List of Speakers of the United States House of Representatives

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The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution. The Speaker is second in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the Senate.

Unlike some Westminster system parliaments, in which the office of Speaker is considered non-partisan, in the United States, the Speaker of the House is a leadership position and the office-holder actively works to set the majority party's legislative agenda. The Speaker usually does not personally preside over debates, instead delegating the duty to members of the House from the majority party. The Speaker usually does not participate in debate and rarely votes. Aside from duties relating to heading the House and the majority political party, the Speaker also performs administrative and procedural functions, and represents his or her Congressional district.

At the beginning of a new Congress every two years, the House elects a speaker, either the incumbent, or a new one, depending on party composition and membership of incumbents. While no rule exists, based on tradition and practice from the earliest days of the nation, to be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of all votes cast for individuals, i.e. excluding those who abstain. If no candidate wins such a majority, then the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. The Speaker is traditionally the majority party's leader in the chamber, although unlike other House leadership, there is no Constitutional requirement that the speaker be an elected member of the House (every house speaker to date has been an elected member of the House).[1] The most recent election to occur mid-way through a Congress occurred on October 29, 2015, when it elected Congressman Paul Ryan of Wisconsin to the office.

There have been 54 speakers of the United States House of Representatives, from 23 of the 50 U.S. states, since the office was created in 1789. The number of presidents pro tempore from each state are:

The longest serving speaker was Sam Rayburn, who served on three separate occasions in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. Theodore M. Pomeroy had the shortest tenure as speaker, serving March 3–4, 1869. Six speakers—Henry Clay, Joseph William Martin, Jr., Frederick Muhlenberg, Sam Rayburn, Thomas Brackett Reed, and John W. Taylor—served non-consecutive terms of office. One Speaker, James K. Polk, went on to become the 11th President of the United States. Two, Schuyler Colfax and John Nance Garner, later became Vice President; additionally, Paul Ryan ran unsuccessfully for the office in 2012, prior to election as Speaker. In 2007, Nancy Pelosi became the first woman to serve as the House Speaker.

Speakers of the House of Representatives[edit]

This list includes the congressional district and political affiliation of each speaker as well as the number of their Congress and time they spent in the position.

  Pro-Administration (2)   Anti-Administration party (1)   Federalist (2)   Democratic-Republican (6)
  National Republican (1)   Whig (4)   Democratic (23)   Republican (17)

Portrait Speaker Party [2] District Congress Tenure
1 Muhlenberg.jpg   Frederick Muhlenberg
January 1, 1750 – June 4, 1801
(Aged 51)
Pro-Administration Pennsylvania's
At-large
1st April 1, 1789

March 4, 1791
2 JonathanTrumbull.jpg   Jonathan Trumbull, Jr.
March 26, 1740 – August 7, 1809
(Aged 69)
Pro-Administration Connecticut's
4th
2nd October 24, 1791

March 4, 1793
1 Muhlenberg.jpg   Frederick Muhlenberg
January 1, 1750 – June 4, 1801
(Aged 51)
Anti-Administration Pennsylvania's
At-large
3rd December 2, 1793

March 4, 1795
3 JDayton.jpg   Jonathan Dayton
October 16, 1760 – October 9, 1824
(Aged 63)
Federalist New Jersey-AL 4th December 7, 1795

March 4, 1797
5th May 15, 1797

March 4, 1799
4 TheodoreSedgwick.jpg   Theodore Sedgwick
May 9, 1746 – January 24, 1813
(Aged 66)
Federalist Massachusetts'
1st
6th December 2, 1799

March 4, 1801
5 NC-Congress-NathanielMacon.jpg   Nathaniel Macon
December 17, 1757 – June 29, 1837
(Aged 79)
Democratic-Republican North Carolina's
5th
7th December 7, 1801

March 4, 1803
North Carolina's
6th
8th October 17, 1803

March 4, 1805
9th December 2, 1805

March 4, 1807
6 JosephBradleyVarnum.jpg   Joseph Bradley Varnum
January 29, 1751 – September 21, 1821
(Aged 70)
Democratic-Republican Massachusetts'
4th
10th October 26, 1807

March 4, 1809
11th May 22, 1809

March 4, 1811
7 Henry Clay.JPG   Henry Clay
April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852
(Aged 75)
Democratic-Republican Kentucky's
5th
12th November 4, 1811

March 4, 1813
Kentucky's
2nd
13th May 24, 1813

January 19, 1814
8 LangdonCheves.jpg   Langdon Cheves
September 17, 1776 – June 26, 1857
(Aged 80)
Democratic-Republican South Carolina's
1st
January 19, 1814

March 4, 1815
7 Henry Clay.JPG   Henry Clay
April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852
(Aged 75)
Democratic-Republican Kentucky's
2nd
14th December 4, 1815

March 4, 1817
15th December 1, 1817

March 4, 1819
16th December 6, 1819

October 28, 1820
9 SpeakerTaylor.png   John W. Taylor
March 26, 1784 – September 18, 1854
(Aged 70)
Democratic-Republican New York's
11th
November 15, 1820

March 4, 1821
10 PPBarbour.jpg   Philip Pendleton Barbour
May 25, 1783 – February 25, 1841
(Aged 57)
Democratic-Republican Virginia's
11th
17th December 4, 1821

March 4, 1823
7 Henry Clay.JPG   Henry Clay
April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852
(Aged 75)
Democratic-Republican Kentucky's
3rd
18th December 1, 1823

March 4, 1825
9 SpeakerTaylor.png John W. Taylor
March 26, 1784 – September 18, 1854
(Aged 70)
National Republican New York's
17th
19th December 5, 1825

March 4, 1827
11 SpeakerStevenson.png   Andrew Stevenson
January 21, 1784 – January 25, 1857
(Aged 73)
Democratic Virginia's
9th
20th December 3, 1827

March 4, 1829
21st December 7, 1829

March 4, 1831
22nd December 5, 1831

March 4, 1833
Virginia's
11th
23rd December 2, 1833

June 2, 1834
12 John Bell.jpg   John Bell
February 18, 1796 – September 10, 1869
(Aged 73)
Whig Tennessee's
7th
June 2, 1834

March 4, 1835
13 James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg   James K. Polk
November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849
(Aged 53)
Democratic Tennessee's
9th
24th December 7, 1835

March 4, 1837
25th September 4, 1837

March 4, 1839
14 RbrtMTHntr.jpg   Robert M. T. Hunter
April 21, 1809 – July 18, 1887
(Aged 78)
Whig Virginia's
9th
26th December 16, 1839

March 4, 1841
15 John White.jpg   John White
February 14, 1802 – September 22, 1845
(Aged 43)
Whig Kentucky's 9th 27th May 31, 1841

March 4, 1843
16 JohnWinstonJones.jpg   John Winston Jones
November 22, 1791 – January 29, 1848
(Aged 56)
Democratic Virginia's
6th
28th December 4, 1843

March 4, 1845
17 John Wesley Davis.jpg   John Wesley Davis
April 16, 1799 – August 22, 1859
(Aged 60)
Democratic Indiana's
6th
29th December 1, 1845

March 4, 1847
18 RCWinthrop.jpg   Robert Charles Winthrop
May 12, 1809—November 16, 1894
(Aged 85)
Whig Massachusetts'
1st
30th December 6, 1847

March 4, 1849
19 Cobb, Howell2.jpg   Howell Cobb
September 7, 1815 – October 9, 1868
(Aged 53)
Democratic Georgia's
6th
31st December 22, 1849

March 4, 1851
20 LinnBoyd.jpg   Linn Boyd
November 22, 1800 – December 17, 1859
(Aged 59)
Democratic Kentucky's
1st
32nd December 1, 1851

March 4, 1853
33rd December 5, 1853

March 4, 1855
21 Nathaniel Prentice Banks.jpg   Nathaniel P. Banks
January 30, 1816 – September 1, 1894
(Aged 78)
Republican Massachusetts'
7th
34th February 2, 1856

March 4, 1857
22 James Lawrence Orr - Brady-Handy.jpg   James Lawrence Orr
May 12, 1822 – May 5, 1873
(Aged 50)
Democratic South Carolina's
5th
35th December 7, 1857

March 4, 1859
23 William Pennington portrait.jpg   William Pennington
May 4, 1796 – February 16, 1862
(Aged 65)
Republican New Jersey's
5th
36th February 1, 1860

March 4, 1861
24 GalushaAaron.jpg   Galusha A. Grow
August 31, 1822 – March 31, 1907
(Aged 84)
Republican Pennsylvania's
14th
37th July 4, 1861

March 4, 1863
25 Schuyler Colfax, photo portrait seated, c1855-1865.jpg   Schuyler Colfax
March 23, 1823 – January 13, 1885
(Aged 61)
Republican Indiana's
9th
38th December 7, 1863

March 4, 1865
39th December 4, 1865

March 4, 1867
40th March 4, 1867

March 3, 1869
26 Theodore Medad Pomeroy - Brady-Handy.jpg   Theodore M. Pomeroy
December 31, 1824 – March 23, 1905
(Aged 80)
Republican New York's
24th
March 3, 1869

March 4, 1869
27 James G. Blaine - Brady-Handy.jpg   James G. Blaine
January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893
(Aged 62)
Republican Maine's
3rd
41st March 4, 1869

March 4, 1871
42nd March 4, 1871

March 4, 1873
43rd March 4, 1873

March 4, 1875
28 Michael C. Kerr - Brady-Handy.jpg   Michael C. Kerr
March 15, 1827 – August 19, 1876
(Aged 49)
Democratic Indiana's
3rd
44th December 6, 1875

August 19, 1876
29 Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg   Samuel J. Randall
October 10, 1828 – April 13, 1890
(Aged 61)
Democratic Pennsylvania's
3rd
December 4, 1876

March 4, 1877
45th October 15, 1877

March 4, 1879
46th March 18, 1879

March 4, 1881
30 J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg   J. Warren Keifer
January 30, 1836 – April 22, 1932
(Aged 96)
Republican Ohio's
8th
47th December 5, 1881

March 4, 1883
31 John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg   John G. Carlisle
September 5, 1834 – July 31, 1910
(Aged 75)
Democratic Kentucky's
6th
48th December 3, 1883

March 4, 1885
49th December 7, 1885

March 4, 1887
50th December 5, 1887

March 4, 1889
32 Thomas Brackett Reed by John Singer Sargent.jpg   Thomas Brackett Reed
October 18, 1839 – December 7, 1902
(Aged 63)
Republican Maine's
1st
51st December 2, 1889

March 4, 1891
33 CharlesFrederickCrisp.jpg   Charles Frederick Crisp
January 29, 1845 – October 23, 1896
(Aged 51)
Democratic Georgia's
3rd
52nd December 8, 1891

March 4, 1893
53rd August 7, 1893

March 4, 1895
32 Thomas Brackett Reed by John Singer Sargent.jpg   Thomas Brackett Reed
October 18, 1839 – December 7, 1902
(Aged 63)
Republican Maine's
1st
54th December 2, 1895

March 4, 1897
55th March 15, 1897

March 4, 1899
34 DavidBremmerHenderson.jpg   David B. Henderson
March 14, 1840 – February 25, 1906
(Aged 65)
Republican Iowa's
3rd
56th December 4, 1899

March 4, 1901
57th December 2, 1901

March 4, 1903
35 SpeakerCannon.png   Joseph Gurney Cannon
May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926
(Aged 90)
Republican Illinois'
18th
58th November 9, 1903

March 4, 1905
59th December 4, 1905

March 4, 1907
60th December 2, 1907

March 4, 1909
61st March 15, 1909

March 4, 1911
36 James Beauchamp Clark.jpg   Champ Clark
March 7, 1850 – March 2, 1921
(Aged 70)
Democratic Missouri's
9th
62nd April 4, 1911

March 4, 1913
63rd April 7, 1913

March 4, 1915
64th December 6, 1915

March 4, 1917
65th April 2, 1917

March 4, 1919
37 Frederick Gillett.jpg   Frederick Gillett
October 16, 1851 – July 31, 1935
(Aged 83)
Republican Massachusetts'
2nd
66th May 19, 1919

March 4, 1921
67th April 11, 1921

March 4, 1923
68th December 3, 1923

March 4, 1925
38 Nick Longworth Portrait.JPG   Nicholas Longworth
November 5, 1869 – April 9, 1931
(Aged 61)
Republican Ohio's
1st
69th December 7, 1925

March 4, 1927
70th December 5, 1927

March 4, 1929
71st April 15, 1929

March 4, 1931
39 John n garner.jpg   John Nance Garner
November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967
(Aged 98)
Democratic Texas'
15th
72nd December 7, 1931

March 4, 1933
40 SpeakerRainey.png   Henry Thomas Rainey
August 20, 1860 – August 19, 1934
(Aged 73)
Democratic Illinois'
20th
73rd March 9, 1933

August 19, 1934
41 Joseph Byrns.jpg   Joseph Wellington Byrns, Sr.
July 20, 1869 – June 4, 1936
(Aged 66)
Democratic Tennessee's
5th
74th January 3, 1935

June 4, 1936
42 SpeakerBankhead.png   William B. Bankhead
April 12, 1874 – September 15, 1940
(Aged 66)
Democratic Alabama's
7th
June 4, 1936

January 3, 1937
75th January 5, 1937

January 3, 1939
76th January 3, 1939

September 15, 1940
43 Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn.jpg   Sam Rayburn
January 6, 1882 – November 16, 1961
(Aged 79)
Democratic Texas'
4th
September 16, 1940

January 3, 1941
77th January 3, 1941

January 3, 1943
78th January 6, 1943

January 3, 1945
79th January 3, 1945

January 3, 1947
44 SPEAKER JWMartin.jpg   Joseph William Martin, Jr.
November 3, 1884 – March 6, 1968
(Aged 83)
Republican Massachusetts'
14th
80th January 3, 1947

January 3, 1949
43 Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn.jpg   Sam Rayburn
January 6, 1882 – November 16, 1961
(Aged 79)
Democratic Texas'
4th
81st January 3, 1949

January 3, 1951
82nd January 3, 1951

January 3, 1953
44 SPEAKER JWMartin.jpg   Joseph William Martin, Jr.
November 3, 1884 – March 6, 1968
(Aged 83)
Republican Massachusetts'
14th
83rd January 3, 1953

January 3, 1955
43 Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn.jpg   Sam Rayburn
January 6, 1882 – November 16, 1961
(Aged 79)
Democratic Texas'
4th
84th January 3, 1955

January 3, 1957
85th January 3, 1957

January 3, 1959
86th January 7, 1959

January 3, 1961
87th January 3, 1961

November 16, 1961
45 Speaker John McCormack.jpg   John William McCormack
December 21, 1891 – November 22, 1980
(Aged 88)
Democratic Massachusetts'
12th
January 10, 1962

January 3, 1963
Massachusetts'
9th
88th January 9, 1963

January 3, 1965
89th January 4, 1965

January 3, 1967
90th January 10, 1967

January 3, 1969
91st January 3, 1969

January 3, 1971
46 Speaker Albert - portrait.jpg   Carl Albert
May 10, 1908 – February 4, 2000
(Aged 91)
Democratic Oklahoma's
3rd
92nd January 21, 1971

January 3, 1973
93rd January 3, 1973

January 3, 1975
94th January 14, 1975

January 3, 1977
47 SpeakerO'Neill.jpg   Tip O'Neill
December 9, 1912 – January 5, 1994
(Aged 81)
Democratic Massachusetts's
8th
95th January 4, 1977

January 3, 1979
96th January 15, 1979

January 3, 1981
97th January 5, 1981

January 3, 1983
98th January 3, 1983

January 3, 1985
99th January 3, 1985

January 3, 1987
48 SpeakerWright.jpg   Jim Wright
December 22, 1922 – May 6, 2015
(Aged 92)
Democratic Texas'
12th
100th January 6, 1987

January 3, 1989
101st January 3, 1989

June 6, 1989
49 SpeakerFoley.jpg   Tom Foley
March 6, 1929 – October 18, 2013
(Aged 84)
Democratic Washington's
5th
June 6, 1989

January 3, 1991
102nd January 3, 1991

January 3, 1993
103rd January 5, 1993

January 3, 1995
50 SpeakerGingrich.jpg   Newt Gingrich
Born: (1943-06-17) June 17, 1943 (age 73)
Republican Georgia's
6th
104th January 4, 1995

January 3, 1997
105th January 7, 1997

January 3, 1999
51 SpeakerHastert.jpg   Dennis Hastert
Born: (1942-01-02) January 2, 1942 (age 74)
Republican Illinois'
14th
106th January 6, 1999

January 3, 2001
107th January 3, 2001

January 3, 2003
108th January 7, 2003

January 3, 2005
109th January 3, 2005

January 3, 2007
52 Speaker Nancy Pelosi.jpg   Nancy Pelosi
Born: (1940-03-26) March 26, 1940 (age 76)
Democratic California's
8th
110th January 4, 2007

January 3, 2009
111th January 6, 2009

January 3, 2011
53 Speaker Boehner.tif   John Boehner
Born: (1949-11-17) November 17, 1949 (age 66)
Republican Ohio's
8th
112th January 5, 2011

January 3, 2013
113th January 3, 2013

January 3, 2015
114th January 6, 2015

October 29, 2015
54 Paul Ryan--113th Congress--.png   Paul Ryan
Born: (1970-01-29) January 29, 1970 (age 46)
Republican Wisconsin's
1st
October 29, 2015

Present

a Note: Nathaniel Banks, a former Democrat originally elected as a member of the Know Nothing Party, had come to be associated with the Republicans by the time the 34th Congress convened. Because the Republicans did not command a majority in Congress and Banks did not receive any votes from Democrats or Southern Know Nothings, Banks, after two months of deadlocked balloting, could only be elected on the 133rd ballot after a motion was passed allowing the election of a Speaker by plurality vote.[3]

Speakers by time in office[edit]

This list is based on the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater. Time after adjournment of one Congress but before the convening of the next Congress is not counted. For example, Nathaniel Macon was Speaker in both the 8th and 9th Congresses, but the eight-month gap between the two Congresses is not counted toward his service. For the exact dates of service for each individual speaker, see the Tenure column in the above list.

Official seal of the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
Sam Rayburn, longest tenure of office, 17 years, 53 days
Theodore M. Pomeroy, shortest tenure of office, 1 day
Rank Speaker OS Length
in years & days
1 Rayburn, SamSam Rayburn 43 17 years, 53 days
2 Clay, HenryHenry Clay 7 10 years, 196 days
3 O'Neill, TipTip O'Neill 47 9 years, 350 days
4 McCormack, John WilliamJohn William McCormack 45 8 years, 344 days
5 Hastert, DennisDennis Hastert 51 7 years, 359 days
6 Clark, ChampChamp Clark 36 6 years, 357 days
7 Albert, CarlCarl Albert 46 5 years, 337 days
8 Cannon, Joseph GurneyJoseph Gurney Cannon 35 5 years, 285 days
9 Foley, TomTom Foley 49 5 years, 209 days
10 Blaine, James G.James G. Blaine 27 5 years, 93 days
11 Gillett, Frederick H.Frederick H. Gillett 37 4 years, 341 days
12 Boehner, JohnJohn Boehner 53 4 years, 297 days
13 Colfax, SchuylerSchuyler Colfax 25 4 years, 176 days
14 Brackett Reed, ThomasThomas Brackett Reed 32 4 years, 172 days
15 Longworth, NicholasNicholas Longworth 38 4 years, 133 days
16 Bankhead, William B.William B. Bankhead 42 4 years, 102 days
17 Stevenson, AndrewAndrew Stevenson 11 4 years, 83 days
18 Martin, Jr., Joseph WilliamJoseph William Martin, Jr. 44 4 years
19 Pelosi, NancyNancy Pelosi 52 3 years, 363 days
20 Gingrich, NewtNewt Gingrich 50 3 years, 361 days
21 Macon, NathanielNathaniel Macon 5 3 years, 317 days
22 John G. Carlisle 31 3 years, 267 days
23 Randall, Samuel J.Samuel J. Randall 29 3 years, 215 days
24 Muhlenberg, FrederickFrederick Muhlenberg 1 3 years, 64 days
25 Varnum, Joseph BradleyJoseph Bradley Varnum 6 3 years, 49 days
26 Dayton, JonathanJonathan Dayton 3 3 years, 14 days
27 Crisp, Charles FrederickCharles Frederick Crisp 33 2 years, 295 days
28 Polk, James K.James K. Polk 13 2 years, 268 days
29 (tie) Boyd, LinnLinn Boyd 20 2 years, 182 days
Henderson, David B.David B. Henderson 34 2 years, 182 days
31 Wright, JimJim Wright 48 2 years, 151 days
32 White, JohnJohn White 15 1 year, 277 days
33 Grow, Galusha A.Galusha A. Grow 24 1 year, 243 days
34 Taylor, John W.John W. Taylor 9 1 year, 198 days
35 Rainey, Henry ThomasHenry Thomas Rainey 40 1 year, 163 days
36 Byrns, Sr., Joseph W.Joseph W. Byrns, Sr. 41 1 year, 153 days
37 Trumbull, Jr., JonathanJonathan Trumbull, Jr. 2 1 year, 131 days
38 Davis, John WesleyJohn Wesley Davis 17 1 year, 93 days
39 Sedgwick, TheodoreTheodore Sedgwick 4 1 year, 92 days
40 (tie) Pendleton Barbour, PhilipPhilip Pendleton Barbour 10 1 year, 90 days
Jones, John WinstonJohn Winston Jones 16 1 year, 90 days
42 Keifer, J. WarrenJ. Warren Keifer 30 1 year, 89 days
43 Winthrop, Robert CharlesRobert Charles Winthrop 18 1 year, 88 days
44 (tie) Orr, James LawrenceJames Lawrence Orr 22 1 year, 87 days
Garner, John NanceJohn Nance Garner 39 1 year, 87 days
46 Hunter, Robert M. T.Robert M. T. Hunter 14 1 year, 78 days
47 Cobb, HowellHowell Cobb 19 1 year, 72 days
48 Cheves, LangdonLangdon Cheves 8 1 year, 44 days
49 Pennington, WilliamWilliam Pennington 23 1 year, 31 days
50 Banks, Nathaniel P.Nathaniel P. Banks 21 1 year, 30 days
51 Ryan, PaulPaul Ryan 54 335 days
52 Bell, JohnJohn Bell 12 275 days
53 Kerr, Michael C.Michael C. Kerr 28 257 days
54 Pomeroy, Theodore M.Theodore M. Pomeroy 26 1 day

Living former speakers[edit]

Since the retirement of John Boehner on October 29, 2015 there are four former living speakers. The most recent former speaker to die was Jim Wright (1987-1989) on May 6, 2015. The most recently serving former speaker to die was Tom Foley (1989-1995) on October 18, 2013.

Speaker Years as Speaker Current age
Newt Gingrich 1995 – 1999 (1943-06-17) June 17, 1943 (age 73)
Dennis Hastert 1999 – 2007 (1942-01-02) January 2, 1942 (age 74)
Nancy Pelosi 2007 – 2011 (1940-03-26) March 26, 1940 (age 76)
John Boehner 2011 – 2015 (1949-11-17) November 17, 1949 (age 66)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives". Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved August 10, 2012. 
  2. ^ Speakers Muhlenberg and Taylor served as Speaker more than once, and in a different party each time. This accounts for the party total being 56, while Speaker total is 54
  3. ^ Hollandsworth, James (1998). Pretense of Glory: The Life of General Nathaniel P. Banks. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 0-8071-2293-9. 

External links[edit]

  • "Speaker of the House of Representatives".  Official Website, Information about role as party leader, powers as presiding officer.
  • "Capitol Questions." C-SPAN (2003). Notable elections and role.
  • The Cannon Centenary Conference: The Changing Nature of the Speakership. (2003). House Document 108-204. History, nature and role of the Speakership.
  • Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress, 5th ed. (2000). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.
  • Wilson, Woodrow. (1885). Congressional Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin.