South Pacific tropical cyclone season

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The South Pacific tropical cyclone climatology is a record of how many tropical disturbances, tropical cyclones (TC's) and severe tropical cyclones (STC's) have formed within the Southern Pacific Ocean tropical cyclone basin each year. The Southern Pacific Ocean tropical cyclone basin is currently defined as being between 160°E and 120°W and is officially monitored by the World Meteorological Organization's Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in Nadi, Fiji and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Wellington, New Zealand, while others like the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. Each tropical cyclone year within this basin starts on July 1 and runs throughout the year, encompassing the tropical cyclone season which runs from November 1 and lasts until April 30 each season. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).

Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season.

Pre-1970

1970s[edit]

Season Total
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages Notes and
References
1969–70 7 7 2 [1]
1970–71 8 8 0
1971–72 13 13 11 [2]
1972–73 10 10 2
1973–74 11 11 2
1974–75 5 5 3 [2]
1975–76 10 10 5
1976–77 10 10 2
1977–78 8 8 3 [1]
1978–79 6 6 3
1979–80 7 7 1 [1]

1980s[edit]

During the 1980s there were three major Southern Oscillation episodes; two El Niño's (1982–83 and 1986/87) when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) was negative and one La Nina when the SOI was positive.[3]

Season Total
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages Notes and
References
1980–81 14 14 4 Freda [3]
1981–82 6 6 5 Gyan [3][4]
1982–83 16 14 10 Oscar [3]
1983–84 8 8 3 Beti [2][3]
1984–85 9 9 5 Hina [3][4][5]
1985–86 10 10 4 Ima >150 [3][2][5]
1986–87 13 12 6 Uma 50 $150 million [3][2][5]
1987–88 6 5 3 Anne [1][3]
1988–89 14 14 6 Harry [3]
1989–90 11 6 2 Ofa 8 $180 million [3]
Totals 108 99 48 Hina

1990s[edit]

Season Total
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages Notes and
References
1990–91 5 3 1 Sina None $18.5 million [4][A 1]
1991–92 12 11 7 Fran 21 [1][A 2]
1992–93 10 10 6 Joni/Prema None [1]
1993–94 7 5 4 Theodore None
1994–95 3 2 0 William None $2.5 million [1][6][7]
1995–96 6 4 1 Beti 2 $4.3 million [8][9]
1996–97 13 12 6 Gavin 27 $44 million [A 3][4]
1997–98 20 16 7 Ron/Susan 50 $7.6 million [12][13]
1998–99 27 8 4 Dani [13][14]
1999-00 24 6 4 Kim 1 [13][15]
Totals 127 77 38 Ron/Susan 101

2000s[edit]

During the 2000s, activity was generally below the long term average, with 60 tropical cyclones developing out of 160 tropical disturbances and tropical depressions. However activity during the 2002-03, 2004-05 and 2009-10 seasons all experienced activity, near the long term average of about 8 - 9 tropical cyclones.

Season Total
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes and
References
2000–01 16 4 1 Paula 7 $800 thousand [2][13]
2001–02 16 5 2 Waka 1 $51.3 million [4][13]
2002–03 18 10 7 Zoe 50 $102 million [13][16]
2003–04 15 3 2 Heta 16 $387 million [13]
2004–05 19 9 5 Percy 2 $55 million [13][1][17]
2005–06 15 5 3 Wati None $26 thousand [13][2][18]
2006–07 15 6 2 Xavier 4 $4 million [13]
2007–08 16 4 3 Daman 8 $46 million [13][19]
2008–09 15 6 0 Lin 11 $65 million [13][2][20]
2009–10 15 8 5 Ului 12 $163 million [1][13]
Totals 160 60 30 Zoe 111 874 million

2010s[edit]

Season Total
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes and
References
2010–11 17 8 5 Wilma 4 $25 million [13][21]
2011–12 20 3 1 Jasmine 13 $17.2 million [22]
2012–13 22 5 4 Sandra 16 $161 million
2013–14 21 6 2 Ian 12 > $4.3 million

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Number of tropical cyclones includes one unnamed cyclone that was added after the season by the Fiji Meteorological Service and the Meteorological service of New Zealand.
  2. ^ Cyclone Arthur was considered to be a regeneration of Cyclone Wasa, as a result it is counted in this list as one tropical cyclone and not two.
  3. ^ During the 1996–97 South Pacific cyclone season, 11 tropical cyclones formed within RSMC Nadi's area of responsibility, while one formed within the subtropics and TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility.[4][10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 18, 2012). "2012/13 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre Area of Responsibility". Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 2. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 27, 2011). "2011–12 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (RSMC Nadi – TCC) Area of Responsibility (AOR)". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Thompson, Craig; Ready, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaogu (1992). Tropical Cyclones in the Southwest Pacific: November 1979 – May 1989. New Zealand Meteorological Service, (Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research). ISBN 0-477-07346-8. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 11, 2013). "2013/14 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre Area of Responsibility". Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 2. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c Revell C G (1987). "The 1986/87 Hurricane Season in the South Pacific". Weather and Climate (The Meteorological Society of New Zealand) 7 (2): 4. 
  6. ^ Shepherd, I.J; Bates, P.W (June 2, 1997). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1994-95". Australian Meteorological Magazine (Bureau of Meteorology) (46): 143–151. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  7. ^ Barr, Joe (September 17, 2008). "Event Information: Tropical Cyclone William". Pacific Disaster.Net. Archived from the original on June 2, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2011. 
  8. ^ Australian National Tidal Facility (1996). "The South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Change Newsletter". South Pacific Regional Environment Program. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012. 
  9. ^ Callaghan, Jeff (December 4, 1997). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1995–96". Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal (Australian Bureau of Meteorology) 46: 325–339. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012. 
  10. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre; TCWC Brisbane; TCWC Wellington (May 22, 2009). "RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre Best Track Data for 1996/97 Cyclone Season". Fiji Meteorological Service, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. United States: International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. Retrieved January 31, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Matt Megan's World". The Manawatu Standard (Palmerston North, New Zealand). April 2, 1997. p. 3.  – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  12. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. RSMC Nadi Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 1997–98 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5rfDHEnbo. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Padgett, Gary (1997–2011). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summaries". Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2012. 
  14. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (1999). RSMC Nadi Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 1998–99 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5reEpeuMG. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  15. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (2000). RSMC Nadi Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 1999–2000 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/65ZuunOSd. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  16. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. "Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 2002–03" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on June 27, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2010. 
  17. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (PDF). Tropical Cyclone Summary 2004 — 2005 Season. Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on April 16, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/66yGC0iOR. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
  18. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. "Tropical Cyclone Season Summary: 2005–2006 Season" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on December 27, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2009. 
  19. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre; Fiji Meteorological Service (2008). Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 2007–08 (Report). World Meteorological Organization. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/Best%20Tracks/documents/TCSeasonalSummary07-08.doc. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  20. ^ RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (September 24, 2012). "Tropical Cyclone Season Summary 2008–09". Fiji Meteorological Service (World Meteorological Organization's Tropical Cyclone Project). http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/Best%20Tracks/documents/SR_Nadi_2009.doc. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  21. ^ Climate Services Division (May 11, 2012) (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary April 2011 Volume 32 Issue 04 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/65kKBVwSv. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  22. ^ Young, Steve (January 14, 2013). "Southern Hemisphere 2011–2012 Tropical Cyclone Season Review". Australian Severe Weather. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 

External links[edit]