This is missing information about Abdul Majid Hassan, who was said to rule between 1402 and 1408. (September 2021)
|Sultan of Brunei Darussalam|
|Sultan dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam|
since 5 October 1967
|(Installed on 1 August 1968)|
|Heir apparent||The Crown Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah|
|First monarch||Sultan Muhammad Shah|
|Residence||Istana Nurul Iman, Bandar Seri Begawan|
The sultan of Brunei is the monarchical head of state of Brunei and head of government in his capacity as prime minister of Brunei. Since independence from the British in 1984, only one sultan has reigned, though the royal institution dates back to the 14th century.
The sultan of Brunei can be thought of as synonymous with the ruling House of Bolkiah, with generations being traced from the first sultan, temporarily interrupted by the 13th sultan, Abdul Hakkul Mubin, who in turn was deposed by a member of the House of Bolkiah. The sultan's full title is His Majesty The Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam.
|No.||Name||Reign start||Reign end||Notes|
|1||Muhammad Shah / Awang Alak Betatar||1363 or 1368||1402||Established the Sultanate.|
|2||Abdul Majid Hassan / Maharaja Karna||1402||1408||Died in Nanjing, China.|
|3||Ahmad / Awang Pateh Berbai||1408||1425|
|4||Sharif Ali / Sultan Barkat (Blessed Sultan)||1425||1432||Previously the Sharif of Mecca of the Mamluk Sultanate and has no direct genealogical relation to the predecessor, but was selected as he was the son-in-law of the previous sultan (Ahmad) and was well versed in Islam.|
|5||Sulaiman||1432||1485||Son of the previous sultan, Sharif Ali. Abdicated to allow his son Bolkiah to become sultan.|
|6||Bolkiah / Nakhoda Ragam (The Singing Captain)||1485||1524||Son of the previous sultan, Sulaiman.|
|7||Abdul Kahar||1524||1530||Son of the previous sultan, Bolkiah|
|8||Saiful Rijal||1533||1581||Nephew and adopted-son of the previous sultan, Abdul Kahar. Castile War broke out between Brunei and Spain.|
|9||Shah Berunai||1581||1582||Eldest son of Sultan Saiful Rijal|
|10||Muhammad Hassan||1582||1598||Younger brother of Shah Berunai.|
|11||Abdul Jalilul Akbar||1598||1659|
|12||Abdul Jalilul Jabbar||1659||1660|
|13||Muhammad Ali||1660||1661||Strangled by his successor Abdul Hakkul Mubin, sparking the Brunei Civil War.|
|14||Abdul Hakkul Mubin||1660||1673||Started the Brunei Civil War by killing his predecessor Muhammad Ali and was in turn killed by Muhyiddin who succeeded him as Sultan.|
|15||Muhyiddin||1673||1690||Son of Abdul Jalilul Akbar who avenged the death of his father-in-law Muhammad Ali by killing Abdul Hakkul Mubin, thus ending the Brunei Civil War.|
|17||Hussin Kamaluddin||1710||1730||First reign. He ruled for the second time between 1737 and 1740.|
|18||Muhammad Alauddin||1730||1737||Instructed Datu Imam Yaakub to write the Salsilah Raja-Raja Berunai or the Genealogy of the Sultans of Brunei.|
|19||Hussin Kamaluddin||1737||1740||Second reign|
|20||Omar Ali Saifuddin I||1740||1778|
|21||Muhammad Tajuddin||1778||1807||Ordered Khatib Abdul Latif to inscribe Batu Tarsilah or Stone Tablet.|
|22||Muhammad Jamalul Alam I||1804||1804|
|23||Muhammad Kanzul Alam||1807||1826|
|25||Omar Ali Saifuddin II||1828||1852||Brunei ceded some territories of Sarawak to James Brooke. Brunei ceded Labuan to the British.|
|26||Abdul Momin||1852||29 May 1885||Brunei ceded northwestern part of Borneo to the British. The declaration of Amanat took place in 1884 that vowed not to cede more Brunei territories to foreign powers.|
|27||Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin||29 May 1885||10 May 1906||United Kingdom established protectorate over Brunei in 1888.|
|28||Muhammad Jamalul Alam II||10 May 1906||11 September 1924||The Sultan's reign was a short one. An outbreak of malaria claimed his life as well as three members of his family.|
|29||Ahmad Tajuddin||11 September 1924||4 June 1950||Japanese occupation of Brunei took place.|
|30||Omar Ali Saifuddien III||4 June 1950||5 October 1967||Signed the Brunei Constitution of 1959. Abdicated voluntarily in favor of his eldest son, Hassanal Bolkiah. Became Brunei's first Minister of Defence after independence in 1984.|
|31||Hassanal Bolkiah||5 October 1967||Incumbent||Brunei regained independence from the United Kingdom in 1984.|
The earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the poor early documentation of Brunei history. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with verifiable foreign sources  The Batu Tarsilah - the genealogical record of the kings of Brunei - was not started until 1807. Therefore, much of the interpretation of history relied on earlier Chinese sources and legends. It seems that the early Sultanate of Brunei was dependent on Chinese support, and perhaps early Sultans were of Chinese origin. Furthermore, the earliest Sultans may have been practicing the Hindu or Buddhist religions, with early names indicating this origin.
- "Prime Minister". The Prime Minister's Office of Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "Sultan-Sultan Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- Elisseeff, Vadime (January 2000). "Chapter 8: A Brunei Sultan of the Early Fourteenth Century – A Study of an Arabic Gravestone". The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. Berghahn Books. pp. 145–157. ISBN 978-1-57181-222-3. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- "Malaysians Unplugged Uncensored: MALAY HISTORY: WHat's MISSING IN MALAYSIAN HISTORY BOOKS". June 2013.
- "The golden history of Islam in Brunei | The Brunei Times". www.bt.com.bn. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013.