List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene

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This is a list of extinct animals of South America. Animals that became extinct in the Holocene period in South America.

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric mammal extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 C.E.)

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Smilodon
Smilodon populator
10,000 BC
Northern South America Amazonian Smilodon
Antifer
Antifer crassus
11,000 BC
Argentina, Brazil and Chile --
Arctotherium
Arctotherium sp.
11,000 BC
South America Arctotherium bonariense
Canis nehringi
8,000 BC
South America --
Cuvieronius
Cuvieronius sp.
4,000 BC
South America Cuvieronius
Dire wolf
Canis dirus
11,000 BC
South America Dire wolf
Ground sloths
Catonyx
Eremotherium
Glossotherium
Lestodon
Megatherium
Nematherium
Nothrotherium
Scelidotherium
6,000 BC
South America Eremotherium
Glyptodonts
Doedicurus
Eleutherocercus
Glyptodon
Hoplophorus
Lomaphorus
Panochthus
11,000 BC
South America Glyptodon
Hippidion
10,000 BC
South America Hippidion
Macrauchenia
Macrauchenia sp.
10,000 BC
South America Macrauchenia
Neochoerus
Neochoerus sp.
10,000 BC
South America --
Stegomastodon
Stegomastodon sp.
10,000 BC
South America Stegomastodon
Stout-legged llama
Palaeolama mirifica
10,000 BC
South America --
Theriodictis
Theriodictis sp.
11,000 BC
Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay --
Toxodon
Toxodon sp.
16,500 BC
South America Toxodon platensis
Xenorhinotherium
Xenorhinotherium bahiensis
10,000 BC
Brazil and Venezuela --

Recent mammal extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Candango mouse
Juscelinomys candango[1]
1960
Brazil --
Caribbean monk seal
Monachus tropicalis[2]
1952
Caribbean Sea Caribbean monk seal
Darwin's Galapagos mouse
Nesoryzomys darwini[3]
1929
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Falkland Islands wolf
Dusicyon australis[4]
1876
United Kingdom (Falkland Islands) Falkland Island wolf
Galápagos giant rat
Megaoryzomys curioi[5]
unknown
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) Galápagos giant rat
Indefatigable Galapagos mouse
Nesoryzomys indefessus[6]
1930s
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Giant vampire bat
Desmodus draculae [7]
unknown
Bolivia, Brazil and Venezuela
Peruvian viscacha
Lagostomus crassus[8]
before 1910
Peru --
Red-bellied gracile opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus[9]
1962
Argentina --
Vespucci's rodent
Noronhomys vespuccii[10]
1503?
Brazil --

Possibly extinct mammals

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
One-striped opossum
Monodelphis unistriata) [11]
1899
Argentina & Brazil --
Pacific degu
Octodon pacificus[12]
1994
Mocha Island, Chile --
Zuniga's dark rice rat
Melanomys zunigae [13]
1942
Peru --

Birds[edit]

Recent bird extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Alejandro Selkirk Island firecrown
Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi
1908
Chile Alejandro Selkirk Island Firecrown
Colombian grebe
Podiceps andinus
1970
Colombia --
Darwin's ground finch
Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris
1957
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Niceforo's pintail
Anas georgica niceforoi
1952
Colombia --
San Cristóbal vermilion flycatcher
Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius
1980s
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Red-throated wood-rail
Aramides gutturalis
1843
Peru Red-throated wood-rail

Possibly extinct birds

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Antioquia brush finch
Atlapetes blancae
1971
Colombia --
Bogota sunangel
Heliangelus zusii
1907
Colombia --
Northern curlew
Numenius borealis
1939 (South America), 1962 (North America)
Brazil and Argentina Northern Curlew
Glaucous macaw
Anodorhynchus glaucus
1960s
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay Glaucous macaw
Hooded seedeater
Sporophila melanops
1823
Brazil --
Letitia's thorntail
Discosura letitiae
1852
Bolivia Letitia's thorntail
Turquoise-throated puffleg
Eriocnemis godini
1850
Colombia and Ecuador Turquoise-throated puffleg

Amphibians[edit]

Recent amphibian extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Atelopus vogli[14] 1933
Venezuela --
Spiny-knee leaf frog
Phrynomedusa fimbriata[15]
1920s
Brazil --

Possibly extinct amphibians

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chile Darwin's frog
Rhinoderma rufum[16]
1980
Chile --

Reptiles[edit]

Recent reptile extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Charles Island tortoise
Chelonoidis nigra[17]
1850
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) Charles Island tortoise skeleton
Pinta Island tortoise
Chelonoidis abingdonii[18]
June 24, 2012
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) Lonesome George

Fish[edit]

Recent fish extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Greasefish
Rhizosomichthys totae[19]
unknown
Colombia --
Titicaca orestias
Orestias cuvieri[20]
1930s
Lake Titicaca, Bolivia and Peru Titicaca Orestias

Mollusks[edit]

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Biotocus turbinatus
unknown
Brazil Biotocus turbinatus
Digerus gibberulus
unknown
Brazil --
Littoridina gaudichaudii
1933
Ecuador Littoridina gaudichaudii
Megalobulimus cardosoi
unknown
Brazil --

Worms[edit]

Insects[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • BirdLife International (2005) Species factsheet: Calyptura cristata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/3/2006
  • IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 March 2006.
  • Maas, P.H.J. 2005. Rediscovered Animals. The Extinction Website. Downloaded from http://extinct.petermaas.nl on 25/3/2006
  1. ^ Leite, Y. & Patterson, B. (2008). "Juscelinomys candango (Candango Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  2. ^ Kovacs, K. (2008). "Monachus tropicalis (Caribbean Monk Seal, West Indian Monk Seal, West Indian Seal)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013.
  3. ^ Tirira, D.; Dowler, R.; Boada, C. & Weksler, M. (2008). "Nesoryzomys darwini (Darwin's Galapagos Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  4. ^ IUCN SSC Canid Specialist Group (2008). "Dusicyon australis (Falkland Island Wolf, Falklands Wolf)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  5. ^ Weksler, M. & Tirira, D. (2008). "Megaoryzomys curioi (Galapágos Giant Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
  6. ^ Tirira, D.; Dowler, R.; Boada, C. & Weksler, M. (2008). "Nesoryzomys indefessus (Indefatigable Galapagos Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  7. ^ Turvey, S. (2008). "Desmodus draculae (Giant Vampire Bat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  8. ^ Amori, G. & Schipper, J. (2008). "Lagostomus crassus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  9. ^ Diaz M. & Barquez, R. (2008). "\Cryptonanus ignitus (Red-bellied Gracile Mouse Opossum, Red-bellied Gracile Opossum)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  10. ^ Weksler, M. & Costa, L. (2008). "Noronhomys vespuccii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  11. ^ Flores, D. & Teta, P. (1996). "Monodelphis unistriata (One-striped Opossum, One-striped Short-tailed Opossum, Single-striped Opossum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  12. ^ Ojeda, R. & Bidau, C. (2008). "Octodon pacificus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  13. ^ Zeballos, H. & Vivar, E. (1996). "Melanomys zunigae (Zuniga's Dark Rice Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  14. ^ Stefan Lötters; Enrique La Marca; Miguel Vences (2004). "54561". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  15. ^ Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz; Bruno Pimenta (2004). "Phrynomedusa fimbriata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  16. ^ Alberto Veloso; Herman Núñez; Helen Díaz-Paéz; Ramón Formas (2010). "Rhinoderma rufum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  17. ^ Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group (1996). "Chelonoidis nigra ssp. nigra (Charles Island Tortoise)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  18. ^ Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group (1996). "Chelonoidis nigra ssp. abingdoni (Abingdon Island Tortoise)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  19. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Rhizosomichthys totae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  20. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Orestias cuvieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  21. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Megadytes ducalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  22. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Rhantus orbignyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

External links[edit]