion
Macrauchenia
Macrauchenia sp.
10,000 South America Macrauchenia
Neochoerus
Neochoerus sp.
10,000 South America Neochoerus
Notiomastodon
Notiomastodon platensis
10,000 South America stegomastodon
Saber-toothed cat
Smilodon populator
10,000 northern South America Amazonian Smilodon
Stout-legged llama
Palaeolama mirifica
10,000 South America --
Theriodictis
Theriodictis sp.
11,000 Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay Theriodictis
Toxodon
Toxodon sp.
16,500 South America Toxodon platensis
Xenorhinotherium
Xenorhinotherium bahiensis
10,000 Brazil and Venezuela --

Recent mammal extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Candango mouse
Juscelinomys candango[1]
1960
Brazil Candango mouse
Caribbean monk seal
Monachus tropicalis[2]
1952
the Caribbean Sea Caribbean monk seal
Darwin's Galápagos mouse
Nesoryzomys darwini[3]
1929
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Falkland Islands wolf
Dusicyon australis[4]
1876
the United Kingdom (the Falkland Islands) Falkland Island wolf
Galápagos giant rat
Megaoryzomys curioi[5]
unknown
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) Galápagos giant rat
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse
Nesoryzomys indefessus[6]
the 1930s
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Giant vampire bat
Desmodus draculae [7]
unknown
Bolivia, Brazil and Venezuela Giant vampire bat
Peruvian viscacha
Lagostomus crassus[8]
before 1910
Peru --
Red-bellied gracile opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus[9]
1962
Argentina --
Vespucci's rodent
Noronhomys vespuccii[10]
1503?
Brazil --

Possibly extinct mammals

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
One-striped opossum
Monodelphis unistriata) [11]
1899
Argentina and Brazil --
Pacific degu
Octodon pacificus[12]
1994
Mocha Island, Chile --
Zuniga's dark rice rat
Melanomys zunigae [13]
1942
Peru --

Birds[edit]

Recent bird extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Alejandro Selkirk Island firecrown
Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi
1908
Chile Alejandro Selkirk Island Firecrown
Colombian grebe
Podiceps andinus
1970
Colombia --
Darwin's ground finch
Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris
1957
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Niceforo's pintail
Anas georgica niceforoi
1952
Colombia --
San Cristóbal vermilion flycatcher
Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius
the 1980s
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Red-throated wood-rail
Aramides gutturalis
1843
Peru Red-throated wood-rail

Possibly extinct birds

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Eskimo curlew
Numenius borealis
1939 (South America),
1962 (North America)
Brazil, Argentina, Perú and Chile Northern Curlew
Glaucous macaw
Anodorhynchus glaucus
the 1960s
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay Glaucous macaw
Hooded seedeater
Sporophila melanops
1823
Brazil --
Letitia's thorntail
Discosura letitiae
1852
Bolivia Letitia's thorntail
Turquoise-throated puffleg
Eriocnemis godini
1850
Colombia and Ecuador Turquoise-throated puffleg

Amphibians[edit]

Recent amphibian extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Atelopus vogli[14] 1933
Venezuela --
Spiny-knee leaf frog
Phrynomedusa fimbriata[15]
the 1920s
Brazil --

Possibly extinct amphibians

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chile Darwin's frog
Rhinoderma rufum[16]
1980
Chile --

Reptiles[edit]

Recent reptile extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Charles Island tortoise
Chelonoidis nigra[17]
1850
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) Charles Island tortoise skeleton
Pinta Island tortoise
Chelonoidis abingdonii[18]
June 24, 2012
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) Lonesome George

Fish[edit]

Recent fish extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Greasefish
Rhizosomichthys totae[19]
unknown
Colombia Greasefish
Titicaca orestias
Orestias cuvieri[20]
1930s
Lake Titicaca, Bolivia and Peru Titicaca Orestias

Mollusks[edit]

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Biotocus turbinatus
unknown
Brazil Biotocus turbinatus
Digerus gibberulus
unknown
Brazil --
Littoridina gaudichaudii
1933
Ecuador Littoridina gaudichaudii
Megalobulimus cardosoi
unknown
Brazil --

Worms[edit]

Insects[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roach, N. (2019). "Juscelinomys candango". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T10946A160756258. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T10946A160756258.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. ^ Lowry, L. (2015). "Neomonachus tropicalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T13655A45228171. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T13655A45228171.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  3. ^ Tirira, D.G.; Weksler, M. (2019). "Nesoryzomys darwini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T14706A22390382. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T14706A22390382.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  4. ^ Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2015). "Dusicyon australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T6923A82310440. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T6923A82310440.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  5. ^ Weksler, M.; Tirira, D.G. (2019). "Megaoryzomys curioi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T136657A22330270. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T136657A22330270.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  6. ^ Tirira, D.G.; Weksler, M. (2019). "Nesoryzomys indefessus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T14708A22390443. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T14708A22390443.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  7. ^ Turvey, S. (2008). "Desmodus draculae (Giant Vampire Bat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  8. ^ Roach, N. (2016). "Lagostomus crassus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T136452A78324250. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T136452A78324250.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  9. ^ Flores, D. (2016). "Cryptonanus ignitus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41320A22177809. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T41320A22177809.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  10. ^ Weksler, M.; Costa , L.M. (2019). "Noronhomys vespuccii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T136692A22333193. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T136692A22333193.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  11. ^ Pavan, S. (2016). "Monodelphis unistriata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T13703A22171555. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T13703A22171555.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  12. ^ Roach, N. (2016). "Octodon pacificus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T15090A78321512. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T15090A78321512.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  13. ^ Zeballos, H.; Vivar, E. (2019). "Melanomys zunigae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T13048A22344408. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T13048A22344408.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  14. ^ IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2020). "Atelopus vogli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T54561A109529582. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T54561A109529582.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  15. ^ Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz, Bruno Pimenta (2004). "Phrynomedusa fimbriata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T17078A6797217. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T17078A6797217.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  16. ^ IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2015). "Rhinoderma rufum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T19514A79809567. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T19514A79809567.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  17. ^ van Dijk, P.P.; Rhodin, A.G.J.; Cayot, L.J.; Caccone, A. (2017). "Chelonoidis niger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T9023A3149101. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T9023A3149101.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  18. ^ Cayot, L.J.; Gibbs, J.P.; Tapia, W.; Caccone, A. (2016). "Chelonoidis abingdonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T9017A65487433. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T9017A65487433.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  19. ^ Mesa-Salazar, L.; Mojica, J. (2016). "Rhizosomichthys totae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T19661A61472482. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T19661A61472482.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  20. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Orestias cuvieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T15491A4665163. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T15491A4665163.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  21. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Megadytes ducalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T12944A3400572. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T12944A3400572.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  22. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Rhantus orbignyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T19461A8894689. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T19461A8894689.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.

Bibliographies[edit]

External links[edit]