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List of Super Bowl halftime shows

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Katy Perry performing at the Super Bowl XLIX halftime show, February 2015

Halftime shows are a tradition during American football games at all levels of competition. Entertainment during the Super Bowl, the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL), represents a fundamental link to pop culture, which helps broaden the television audience and nationwide interest. As the Super Bowl itself is typically the most-watched event on television in the United States annually, the halftime show has been equally-viewed in recent years: the halftime show of Super Bowl XLIX was viewed by 118.5 million (with the game itself peaking at 120.3 million at its conclusion).[1][2][3]

Prior to the early 1990s, the halftime show was based around a theme, and featured university marching bands (the Grambling State University Marching Band has performed at the most Super Bowl halftime shows, featuring in six shows including at least one per decade from the 1960s to the 1990s), drill teams, and other performance ensembles such as Up with People. Beginning in 1991, the halftime show began to feature pop music acts such as New Kids on the Block and Gloria Estefan. In an effort to boost the prominence of the halftime show to increase viewer interest, Super Bowl XXVII featured a headlining performance by Michael Jackson. After Super Bowl XXXVIII, whose halftime show featured an incident where Justin Timberlake exposed one of Janet Jackson's breasts, the halftime show began to feature classic rock acts until the return of headlining pop musicians in 2011.


During most of the Super Bowl's first decade, the halftime show featured a college marching band. The show's second decade featured a more varied show, often featuring drill teams and other performance ensembles; the group Up with People produced and starred in four of the performances. The middle of the third decade, in an effort to counter other networks' efforts to counterprogram the game,[4] saw the introduction of popular music acts such as New Kids on the Block, Gloria Estefan, Michael Jackson, Clint Black, Patti LaBelle, and Tony Bennett. Starting with Super Bowl XXXII, commercial sponsors presented the halftime show; within five years, the tradition of having a theme—begun with Super Bowl III—ended, replaced by major music productions by arena rock bands and other high-profile acts. In the six years immediately following an incident at Super Bowl XXXVIII where Justin Timberlake exposed one of Janet Jackson's breast in an alleged "wardrobe malfunction", all of the halftime shows consisted of a performance by one artist or group, with the musicians in that era primarily being rock artists from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. These shows were considered "family friendly" and the time in which they took place has been described as "the age of reactionary halftime shows. [5] Since Super Bowl XLV, the halftime show has returned to featuring popular contemporary musicians, with the typical format featuring a single headline artist collaborating with a small number of guest acts.

The NFL does not pay the halftime show performers an appearance fee, though it covers all expenses for the performers and their entourage of stagehands, family, and friends.[6] According to Nielsen SoundScan data, the halftime performers regularly experience significant spikes in weekly album sales and paid digital downloads due to the exposure.[7] For Super Bowl XLIX, it was reported by the Wall Street Journal that league officials asked representatives of potential acts if they would be willing to provide financial compensation to the NFL in exchange for their appearance, in the form of either an up-front fee, or a cut of revenue from concert performances made after the Super Bowl. While these reports were denied by an NFL spokeswoman, the request had, according to the Journal, received a "chilly" response from those involved.[8][9]


The following is a list of the performers, producers, themes, and sponsors for each Super Bowl game's show.


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Details on specific shows[edit]

Super Bowl XXXVI[edit]

U2 performed 3 songs: "Beautiful Day," "MLK" and "Where the Streets Have No Name." During the beginning of "MLK" and continuing until the end of "Where The Streets Have No Name," a large banner behind the band displayed the names of all the people who lost their lives on the September 11 attacks. Bono ended the song by opening up his jacket, the inside of which displayed the American flag.

Super Bowl XL[edit]

For The Rolling Stones, the stage was in the form of the group's iconic tongue logo (John Pasche's "Cunning Linguist" first used in 1971 on their Sticky Fingers album). It was the largest stage ever assembled for a Super Bowl halftime show, with 28 separate pieces assembled in five minutes by a 600-member volunteer stage crew. The group performed three songs: "Start Me Up," "Rough Justice," and "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction." The show was viewed by 89.9 million people, more than the audiences for the Oscars, Grammys and Emmy Awards combined.[39] In the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy with Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake, ABC and the NFL imposed a five-second delay and censored lyrics considered too sexually explicit in the first two songs by briefly turning off Mick Jagger's microphone—censoring to which the group had previously agreed.[40] However, the choice of The Rolling Stones sparked controversy in the Detroit community because the band did not represent the traditional Detroit "Motown Sound," and no artists from the area were included.[41]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Campbell (1995), pp. 14–16
  3. ^ "Super Bowl XLIX is Most-Watched Show in U.S. Television History With 114.4 Million Viewers". TV By The Numbers. Tribune Media. Retrieved 19 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Florio, Mike (February 5, 2013). "If NFL doesn't put on a halftime show, someone else will". Retrieved February 6, 2013. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ Belson, Ken (February 2, 2010). "The Who, and the Super Bowl's Evolving Halftime Show". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  7. ^ The Arizona Republic (January 26, 2009). "The Nielsen Company's Guide To Super Bowl XLIII". Retrieved January 27, 2009. 
  8. ^ Blistein, Jon (August 19, 2014). NFL Asks Musicians for Money to Play Super Bowl. Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  9. ^ "NFL to Coldplay: Pay to Play the Super Bowl". The Wall Street Journal. August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar "Super Bowl History - Entertainment". 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Krasnow, Lonny. "Top 10 Super Bowl Halftime Shows". Photos. Archived from the original on December 27, 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c "GSU Tiger Marching Band". History of Tiger Marching Band. Grambling State University. Retrieved December 12, 2011.  Archived July 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.‹The template Wayback is being considered for merging.› 
  13. ^ "Golden Eagles Marching Band". Southeast Missouri State University. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ Davis, Sherman (January 23, 1972). "Al and Ella were Good". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ a b c d "History of Up with People". Retrieved December 12, 2011.  Archived February 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.‹The template Wayback is being considered for merging.› 
  16. ^ J. Knapfel. "How an Elvis Impersonator Helped Change Super Bowl History". Retrieved 28 January 2016. 
  17. ^ "HowStuffWorks "17 Notable Super Bowl Halftime Shows"". September 15, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2013. 
  18. ^ Johnson, Tina; Basham, David (January 6, 2000). "Christina Aguilera, Enrique Iglesias, Toni Braxton To Play Super Bowl Halftime". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show - Decalz - BMW of TX (vodpod) | Lockerz". vodpod. Retrieved February 1, 2013. 
  20. ^ Stengle, Jamie (February 4, 2011). Halftime gig 'dream come true' for Black Eyed Peas. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-02-04.[dead link]
  21. ^ a b c "Aquí está el setlist de la Super Bowl de Madonna". 
  22. ^ Madonna to perform at halftime of Super Bowl. Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  23. ^ Nicki Minaj To Perform During Super Bowl With M.I.A & Madonna. Yahoo! News. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  24. ^ "M.I.A.". Billboard. 
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ a b "Super Bowl 47 Halftime Show -". 
  27. ^ Fekadu, Mesfin (October 16, 2012). AP source: Beyonce set for Super Bowl halftime. Associated Press. Retrieved October 16, 2012.[dead link]
  28. ^ "Red Hot Chili Peppers will perform at Super Bowl halftime show" (Press release). National Football League. January 11, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2014. 
  29. ^ Iyengar, Rishi (October 9, 2014). "Katy Perry Will Play Next Year's Super Bowl Halftime Show". TIME. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Katy Perry to headline Pepsi Super Bowl XLIX Halftime show" (Press release). National Football League. November 23, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  31. ^ Vena, Jocelyn (January 10, 2015). "Who Will Join Katy Perry During Her Super Bowl Halftime Performance?". Billboard. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Coldplay will perform at Pepsi Super Bowl 50 Halftime Show". (Press release). National Football League. December 3, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015. 
  33. ^ Coscarelli, Joe (December 3, 2015). "Coldplay Will Play Super Bowl 50 Halftime Show". The New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2015. 
  34. ^ Shotgun Spratling (January 8, 2016). "Beyoncé to perform at Super Bowl 50 halftime show". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 11, 2016. 
  35. ^ Ng, Davig (January 28, 2016). "Gustavo Dudamel and Youth Orchestra L.A. to perform at Super Bowl 50 halftime show". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 31, 2016. 
  36. ^ "Bruno Mars to join Beyoncé in Super Bowl halftime show". Entertainment Weekly. February 5, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016. 
  37. ^ "Watch Coldplay, Beyonce and Bruno Mars Rock Super Bowl 50 Halftime". Rolling Stone. 
  38. ^ "Lady Gaga headlines Pepsi Zero Sugar Super Bowl LI Halftime Show". NFL. September 29, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2016. 
  39. ^ Unknown. "The Rolling Stones Super Bowl XL halftime show"; February 6, 2006, Don Mischer Productions; URL accessed May 24, 2008. Archived March 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.‹The template Wayback is being considered for merging.› 
  40. ^ Unknown. "Rolling Stones agreed to censor Super Bowl show: NFL"; February 6, 2006, Agence France-Presse; URL accessed July 3, 2006. Archived February 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.‹The template Wayback is being considered for merging.› 
  41. ^ McGraw, Bill. "JOURNAL: No R-E-S-P-E-C-T for Motown halftime"; December 1, 2005, Detroit Free Press; URL accessed July 3, 2006.

External links[edit]