List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene

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This is a list of extinct animals of South America, animals that became extinct in the Holocene Epoch in South America.

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric mammal extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 C.E.)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image|-
Antifer
Antifer crassus
11,000 Argentina, Brazil and Chile --
Arctotherium
Arctotherium sp.
11,000 South America Arctotherium bonariense
Canis nehringi
8,000 South America --
Cuvieronius
Cuvieronius sp.
4,000 South America Cuvieronius
Dire wolf
Aenocyon dirus
11,000 South America Dire wolf
Ground sloths
Catonyx
Eremotherium
Glossotherium
Lestodon
Megatherium
Mylodon
Nematherium
Nothrotherium
Scelidotherium
6,000 South America Eremotherium
Glyptodonts
Doedicurus
Eleutherocercus
Glyptodon
Hoplophorus
Lomaphorus
Panochthus
11,000 South America Glyptodon
Hippidion
10,000 South America Hippidion
Macrauchenia
Macrauchenia sp.
10,000 South America Macrauchenia
Neochoerus
Neochoerus sp.
10,000 South America --
Notiomastodon
Notiomastodon platensis
10,000 South America stegomastodon
Saber-toothed cat
Smilodon populator
10,000 northern South America Amazonian Smilodon
Stout-legged llama
Palaeolama mirifica
10,000 South America --
Theriodictis
Theriodictis sp.
11,000 Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay --
Toxodon
Toxodon sp.
16,500 South America Toxodon platensis
Xenorhinotherium
Xenorhinotherium bahiensis
10,000 Brazil and Venezuela --

Recent mammal extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Candango mouse
Juscelinomys candango[1]
1960
Brazil --
Caribbean monk seal
Monachus tropicalis[2]
1952
the Caribbean Sea Caribbean monk seal
Darwin's Galápagos mouse
Nesoryzomys darwini[3]
1929
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Falkland Islands wolf
Dusicyon australis[4]
1876
the United Kingdom (the Falkland Islands) Falkland Island wolf
Galápagos giant rat
Megaoryzomys curioi[5]
unknown
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) Galápagos giant rat
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse
Nesoryzomys indefessus[6]
the 1930s
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Giant vampire bat
Desmodus draculae [7]
unknown
Bolivia, Brazil and Venezuela
Peruvian viscacha
Lagostomus crassus[8]
before 1910
Peru --
Red-bellied gracile opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus[9]
1962
Argentina --
Vespucci's rodent
Noronhomys vespuccii[10]
1503?
Brazil --

Possibly extinct mammals

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
One-striped opossum
Monodelphis unistriata) [11]
1899
Argentina and Brazil --
Pacific degu
Octodon pacificus[12]
1994
Mocha Island, Chile --
Zuniga's dark rice rat
Melanomys zunigae [13]
1942
Peru --

Birds[edit]

Recent bird extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Alejandro Selkirk Island firecrown
Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi
1908
Chile Alejandro Selkirk Island Firecrown
Colombian grebe
Podiceps andinus
1970
Colombia --
Darwin's ground finch
Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris
1957
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Niceforo's pintail
Anas georgica niceforoi
1952
Colombia --
San Cristóbal vermilion flycatcher
Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius
the 1980s
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) --
Red-throated wood-rail
Aramides gutturalis
1843
Peru Red-throated wood-rail

Possibly extinct birds

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Eskimo curlew
Numenius borealis
1939 (South America),
1962 (North America)
Brazil, Argentina, Perú and Chile Northern Curlew
Glaucous macaw
Anodorhynchus glaucus
the 1960s
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay Glaucous macaw
Hooded seedeater
Sporophila melanops
1823
Brazil --
Letitia's thorntail
Discosura letitiae
1852
Bolivia Letitia's thorntail
Turquoise-throated puffleg
Eriocnemis godini
1850
Colombia and Ecuador Turquoise-throated puffleg

Amphibians[edit]

Recent amphibian extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Atelopus vogli[14] 1933
Venezuela --
Spiny-knee leaf frog
Phrynomedusa fimbriata[15]
the 1920s
Brazil --

Possibly extinct amphibians

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chile Darwin's frog
Rhinoderma rufum[16]
1980
Chile --

Reptiles[edit]

Recent reptile extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Charles Island tortoise
Chelonoidis nigra[17]
1850
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) Charles Island tortoise skeleton
Pinta Island tortoise
Chelonoidis abingdonii[18]
June 24, 2012
Ecuador (the Galápagos Islands) Lonesome George

Fish[edit]

Recent fish extinctions (1500 C.E. to the present)

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Greasefish
Rhizosomichthys totae[19]
unknown
Colombia --
Titicaca orestias
Orestias cuvieri[20]
1930s
Lake Titicaca, Bolivia and Peru Titicaca Orestias

Mollusks[edit]

Common name\scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Biotocus turbinatus
unknown
Brazil Biotocus turbinatus
Digerus gibberulus
unknown
Brazil --
Littoridina gaudichaudii
1933
Ecuador Littoridina gaudichaudii
Megalobulimus cardosoi
unknown
Brazil --

Worms[edit]

Insects[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leite, Y. & Patterson, B. (2008). "Juscelinomys candango (Candango Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  2. ^ Kovacs, K. (2008). "Monachus tropicalis (Caribbean Monk Seal, West Indian Monk Seal, West Indian Seal)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  3. ^ Tirira, D.; Dowler, R.; Boada, C. & Weksler, M. (2008). "Nesoryzomys darwini (Darwin's Galapagos Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ IUCN SSC Canid Specialist Group (2008). "Dusicyon australis (Falkland Island Wolf, Falklands Wolf)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. ^ Weksler, M. & Tirira, D. (2008). "Megaoryzomys curioi (Galapágos Giant Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2014.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  6. ^ Tirira, D.; Dowler, R.; Boada, C. & Weksler, M. (2008). "Nesoryzomys indefessus (Indefatigable Galapagos Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  7. ^ Turvey, S. (2008). "Desmodus draculae (Giant Vampire Bat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  8. ^ Amori, G. & Schipper, J. (2008). "Lagostomus crassus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  9. ^ Diaz M. & Barquez, R. (2008). "\Cryptonanus ignitus (Red-bellied Gracile Mouse Opossum, Red-bellied Gracile Opossum)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  10. ^ Weksler, M. & Costa, L. (2008). "Noronhomys vespuccii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  11. ^ Flores, D. & Teta, P. (1996). "Monodelphis unistriata (One-striped Opossum, One-striped Short-tailed Opossum, Single-striped Opossum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 20, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  12. ^ Ojeda, R. & Bidau, C. (2008). "Octodon pacificus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  13. ^ Zeballos, H. & Vivar, E. (1996). "Melanomys zunigae (Zuniga's Dark Rice Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 20, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  14. ^ Stefan Lötters; Enrique La Marca; Miguel Vences (2004). "54561". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  15. ^ Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz; Bruno Pimenta (2004). "Phrynomedusa fimbriata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  16. ^ Alberto Veloso; Herman Núñez; Helen Díaz-Paéz; Ramón Formas (2010). "Rhinoderma rufum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  17. ^ Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group (1996). "Chelonoidis nigra ssp. nigra (Charles Island Tortoise)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 25, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  18. ^ Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group (1996). "Chelonoidis nigra ssp. abingdoni (Abingdon Island Tortoise)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 25, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  19. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Rhizosomichthys totae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 29, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  20. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Orestias cuvieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 29, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  21. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Megadytes ducalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 25, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  22. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Rhantus orbignyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved December 25, 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Bibliographies[edit]

External links[edit]