List of Swimming World Swimmers of the Year

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Michael Phelps with a gold medal hung around his neck on a red ribbon
Michael Phelps was the male swimmer of the year in 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2012, and 2016

Swimming World Swimmers of the Year is awarded by the American-based Swimming World. There are seven categories: World Swimmer, American Swimmer, European Swimmer, Pacific Rim Swimmer, World Disabled Swimmer, African Swimmer, and Open Water Swimmer of year. An award for male and female is made for each category.[1]

The award was inaugurated in 1964, when Swimming World named Don Schollander as its World Swimmer of the Year. Two years later, a female category was added, and the awards continued in this format until 1980. The winners were mostly American until the rise of East Germany's women in the 1970s, and 1980 saw the creation of subcategories for American and European swimmers. Following the end of the Cold War, Germany declined following the end of the East's systematic state-sponsored doping program, while Australia's swimming team enjoyed a revival. In December 2013, Swimming World announced a decision to strip the drug-fueled East Germans of all World and European Swimmers of the Year awards.[2]

In 1994, Australian swimmers won both awards for World Swimmer of the Year for the first time, and in 1995, a subcategory was inaugurated for Pacific Rim swimmers. A subcategory for disabled swimmers was introduced in 2003, and in the following year, an African award was launched after South Africa became the first country from the continent to win an Olympic relay. In 2005, open water swimming was added to the Olympic program and another category was duly added.

American swimmers have been the most successful in winning awards, with 52 titles, more than three times that of Australia (13). Michael Phelps of the United States has won the global award eight times, followed by Katie Ledecky of the United States and Ian Thorpe of Australia with four. Regionally, German, Hungarian and Dutch swimmers have had the most success in Europe, while Australians have won more than three-quarters of the Pacific awards.

World Swimmers of the Year[edit]

Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn, the only Dutch female World Swimmer of the Year
Natalie Coughlin
Natalie Coughlin, who was female world Swimmer of the Year in 2002
Grant Hackett with a red medal ribbon around his neck.
Grant Hackett, male World Swimmer of the Year in 2005
Leisel Jones
Leisel Jones, female World Swimmer of the Year in 2005 and 2006.
Katie Ledecky, four-time female World Swimmer of the Year

The award was inaugurated in 1964, when Swimming World named Don Schollander as its World Swimmer of the Year. Two years later, a female category was added. The winners were always American until 1970, and the it was not until 1979 that a non-American male won the award. However, from 1973 until 1989, the rise of East Germany's women saw them win a majority of the awards.[1] Following the end of the Cold War, Germany declined following the end of the East's systematic state-sponsored doping program,[3][4] while Australia's swimming team enjoyed a revival in the late 1990s, winning nine awards since 1997, the most by any country in that period.[1] However, Swimming World has since stripped the East Germans of their titles.

United States swimmers have won the title 43 times, followed by Australia (13 times) and East Germany (11 times).[1] This ratio is approximately proportional to the amount of gold medals won by the respective nations at the Olympics. East Germany was particularly successful in the 1970s and 1980s, when they dominated the women's events, aided by systematic state-sponsored doping.[3][4]

With his win in 2012, Michael Phelps (USA) now holds the overall record with seven titles. He won in 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2012. He and Katie Ledecky (USA), who won from 2013-16, are the only swimmers to win the award four straight times. Ian Thorpe (AUS) joins Ledecky as the second most prolific winner in the category as he was honored four times, in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002.[1]

Katie Ledecky (USA) is the only female swimmer to win the award four times, in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016.[1] Four female swimmers have won three awards: Debbie Meyer (USA) in 1967, 1968 and 1969, Krisztina Egerszegi (HUN) in 1991, 1992 and 1995, Janet Evans (USA) in 1987, 1989 and 1990, and Kristin Otto (GDR) in 1984, 1986 and 1988. Franziska van Almsick is the youngest female to have won the award, having turned 15 on 5 April in the year of her first award. Thorpe is the youngest male recipient, having turned 16 on 13 October in the year of his first award.[5]

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
1964 Not awarded N/A Don Schollander  United States
1965 Not awarded N/A Dick Roth  United States
1966 Claudia Kolb  United States Mike Burton  United States
1967 Debbie Meyer  United States Mark Spitz  United States
1968 Debbie Meyer  United States Charlie Hickcox  United States
1969 Debbie Meyer  United States Gary Hall, Sr.  United States
1970 Alice Jones  United States Gary Hall, Sr.  United States
1971 Shane Gould  Australia Mark Spitz  United States
1972 Shane Gould  Australia Mark Spitz  United States
1973 Kornelia Ender  East Germany Rick DeMont  United States
1974 Ulrike Tauber  East Germany Tim Shaw  United States
1975 Kornelia Ender  East Germany Tim Shaw  United States
1976 Kornelia Ender  East Germany John Naber  United States
1977 Ulrike Tauber  East Germany Brian Goodell  United States
1978 Tracy Caulkins  United States Jesse Vassallo  United States
1979 Cynthia Woodhead  United States Vladimir Salnikov  Soviet Union
1980 Petra Schneider  East Germany Rowdy Gaines  United States
1981 Mary T. Meagher  United States Alex Baumann  Canada
1982 Petra Schneider  East Germany Vladimir Salnikov  Soviet Union
1983 Ute Geweniger  East Germany Rick Carey  United States
1984 Kristin Otto  East Germany Alex Baumann  Canada
1985 Mary T. Meagher  United States Michael Groß  West Germany
1986 Kristin Otto  East Germany Matt Biondi  United States
1987 Janet Evans  United States Tamás Darnyi  Hungary
1988 Kristin Otto  East Germany Matt Biondi  United States
1989 Janet Evans  United States Mike Barrowman  United States
1990 Janet Evans  United States Mike Barrowman  United States
1991 Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Tamás Darnyi  Hungary
1992 Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Yevgeny Sadovyi  Russia
1993 Franziska van Almsick  Germany Károly Güttler  Hungary
1994 Samantha Riley  Australia Kieren Perkins  Australia
1995 Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Denis Pankratov  Russia
1996 Penny Heyns  South Africa Denis Pankratov  Russia
1997 Claudia Poll  Costa Rica Michael Klim  Australia
1998 Jenny Thompson  United States Ian Thorpe  Australia
1999 Penny Heyns  South Africa Ian Thorpe  Australia
2000 Inge de Bruijn  Netherlands Pieter van den Hoogenband  Netherlands
2001 Inge de Bruijn  Netherlands Ian Thorpe  Australia
2002 Natalie Coughlin  United States Ian Thorpe  Australia
2003 Hannah Stockbauer  Germany Michael Phelps  United States
2004 Yana Klochkova  Ukraine Michael Phelps  United States
2005 Leisel Jones  Australia Grant Hackett  Australia
2006 Leisel Jones  Australia Michael Phelps  United States
2007 Laure Manaudou  France Michael Phelps  United States
2008 Stephanie Rice  Australia Michael Phelps  United States
2009 Federica Pellegrini  Italy Michael Phelps  United States
2010 Rebecca Soni  United States Ryan Lochte  United States
2011 Rebecca Soni  United States Ryan Lochte  United States
2012 Missy Franklin  United States Michael Phelps  United States
2013 Katie Ledecky  United States Sun Yang  China
2014 Katie Ledecky  United States Kosuke Hagino  Japan
2015 Katie Ledecky  United States Adam Peaty  Great Britain
2016 Katie Ledecky  United States Michael Phelps  United States
2017 Sarah Sjöström  Sweden Caeleb Dressel  United States

American Swimmers of the Year[edit]

Katie Hoff
Katie Hoff, who was female American Swimmer of the Year in 2005–2007

Michael Phelps has been named American Swimmer of the Year on eleven occasions; his streak of 2001 to 2009 was interrupted only by Aaron Peirsol in 2005. Janet Evans is the most decorated female swimmer, with five awards, all of them consecutively, from 1987 to 1991. Katie Ledecky won four awards consecutively from 2013 to 2016. Tracy Caulkins won four times in the early-1980s, while Natalie Coughlin, Katie Hoff and Jenny Thompson all won three times. On the men’s side, Mike Barrowman and Lenny Krayzelburg won the award four consecutive times, while Matt Biondi and Tom Dolan captured three awards.[1]

Year[1] Female Winner Male Winner
1980 Tracy Caulkins Mike Bruner
1981 Tracy Caulkins Craig Beardsley
1982 Tracy Caulkins Steve Lundquist
1983 Tiffany Cohen Rick Carey
1984 Tracy Caulkins Pablo Morales
1985 Mary T. Meagher Matt Biondi
1986 Betsy Mitchell Matt Biondi
1987 Janet Evans David Wharton
1988 Janet Evans Matt Biondi
1989 Janet Evans Mike Barrowman
1990 Janet Evans Mike Barrowman
1991 Janet Evans Mike Barrowman
1992 Summer Sanders Mike Barrowman
1993 Jenny Thompson Eric Namesnik
1994 Allison Wagner Tom Dolan
1995 Amy Van Dyken Tom Dolan
1996 Amy Van Dyken 4×100 m medley relay team[nb 1]
1997 Kristine Quance Lenny Krayzelburg
1998 Jenny Thompson Lenny Krayzelburg
1999 Jenny Thompson Lenny Krayzelburg
2000 Brooke Bennett Lenny Krayzelburg
Tom Dolan
2001 Natalie Coughlin Michael Phelps
2002 Natalie Coughlin Michael Phelps
2003 Amanda Beard Michael Phelps
2004 Amanda Beard Michael Phelps
2005 Katie Hoff Aaron Peirsol
2006 Katie Hoff Michael Phelps
2007 Katie Hoff Michael Phelps
2008 Natalie Coughlin Michael Phelps
2009 Ariana Kukors
Rebecca Soni
Michael Phelps
2010 Rebecca Soni Ryan Lochte
2011 Rebecca Soni Ryan Lochte
2012 Missy Franklin Michael Phelps
2013 Katie Ledecky Ryan Lochte
2014 Katie Ledecky Ryan Cochrane
Tyler Clary
2015 Katie Ledecky Michael Phelps
2016 Katie Ledecky Michael Phelps
2017 Katie Ledecky Caeleb Dressel

European Swimmers of the Year[edit]

Katinka Hosszú
Katinka Hosszú, the most recent female winner of the European Swimmer of the Year award
Pieter van den Hoogenband
Pieter van den Hoogenband was the European Swimmer of the Year four times.
Rebecca Adlington with a gold medal around her neck with red ribbon
Rebecca Adlington was the European Swimmer of the Year in 2008.
Alexander Popov at a table at a formal ocacsion.
Alexander Popov won the European Swimmer of the Year twice.

East Germany was particularly successful in the 1970s and 1980s, when they dominated the women's events, aided by systematic state-sponsored doping.[3][4] Their women swept the award for the first ten years of its existence from 1980 to 1989, with Kristin Otto winning three times, before the Berlin Wall and communism fell. With the end of the state-sponsored doping program, the (East) German stranglehold on women's swimming was broken.[1][3][4] In the two decades since reunification, the female award was won by Germans four times, three by Franziska van Almsick.[1] During the 1980s, Michael Gross of West Germany, nicknamed The Albatross in reference to his vast wingspan, dominated European swimming, winning five consecutive awards from 1982 to 1986.[1] Swimming World has vacated all awards previously awarded to East German swimmers because of the government-sanctioned systematic doping.[1]

Hungary has won the award 13 times, mainly on the back of its strength in medley swimming. Breaststrokers Ágnes Kovács and Károly Güttler, and backstroker Sándor Wladár were the only Hungarian winners who were not champion medley swimmers. Krisztina Egerszegi won four awards, the most by a female swimmer, while Tamás Darnyi claimed three.[1] The Netherlands have won seven awards, through the efforts of Inge de Bruijn (3) and Pieter van den Hoogenband (4), who led the sprinting world for women and men at the turn of the century. Russian or Soviet swimmers have won seven awards, all of them male.[1]

Year[1] Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
1980 Petra Schneider  East Germany Vladimir Salnikov  Soviet Union
1981 Ute Geweniger  East Germany Sándor Wladár  Hungary
1982 Cornelia Sirch  East Germany Michael Groß  West Germany
1983 Ute Geweniger  East Germany Michael Groß  West Germany
1984 Kristin Otto  East Germany Michael Groß  West Germany
1985 Silke Hörner  East Germany Michael Groß  West Germany
1986 Kristin Otto  East Germany Michael Groß  West Germany
1987 Silke Hörner  East Germany Tamás Darnyi  Hungary
1988 Kristin Otto  East Germany Tamás Darnyi  Hungary
1989 Anke Möhring  East Germany Giorgio Lamberti  Italy
1990 Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Adrian Moorhouse  Great Britain
1991 Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Tamás Darnyi  Hungary
1992 Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Yevgeny Sadovyi  Russia
1993 Franziska van Almsick  Germany Károly Güttler  Hungary
1994 Franziska van Almsick  Germany Alexander Popov  Russia
1995 Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Denis Pankratov  Russia
1996 Michelle Smith  Ireland Denis Pankratov  Russia
1997 Ágnes Kovács  Hungary Emiliano Brembilla  Italy
1998 Ágnes Kovács  Hungary Denys Sylantyev  Ukraine
1999 Inge de Bruijn  Netherlands Pieter van den Hoogenband  Netherlands
2000 Inge de Bruijn  Netherlands Pieter van den Hoogenband  Netherlands
2001 Inge de Bruijn  Netherlands Roman Sloudnov  Russia
2002 Franziska van Almsick  Germany Pieter van den Hoogenband  Netherlands
2003 Hannah Stockbauer  Germany Alexander Popov  Russia
2004 Yana Klochkova  Ukraine Pieter van den Hoogenband  Netherlands
2005 Otylia Jędrzejczak  Poland László Cseh  Hungary
2006 Laure Manaudou  France László Cseh  Hungary
2007 Laure Manaudou  France Mateusz Sawrymowicz  Poland
2008 Rebecca Adlington  Great Britain Alain Bernard  France
2009 Federica Pellegrini  Italy Paul Biedermann  Germany
2010 Federica Pellegrini  Italy Camille Lacourt  France
2011 Federica Pellegrini  Italy Alexander Dale Oen  Norway
2012 Ranomi Kromowidjojo  Netherlands Yannick Agnel  France
2013 Katinka Hosszú  Hungary Dániel Gyurta  Hungary
2014 Katinka Hosszú  Hungary Adam Peaty  Great Britain
2015 Sarah Sjöström  Sweden Adam Peaty  Great Britain
2016 Katinka Hosszú  Hungary Adam Peaty  Great Britain
2017 Sarah Sjöström  Sweden Adam Peaty  Great Britain

Pacific Rim Swimmers of the Year[edit]

Ian Thorpe
Ian Thorpe, who has been the male World swimmer of the year four times & Pacific Rim Swimmer of the Year on six occasions
Kosuke Kitajima
Kosuke Kitajima has been the Pacific Rim Swimmer of the Year four times.

The Pacific Rim award was introduced in 1995, the year after two Australian swimmers—Kieren Perkins and Samantha Riley—became the first two Pacific Rim swimmers to be named as World Swimmer of the Year. It has subsequently been dominated by Australian swimmers, who have won 24 of the 32 awards given. Ian Thorpe won six awards (five consecutively) and Susie O'Neill has won four (three consecutively). Australia’s success has been built on female butterfliers (O’Neill and Petria Thomas), female breaststrokers (Riley and Leisel Jones), and male freestylers (Thorpe, Grant Hackett and Michael Klim). The men's awards have been dominated by Asian swimmers since 2006. Kosuke Kitajima (Japan) was the first non-Australian swimmer to win the award more than once (in 2003, 2007, 2008, and 2010).[6][1] He was followed by Sun Yang of China who won three awards (in 2011, 2012, and 2013).

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
1995 Susie O'Neill  Australia Scott Miller  Australia
1996 Le Jingyi  China Danyon Loader  New Zealand
1997 Samantha Riley  Australia Michael Klim  Australia
1998 Susie O'Neill  Australia Ian Thorpe  Australia
1999 Susie O'Neill  Australia Ian Thorpe  Australia
2000 Susie O'Neill  Australia Ian Thorpe  Australia
2001 Petria Thomas  Australia Ian Thorpe  Australia
2002 Petria Thomas  Australia Ian Thorpe  Australia
2003 Leisel Jones  Australia Kosuke Kitajima  Japan
2004 Jodie Henry  Australia Ian Thorpe  Australia
2005 Leisel Jones  Australia Grant Hackett  Australia
2006 Leisel Jones  Australia Park Tae-hwan  South Korea
2007 Libby Lenton  Australia Kosuke Kitajima  Japan
2008 Stephanie Rice  Australia Kosuke Kitajima  Japan
2009 Jessicah Schipper  Australia Zhang Lin  China
2010 Alicia Coutts  Australia Kosuke Kitajima  Japan
2011 Ye Shiwen  China Sun Yang  China
2012 Ye Shiwen  China Sun Yang  China
2013 Cate Campbell  Australia Sun Yang  China
2014 Cate Campbell  Australia Kosuke Hagino  Japan
2015 Emily Seebohm  Australia Mitch Larkin  Australia
2016 Rie Kaneto  Japan Kosuke Hagino  Japan
2017 Emily Seebohm  Australia Sun Yang  China

African Swimmers of the Year[edit]

Oussama Mellouli doing the breaststroke
Oussama Mellouli in action. He was the first African male to win an individual Olympic gold medal.

The African award was introduced in 2004,[1] the year in which South Africa won the men's 4 × 100 m freestyle relay at the Olympics. Although Joan Harrison (1952) and Penny Heyns (1996) had won individual gold medals for South Africa, the 2004 victory was the first time that an African relay team won a medal, indicating their increasing depth. In the same Olympics, Zimbabwe's Kirsty Coventry's won three medals, including one gold, making her the first African swimmer outside of South Africa to stand on the podium.[1][7] Coventry has won the female award nine times. South African Chad le Clos won five men's awards in a row, and South African sprinter Roland Schoeman four,[1] and in total South African swimmers have claimed twelve awards. In 2008, Ous Mellouli of Tunisia broke the South African and Zimbabwean duopoly after becoming the first African male to win an individual Olympic gold medal.[1][7]

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
2004 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Roland Schoeman  South Africa
2005 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Roland Schoeman  South Africa
2006 Suzaan van Biljon  South Africa Roland Schoeman  South Africa
2007 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Roland Schoeman  South Africa
2008 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Oussama Mellouli  Tunisia
2009 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Oussama Mellouli
Cameron van der Burgh
 Tunisia
 South Africa
2010 Mandy Loots  South Africa Cameron van der Burgh  South Africa
2011 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Cameron van der Burgh  South Africa
2012 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Chad le Clos  South Africa
2013 Karin Prinsloo  South Africa Chad le Clos  South Africa
2014 Karin Prinsloo  South Africa Chad le Clos  South Africa
2015 Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Chad le Clos  South Africa
2016 Kirsty Coventry[8]  Zimbabwe Chad le Clos[8]  South Africa
2017 Farida Osman  Egypt Chad le Clos  South Africa

Open Water Swimmers of the Year[edit]

Maarten van der Weijden with a gold medal hung around his neck on a red ribbon
Maarten van der Weijden, Open Water Swimmer of the Year in 2008

The Open Water award was introduced in 2005,[1] when it was announced that an open water swimming event would be included in the Olympics for the first time: the 10 km events at the 2008 Olympics.[9] The award has been won by Dutch and German swimmers five times, while Russian swimmers have won four times. Thomas Lurz of Germany has won the award five times, triumphing in 2005, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2013, while Russia's Larisa Ilchenko has won the award three years in a row (2006–2008).[1][10]

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
2005 Edith van Dijk  Netherlands Thomas Lurz
Chip Peterson
 Germany
 United States
2006 Larisa Ilchenko  Russia Thomas Lurz  Germany
2007 Larisa Ilchenko  Russia Vladimir Dyatchin  Russia
2008 Larisa Ilchenko  Russia Maarten van der Weijden  Netherlands
2009 Keri-Anne Payne  United Kingdom Thomas Lurz  Germany
2010 Martina Grimaldi  Italy Valerio Cleri  Italy
2011 Keri-Anne Payne  United Kingdom Thomas Lurz
Spyridon Gianniotis
 Germany
 Greece
2012 Éva Risztov  Hungary Oussama Mellouli  Tunisia
2013 Poliana Okimoto  Brazil Thomas Lurz  Germany
2014 Sharon van Rouwendaal  Netherlands Andrew Gemmell  United States
2015 Aurélie Muller  France Jordan Wilimovsky  United States
2016 Sharon van Rouwendaal  Netherlands Ferry Weertman  Netherlands
2017 Aurélie Muller  France Ferry Weertman  Netherlands

World Disabled Swimmers of the Year[edit]

This award was created in 2003, and then was not awarded in 2004.[1] The award has been won by American swimmers six times, Brazilian and Australian swimmers four times, and Canadian swimmers twice.

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
2003 Danielle Watts  United Kingdom Sergei Punko  Belarus
2004 Not awarded N/A Not awarded N/A
2005 Erin Popovich  United States Benoît Huot  Canada
2006 Jessica Long  United States Wang Xiaofu  China
2007 Valérie Grand'Maison  Canada Matthew Cowdrey  Australia
2008 Natalie du Toit  South Africa Matthew Cowdrey  Australia
2009 Mallory Weggemann  United States Daniel Dias  Brazil
2010 Mallory Weggemann  United States Daniel Dias  Brazil
2011 Jessica Long  United States Daniel Dias  Brazil
2012 Jacqueline Freney  Australia Matthew Cowdrey  Australia
2013 Sophie Pascoe  New Zealand Daniel Dias  Brazil
2014 Ingrid Thunem  Norway Ian Silverman  United States
2015 Rebecca Meyers  United States Ihar Boki  Belarus
2015 Rebecca Meyers  United States Ihar Boki  Belarus
2016 Aurélie Rivard  Canada Daniel Dias  Brazil
2017 Sophie Pascoe  New Zealand Vincenzo Boni  Italy

World Water Polo Players of the Year[edit]

The Water Polo award was introduced in 2011.[1]

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
2011 Krystina Alogbo  Canada Stefano Tempesti  Italy
2012 Maggie Steffens  United States Maro Joković  Croatia
2013 Jennifer Pareja  Spain Viktor Nagy  Hungary
2014 Ashleigh Johnson  United States Stefan Živojinović  Serbia
2015 Ashleigh Johnson  United States Duško Pijetlović  Serbia
2016 Ashleigh Johnson  United States Filip Filipović  Serbia
2017 Maggie Steffens  United States Márton Vámos  Hungary

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1996 the American Swimmer of the Year award was given to the 4×100 m medley relay team of Jeff Rouse, Jeremy Linn, Mark Henderson, and Gary Hall, Jr. who won gold and broke the world record at the Olympics that year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Swimmers of the Year". Swimming World. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  2. ^ Marsteller, Jason. "Stripped! Swimming World Vacates Awards of GDR Drug-fueled Swimmers". Swimming World. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Swimming's big splash". BBC Sports. 5 July 2004. Retrieved 8 November 2006. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Phelps causes biggest splash". BBC Sports. 21 August 2004. Retrieved 19 November 2006. 
  5. ^ Hunter, Greg (2004). Ian Thorpe: The Biography. Sydney: MacMillan. pp. 130–133. ISBN 1-4050-3632-X. 
  6. ^ Jeffery, Nicole (27 November 2008). "Rice on top of world again". The Australian. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  7. ^ a b "Olympic medal winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
    Results classification: "By individual" → Competition gender: Select all → Medal: Select all → Continents and nations: "Africa" → Sports and events: "Swimming" → Search ↵
  8. ^ a b "Swimming World Magazine Announces African Swimmers of the Year". Swimming World. 28 November 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  9. ^ VOA Sports (28 October 2005). "IOC Includes 10K Open Water Event in 2008 Beijing Olympics". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2009. 
  10. ^ "Lane 9 News Archive: Swimming World Names 2009 Open Water Swimmers of the Year". Swimming World. Archived from the original on 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2011-10-26.