List of Spider-Man enemies

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Morbius Hydro-Man Chameleon Will o' the Wisp Kingpin Carnage Swarm Lizard Vermin Sandman Scarecrow Scorpion Tarantula Vulture Kraven the Hunter Hobgoblin Green Goblin Venom Molten Man Electro Hammerhead Rhino Mysterio Doctor Octopus
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Depiction of the many Spider-Man villains in a dream sequence of Spider-Man in The Sensational Spider-Man (vol. 2) #32. Art by Sean Chen. (Use cursor on the character's face to identify the character's name. Click to learn more about the character. Note: Better designed for PC. )

Spider-Man is a fictional superhero in the Marvel Universe debuting in the anthology comic book series issue Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) in the Silver Age of Comics published by Marvel Comics. After his debut he would get his own comic book entitled The Amazing Spider-Man. The comic book series would introduce many of what would become his major supervillain adversaries. Spider-Man would then be popular enough for more Spider-Man comic spinoffs (The Spectacular Spider-Man, Marvel Team-Up, Web of Spider-Man, Peter Parker: Spider-Man etc.) which potentially introduced more recurring enemies of the web-slinger.

As with Spider-Man, the theme behind the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology and also tend to have animal-themed costumes or powers (Vulture, Doctor Octopus, Lizard, Rhino, Scorpion, Jackal and Black Cat). There also consists supervillains with the powers of the elements (Sandman, Electro, Molten Man and Hydro-Man), some that are horror-themed (the Goblins, Morbius, the Symbiotes and Morlun) and some that are crime lords (Kingpin, Hammerhead and Silvermane).[1] His rogue also consisted of some that are masters of trickery and deception such as the Chameleon and Mysterio.[2] These villains oftentimes form teams such as the Sinister Six and the Sinister Syndicate to oppose the superhero.

The rogues gallery of Spider-Man has garnered many positive reviews and has been considered as one of the greatest rogues gallery of all time by many alongside Batman's rogues gallery.

Debuting in Spider-Man titles[edit]

Stan Lee is responsible with helping create the most villains for the web-slinger and helped pave the way for the fictional rogues gallery.

The majority of supervillains depicted in Spider-Man comics first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man while some first appeared in later spinoff comics such as The Spectacular Spider-Man and Marvel Team-Up and other titles.

The Amazing Spider-Man debuts[edit]

Most of the supervillains of Spider-Man would be introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man comic book starting with the Chameleon.[3] The early villains would be introduced in the 1960s in the Silver Age of Comic Books.[3] Originally created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko.[3] John Romita, Sr. would soon replace Ditko starting with the Rhino.[4] Gerry Conway later replaced Stan Lee and helped create new adversary for the web-slinger and also helped pave the way to the Bronze Age of Comic Books with depicting Green Goblin as the killer of Spider-Man's long time romantic interest, Gwen Stacy.[5][6][7] Many collaborators would soon take over The Amazing Spider-Man title. One of the more popular examples included Todd McFarlane's Venom in the Modern Age of Comic Books.[8] Note: Alter ego characters who are the most high profile in the supervillain alias but others have shared that supervillain name are in bold. Alter egos listed having N/A use their real name as the supervillain name. In chronological order.

Supervillain name Notable alter ego First appearance issue # Creator
Chameleon1 Dmitri Anatoly Nikolayevich #1 (March 1963)[3][9] Stan Lee[3][9]
Steve Ditko[3][9]
Vulture Adrian Toomes
Blackie Drago
#2 (May 1963)[10][11] Stan Lee[10][12]
Steve Ditko[10]
Tinkerer Phineas Mason #2 (May 1963)[13] Stan Lee
[14] Steve Ditko[14]
Doctor OctopusArch Doctor Otto Gunther Octavius #3 (July 1963)[9] Stan Lee[15][16]
Steve Ditko[15][16]
Sandman3 William Baker / Flint Marko #4 (September 1963)[17][18] Stan Lee[17][18]
Steve Ditko[17][18]
Lizard Doctor Curt Connors #6 (November 1963)[19][20][21] Stan Lee[19][20][21]
Steve Ditko[19][20][21]
Living Brain[22] N/A #8 (January 1964)[23] Stan Lee[23]
Steve Ditko[23]
Electro4 Maxwell Dillon #9 (February 1964)[24][25] Stan Lee[26]
Steve Ditko[26]
Big Man Frederick Foswell
Janice Foswell
#10 (March 1964) [27] Stan Lee[27]
Steve Ditko[27]
Mysterio5 Quentin Beck #13 (June 1964)[28][29] Stan Lee[28][30]
Steve Ditko[28][30]
Green Goblin[31]Arch Norman OsbornArch
Harry Osborn[32][33]
#14 (July 1964)[31] Stan Lee[31][34]
Steve Ditko[31][34]
Kraven the Hunter7 Sergei Kravinoff
Alyosha Kravinoff (son)
Ana Kravinoff (daughter)
#15 (August 1964)[35] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
Scorpion8 Mac Gargan8 #20 (January 1965) Stan Lee[36]
Steve Ditko[36]
Spencer Smythe / Spider-Slayers #25 (June 1965)[27] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
Crime Master[37] Various #26 (July 1965)[27] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
Molten Man[38] Mark Raxton[38] #28 (September 1965)[39] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
Looter[40][41] Norton G. Fester #36 (May 1966)[39] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
Robot Master / Gaunt Mendel Stromm #37 (June 1966)[27][42] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
Rhino9 Aleksei Mikhailovich Sytsevich #41 (October 1966)[43] Stan Lee[4]
John Romita, Sr.[4]
Shocker Herman Schultz #46 (March 1967)[44][45] Stan Lee[46]
John Romita, Sr.[46]
Kingpin10 Wilson Fisk #50(July 1967) ("Spider-Man No More!")[47][48] Stan Lee[49]
John Romita, Sr.[49]
The Finisher Karl Fiers Annual #5 (November 1968)[50] Stan Lee[50]
Larry Lieber[50]
Man Mountain Marko[51] N/A #73 (June 1969)[27] Stan Lee
John Romita, Sr.
Silvermane[52] Silvio Manfredi #73 (June 1969)[53] Stan Lee
John Buscema[27]
Kangaroo[40][54] Frank Oliver[55]
Brian Hibbs
#81 (February 1980)[27] Stan Lee
John Buscama
Jim Mooney
John Romita, Sr.[54]
Schemer[27] Richard Fisk #83 (April 1983) Stan Lee
John Romita, Sr.
Morbius[56][57] Michael Morbius #101 (January 1971)11[58] Roy Thomas[58]
Gil Kane[27]
Gog N/A #103 (December 1973)[27] Roy Thomas
Gil Kane
Gibbon[59] Martin Blank #110 (July 1972)[27] Stan Lee
John Romita, Sr.[59]
Hammerhead[56][60][61] Joseph (full name unknown)[62] #113 (October 10, 1972)[63] Gerry Conway
John Romita, Sr.[64]
Man-Wolf[65] John Jameson #124 (September 1973).[27] Gerry Conway[64]
Jackal[66] Miles Warren #129 (February 1974)12[66] Gerry Conway[66]10
Ross Andru[66]10
Tarantula Various #134 (July 1974)[27][53] Gerry Conway
Ross Andru
Mindworm[67] William Turner #138 (November 1974) Gerry Conway[27]
Ross Andru [27]
Grizzly[68] Maxwell Markham #139 (December 1974)[69] Gerry Conway
Ross Andru
Human Fly[55] Richard Deacon Annual #10[70] (1976) Len Wein
Bill Mantlo
Gil Kane
Will o' the Wisp[27] Jackson Arvad #167 (April 1997) Len Wein
Ross Andru
Big Wheel[40] Jackson Wheele[55] #182 (July 1978)[27] Marv Wolfman
Ross Andru
Mike Esposito
Black Cat13 Felicia Hardy #194 (July 1979)[71] Marv Wolfman
Keith Pollard[71]
Calypso Calypso Ezili #209 (October 1980)[72] Dennis O'Neil
Alan Weiss
Hydro-Man[1] Morris Bench #212 (January 10, 1981)[73][74] Denny O'Neil
John Romita, Jr.
Hobgoblin Roderick Kingsley
Jason Macendale
Phil Urich[57][75]
#238 (March 1983) Roger Stern[76][77]
John Romita Sr.[77][78]
Rose[78][79] Richard Fisk #253 (June 1984)[72] Tom DeFalco
Alistair Smythe N/A[80] Annual #19 (November 1985)[81][82] Louise Simonson
Mary Wilshire[42]
Slyde[55] Jalome Beacher #272 (January 1986)[83] Tom DeFalco
Sal Buscema
VenomArch Eddie BrockArch
Mac Gargan
#29915[8][84] Todd McFarlane[85]
Styx and Stone[40] Jacob Eishorn and Gerald Stone #309 (November 1988)[86] David Michelinie
Todd McFarlane
Carnage Cletus Kasady #361 (April 1992)[87]16 David Michelinie[88][89]
Erik Larsen[90]
Mark Bagley[88]
Black Tarantula Carlos LaMuerto #419 (January 1997)[42] Tom DeFalco
Steve Skroce
Morlun[56][57] N/A vol. 2 #30 (June 2001)[67] J. Michael Straczynski
John Romita, Jr.
Grey Goblin Gabriel Stacy
Lily Hollister (Menace)[61]
#509 (August 2004)
#550 (April 2008) (Menace) [91]
J. Michael Straczynski
Mike Deodato
Mister Negative[57] Martin Lee #546 (January 2008)(full appearance)[92] Dan Slott
Phil Jimenez
Overdrive[61] N/A Swing Shift (May 2007)[93] Dan Slott
Phil Jimenez
Massacre[94][95] Marcus Lyman #655 (April 2011)[96][97][98] Dan Slott
Marcos Martín

The Spectacular Spider-Man debuts[edit]

Note: In chronological order.

Supervillain alter ego First appearance
Carrion Various The Spectacular Spider-Man #25 (December 1978)[27][67]
Spot[40][99] Jonathan Ohnn #98 (January 1985)[100]
Foreigner[67] Kris Keating #115 (June 1986)[101]
Demogoblin N/A #147 (February 1989) (as Hobgoblin)[27]
Web of Spider-Man #86 (March 1992)[42]

Marvel Team-Up debuts[edit]

Note: In chronological order.

Supervillain alter ego First appearance creator
Stegron[40] Vincent Stegron Marvel Team-Up (1st series) #19 (March 1974)[53] Len Wein
Gil Kane
White Rabbit[27] Doctor Lorina Dodson Marvel Team-Up #131 (July 1983)[102] J. M. DeMatteis[102]
Kerry Gammill[102]
Mike Esposito[102]

Debuting in other Spider-Man titles[edit]

Note: In chronological order.

Supervillain alter ego First appearance creator
Tombstone Lonnie Thompson Lincoln Web of Spider-Man #36 (March 1988)[42] Gerry Conway
Alex Saviuk
Shriek Frances Louise Barrison Spider-Man Unlimited #1 (May 1993)[67] Ron Lim
Mark Bagley
Mike W. Barr
Tom DeFalco
Jerry Bingham
Terry Kavanagh

Debuting outside Spider-Man titles[edit]

Supervillain alter ego First appearance
Beetle Abner Jenkins Strange Tales #123 (August 10, 1964)[42]
Boomerang[55] Fred Myers Tales to Astonish #81 (July 10, 1966)[42]
Speed Demon James Sanders Avengers #70 (November 1960) (as the Whizzer)
The Amazing Spider-Man #222 (November 1981)[42]
Ringer[78][103] Anthony Davis Defenders #51 (June 1977)[72]|}
Swarm[40] Fritz von Meyer Champions #14 (July 1977)[27]
Jack O'Lantern[57] Jason Macendale Machine Man #19 (February 1981)[42]
Vermin Edward Whelan Captain America #272 (August 1982)[27]
Doppelganger N/A The Infinity War #1 (July 1992)[27]

Reformed supervillain / anti-hero opponents[edit]

Almost all the characters listed first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man with the exception of Kaine and Humbug first appearing in Web of Spider-Man. The Prowler is the oldest character appearing in The Amazing Spider-Man in the 1960s in the Silver Age. Many other anti-heroes were introduced in the 1970s in between the Silver Age and the Bronze Age while Humbug was introduced in the 1980s right around the start of the Modern Age. Kaine is the youngest debuted character while Cardiac is the second youngest. Both Kaine and Cardiac appeared around the 1990s.

Anti-hero alter-ego First appearance
Black Cat13 Felicia Hardy The Amazing Spider-Man #194 (July 1979)[71]
Cardiac Elias Wirtham The Amazing Spider-Man #344 (December 1990)[42]
Humbug[55] Buck Mitty Web of Spider-Man #19 (October 1986)[42]
Kaine Kaine Parker Web of Spider-Man #119 (December 1994)[42]
Prowler Hobie Brown The Amazing Spider-Man #78 (November 1969)[53]
Puma Thomas Fireheart The Amazing Spider-Man #256 (September 1984)[27]
Punisher17 Frank Castle The Amazing Spider-Man #129 (February 1974)[66]
Rocket Racer Robert Farrell The Amazing Spider-Man #172 (September 1977)[42]

Non-supervillain enemies[edit]

The Burglar and Flash Thompson both appeared in the first comic book starring Spider-Man appearing in the anthology series Amazing Fantasy. The certain comic book story inspired a comic book series entitled The Amazing Spider-Man which J. Jonah Jameson would appear in the first issue. All three of the characters listed appeared in the 1960s around the Silver Age of Comics.

Human First appearance Detail
Burglar Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) The man who killed Peter's uncle which would inspire Peter Parker to use his powers responsibly and become the superhero known as Spider-Man.[104]
Flash Thompson[104] Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) A sometimes enemy of Peter Parker instead of Spider-Man. Flash's most common depiction is a high school bully of Parker commonly dubbing him "Puny Parker". Despite how he treats Parker he happens to be one of Spider-Man's biggest fan. Later on Flash would be depicted as being good friends to Peter instead. In The Amazing Spider-Man #654, Flash Thompson becomes "Agent Venom"[105]
J. Jonah Jameson The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963) The editor in chief of The Daily Bugle. He has a strong hatred of Spider-Man so he helps turn the city against the superhero with the publishing of The Daily Bugle newspapers. He was also responsible for the funding of the creation of Scorpion and the Spider-Slayers.[1]

Lesser foes[edit]

Delilah[edit]

First appearance The Spectacular Spider-Man #414 (August 1996)
Created by Tom DeFalco and Mark Bagley
Species Human
Abilities Skilled at being an assassin.

Delilah first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #414 by Tom DeFalco and Mark Bagley.[27] The Rose's confidante as well as his chief enforcer, Delilah helped battle to maintain control of part of the New York crime scene against the threat of the Black Tarantula.[109][110]

During her career, she had a role in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle: she was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, and helped set up the theft of Doctor Octopus' corpse for re-animation from the Hand.[111][112][113]

Spidercide[edit]

First appearance The Spectacular Spider-Man #22 (March 1995)
Created by Tom DeFalco and Sal Buscema
Species Clone
Abilities shapeshifting, same abilities of Spider-Man
Aliases Freakface

Spidercide was a major antagonist in the Maximum Clonage story arc. He first appeared in The Spectacular Spider-Man #222 by Tom DeFalco and Sal Buscema.[67] He is depicted as an evil foil of Spider-Man and Ben Reilly. He is one of the clones created by Jackal just like Ben Reilly and Kaine. This time being a clone to Ben Reilly.[40]

He was designed as a red herring that was introduced to make him seem to be the real Peter Parker and that Spidercide was the original Parker but only to discover later discover that the Peter Parker they had been reading for years was actually a clone.[40]

He is eventually granted the unique ability to turn into other materials and shapes much like the symbiotes. He was killed off in Spider-Man: Maximum Clonage: Omega #404 by being thrown off in the Daily Bugle.[40][114]

Group villains[edit]

Cover of The Spectacular Spider-Man #246 (May 1997) depicting Spider-Man's more weaker foes (Spot, Gibbon, the second Kangaroo and the third Grizzly) teaming up to try to defeat Spider-Man. Art by Luke Ross.

Note: The common leader of the group is in bold.

group name Original members
Enforcers[115] Montana
Ox
Fancy Dan
Inheritors[116] Solus
Unnamed Matriarch
Daemos
Verna
Karn
Morlun
Brix
Bora
Sinister Six[117] Doctor Octopus
Vulture
Electro
Sandman
Mysterio
Kraven the Hunter
Spider-Man Revenge Squad[118] Spot
Grizzly
Kangaroo II
Gibbon
Sinister Syndicate[119] Beetle
Hydro-Man
Rhino
Boomerang
Speed Demon

Archenemies[edit]

Unlike well known rivalries in comics book depictions where heroes always still have more than one enemy but usually one archenemy (e.g., Joker to Batman and Lex Luthor to Superman in DC Comics, Red Skull to Captain America, Doctor Doom to the Fantastic Four and the Brotherhood of Mutants to the X-Men in Marvel Comics etc.), Spider-Man is known to have three archenemies and it can be debated or disputed as to which one is worse:[120]

  1. ^ Doctor Octopus is regarded as one of Spider-Man's worst enemies. He has been cited as the man Peter might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsibility.[15][121][122] He is infamous for defeating him the first time in battle and for almost marrying Peter's Aunt May. He is the core leader of the Sinister Six and has also referred himself as the "Master Planner". ("If This Be My Destiny...!")[121][123] Later depictions revealed him in Peter Parker's body where he was the titular character for a while.[122]
  2. ^ Norman Osborn using the alias as Green Goblin is Spider-Man's archenemy.[120][124][125] Mostly after he is responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[120] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[126]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as Norman and not just only as the Green Goblin.[127]
  3. ^ Another character commonly described as archenemy is Venom. Eddie Brock as Venom is commonly described as the mirror version or the evil version of Spider-Man in many ways.[8][9][120] Venom's goals are usually depicted as ruining Spider-Man's life and messing with Spider-Man's head.[85] Venom is also one of the most popular Spider-Man villains.[128] This popularity has led him to be an established iconic character of his own with own comic book stories.[8][129]

In other media[edit]

Reception[edit]

...the Spider-Man comics have the greatest rogues gallery of any series, and to have the chance to explore that on film is truly thrilling.

-Sony Pictures Entertainment on announcing their possible spin-off films in 2013.[130]

Reaction to Spider-Man's rogues gallery has been overwhelmingly positive with many journalists citing it as one of the greatest comic book rogues galleries of all time,[131][132][133] with Batman's rogues gallery being its most rivaled contender.[134][135] Although editors such Hollywood Reporter's Graeme McMillan felt that only Flash's rogues gallery can compete with Spider-Man's rogues.[132] Kyle Schmidlin of What Culture! described the superhero's rogues gallery as "one of the most colorful in comics" explaining that Batman could only be debated as having a great number of enemies as good as Spider-Man.[136] IGN staff editors, Joshua Yehl and Jesse Schedeen, described the Spider-Man villains as "one of the most iconic and well-balanced in comics". They opined that the scope of their schemes, how cool cool their powers are, and how dramatically they have affected Spider-Man's life is what makes the Spider-Man villains so great.[1] Newsarama ranked Spider-Man's rogues gallery as number one out ten as the greatest rogues gallery of all time.[135]

Themes[edit]

George Marston of Newsarama explaining why he felt that Spider-Man rogues gallery was the best was the thematic elements that the villains of Spider-Man manifested.[135] He explained that just like the superhero they have the same concept of science gone wrong. They are "like him, great men with great minds, great power, and great determination." But instead they fail to use their powers responsibly. Separating the thin line between being a hero from being a villain.[135]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Chameleon is the first member of Spider-Man's rogues gallery in publication date. (Excluding the Burglar).[9] He is also well known to be related to Kraven the Hunter and Kraven to him. That revealed relationship helped evolve him as a major villain compared to his original depiction of being just a solo villain in the original issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[137][138][139]
  2. ^ Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain. He has also been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comics books (mostly due to being introduced as the original Frightful Four[140]) along with being on the heroic side (being a Avengers member[141]) until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again.[142]
  3. ^ The character is also known as the member of the Frightful Four battling the Fantastic Four.[143] He is also the first major Marvel villain to be written in publication history as battling Daredevil.[144][145] Even being the founder and leader of the supervillain team that oppose him, the Emissaries of Evil.[146]
  4. ^ Just like Electro. He has crossed over and been a major villain of Daredevil. In the storyline "Guardian Devil" he crossed into Daredevil's territory almost pushing Daredevil to the edge (just like what he is usually depicted as attempted to do in Spider-Man) when Mysterio believes Spider-Man is a clone at one point.[29]
  5. ^ Kraven the Hunter has been a recurring villain since his introduction as a Spider-Man villain. But what makes him stand out as one of the great Spider-Man villains along with being one of the memorable issues about the fictional villain in the Spider-Man comics is the critically acclaimed storyline, "Kraven's Last Hunt".[9][139][147][148]
  6. ^ Not counting any other character in the mainstream Marvel Universe with that name. Only outside of the mainstream Spider-Man comics or in other media is there other Spider-Man villains (that isn't named Mac Gargan) that are antagonists of Spider-Man.[149][150][151] Gargan is cited to be the fourth who is called that in the comic books but is the most iconic villain with that name.[33]
  7. ^ The villain has crossed over with battling other heroes (especially Hulk[56]) even though the fictional character is usually written off in Spider-Man comics.[152] He is a major character in the storyline titled "Flowers for Rhino" (Spider-Man's Tangled Web). An homage to Flowers for Algernon.[153]
  8. ^ Despite first appearing in Spider-Man comic books, the Kingpin is more notable of being a Daredevil adversary. The character that represents the opposite of what Daredevil stands for. Despite this he is a major antagonist of both superheroes in the Marvel comic books just as recurringly.[9][154] He also is a major recurring villain in the rest of the Marvel Universe crossing over as major antagonists to superheroes/antiheroes (such as the Punisher) in certain comic books of the many based universes of Marvel. (PunisherMAX. etc.)[155]
  9. ^ "The Six Arms Saga" is the name of the storyline that debuted Morbius.[58]
  10. ^ Miles Warren's technical first appearance was revealed to be in The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965) created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko before being revealed as the Jackal.[156]
  11. ^ Although she is listed with the supervillains as she sometimes is depicted in certain portrayals. The Black Cat is more regarded as a anti-heroine than fully supervillain. A character that struggles in between deciding good and bad...and the major femme fatale romantic interest for Spider-Man. Her key role of deciding between crime and having complicated relationships of Spider-Man makes her sometimes labeled as part with the rest of the major rogues gallery of Spider-Man. Nonetheless she has been a staple supporting Spider-Man character during her debut.[1]
  12. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #299 is the first appearance of Eddie Brock as Venom. The alien costume debuted from The Amazing Spider-Man #252 and the symbiote bonded to Spider-Man in Secret Wars #8.[8] Venom's creators are determined by pre-alien costume by not counting the creators/designers of the alien costume, David Michelinie or Mike Zeck, or the Marvel Comics fan who originally though of the concept for the creators.[8][157][158]
  13. ^ Cletus Kasady first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man 344.[88] Carnage is a major character in the popular storyline "Maximum Carnage".[159]
  14. ^ Despite standing out as his own independent character now. The Punisher was originally introduced as an antagonist of Spider-Man.[66]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Yehl, Joshua Schedeen, Jesse. "Top 25 Spider-Man Villains: Part 1". IGN. Retrieved 19 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "Top 25 Spider-Man Villains: Page 3 of 5". IGN. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 87. ISBN 978-0756641238. 
  4. ^ a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit. 
  5. ^ Manning "1970s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 62: "[The Amazing Spider-Man #111] marked the dawning of a new era: writer Gerry Conway came on board as Stan Lee's replacement. Alongside artist John Romita, Conway started his run by picking up where Lee left off."
  6. ^ Manning "1970s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 68: "This story by writer Gerry Conway and penciler Gil Kane would go down in history as one of the most memorable events of Spider-Man's life."
  7. ^ David and Greenberger p. 49: "The idea of beloved supporting characters meeting their deaths may be standard operating procedure now but in 1973 it was unprecedented...Gwen's death took villainy and victimhood to an entirely new level."
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Venom is the 33rd greatest comic book character.". Empire.com. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Siegel, Lucas. "The 10 Greatest SPIDER-MAN Villains of ALL TIME!". Newsarama. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c Beard, Jim. "ARCHRIVALS: SPIDER-MAN VS THE VULTURE". Marvel.com. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  11. ^ Kyle, Scmidlin. "10 Spider-Man Villains (And Combinations) Deserving Of The Big Screen (7. The Vulture)". What Culture!. Retrieved 2 January 2014. "He's been one of Spider-Man's most frequent and iconic antagonists ever since his first appearance in issue 2 of The Amazing Spider-Man. 
  12. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 92: "Introduced in the lead story of The Amazing Spider-Man #2 and created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, the Vulture was the first in a long line of animal-inspired super-villains that were destined to battle everyone's favorite web-slinger."
  13. ^ Dowell, Gary ,; Holman, Greg,; Halperin, James L. HCA Heritage Comics Auction Catalog. Heritage Capital Corporation. 
  14. ^ a b Stan Lee (w), Steve Ditko (p), Steve Ditko (i). The Uncanny Threat of the Terrible Tinkerer! 5 (September 1997), Marvel Comics
  15. ^ a b c DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 93: "Dr. Octopus shared many traits with Peter Parker. They were both shy, both interested in science, and both had trouble relating to women...Otto Octavius even looked like a grown up Peter Parker. Lee and Ditko intended Otto to be the man Peter might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsibility.
  16. ^ a b Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Spider-Man Versus Doctor Octopus" The Amazing Spider-Man 3 (July 1963)
  17. ^ a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0756692360. In this installment, Stan Lee and Steve Ditko introduced Sandman - a super villain who could turn his entire body into sand with a single thought. 
  18. ^ a b c Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Nothing Can Stop...The Sandman!" The Amazing Spider-Man 4 (September 1963)
  19. ^ a b c DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 95
  20. ^ a b c Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Face-to-Face With...the Lizard!" The Amazing Spider-Man 6 (November 1963)
  21. ^ a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0756692360. The Amazing Spider-Mans sixth issue introduced the Lizard. 
  22. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 24. ISBN 978-0756692360. The Brain is an early Mobile Computer prototype built by I.C.M. in Midtown High School, where Peter Parker attended, it was deemed obsolete after Spidey's first encounter with it but it came back again. 
  23. ^ a b c Stan Lee (w), Steve Ditko (p), Steve Ditko (i). "The Terrible Threat Of The Living Brain!" The Amazing Spider-Man 8 (January, 1964), Marvel Comics
  24. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 98
  25. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Man Called Electro!" The Amazing Spider-Man 9 (February 1964)
  26. ^ a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 24. ISBN 978-0756692360. Electro charged into Spider-Man's life for the first time in another [Stan] Lee and [Steve] Ditko effort that saw Peter Parker using his brilliant mind to outwit a foe. 
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  30. ^ a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 25. ISBN 978-0756692360. The Amazing Spider-Man #13 saw [Stan] Lee and [Steve] Ditko return to the creation of new super villains. This issue marked the debut of Mysterio, a former special effects expert named Quentin Beck. 
  31. ^ a b c d Albert, Aaron. "Green Goblin Profile". About.com. Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
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  34. ^ a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 26. ISBN 978-0756692360. Spider-Man's arch nemesis, the Green Goblin, as introduced to readers as the 'most dangerous foe Spidey's ever fought.' Writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko had no way of knowing how true that statement would prove to be in the coming years. 
  35. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 26. ISBN 978-0756692360. [Stan] Lee and [Steve] Ditko's newest villain, Kraven the Hunter, debuted in this issue. 
  36. ^ a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 28. ISBN 978-0756692360. Spider-Man felt the Scorpion's sting for the first time in another Stan Lee and Steve Ditko collaboration. 
  37. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 29. ISBN 978-0756692360. While he wouldn't have the same staying power as many other Stan Lee/Steve Ditko creations, the Crime Master gave villainy a good shot in this first half of a two-part Spider-Man adventure. 
  38. ^ a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 30. ISBN 978-0756692360. Mark Raxton was a corrupt partner of [Spencer] Smythe's who worked with him on a liquid metal alloy project. 
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  47. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 122: "Stan Lee wanted to create a new kind of crime boss. Someone who treated crime as if it were a business...He pitched this idea to artist John Romita and it was Wilson Fisk who emerged in The Amazing Spider-Man #50."
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  51. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 48. ISBN 978-0756692360. Spider-Man called the Shocker's ex-girlfriend, only to find her home under siege by a giant thug named Man Mountain Marko. 
  52. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 48. ISBN 978-0756692360. [Man Mountain Marko] wasn't the biggest threat the web-slinger would face in this issue. That honor went to Silvermane, an elderly crime boss intent on regaining his youth. 
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  59. ^ a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 61. ISBN 978-0756692360. Stan [Lee] couldn't leave [the series] without gifting the readers one last new villain. With John Romita fulfilling the art chores, he crafted the Gibbon, an orphan named Martin Blank who was cursed from birth with a primitive, ape-like appearance. 
  60. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 63. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway made his first major contribution to the Spider-Man saga...a new mobster was on the rise in New York's underworld - Hammerhead. 
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  66. ^ a b c d e f Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life. 
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External links[edit]