List of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch

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Current Patriarch of Antioch, Ignatius Aphrem II

The Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East is the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church. The Patriarchate of Antioch was established by Saint Peter in the 1st century AD, but split into two separate lines of patriarchs after the deposition of Patriarch Severus of Antioch in 518 over the issue of the Council of Chalcedon of 451. The non-Chalcedonian supporters of Severus went on to form what is now known as the Syriac Orthodox Church, whilst the Chalcedonians developed the church now known as the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch.

The Syriac Orthodox Church underwent schism in the medieval era, first, after the death of Patriarch Philoxenus I Nemrud in 1292 with the formation of separate patriarchates of Mardin and Melitene, and again in 1364 due to the emergence of a patriarchate of Tur Abdin. Unity was restored to the church gradually as the patriarchate at Melitene came to an end in c. 1360, and the patriarchate of Mardin lapsed after its patriarch Ignatius Behnam Hadloyo was acknowledged as Patriarch of Antioch in 1445. A line of patriarchs in communion with the Roman Catholic Church split permanently in 1783, and thus formed the Syriac Catholic Church.

The following is a list of all the incumbents of the office of Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.

List of patriarchs[edit]

Patriarchs of Antioch before 512[edit]

Syriac patriarchs from 512 to 1292[edit]

Unless otherwise stated, all information is from the Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage, and the list provided in the The Syriac World, as noted in the bibliography below.

  1. Severus I (512–538)[nb 1]
  2. vacant (538–c. 544/557)
  3. Sergius of Tella (c. 544–c. 547; c. 557–560)[nb 2]
    vacant (c. 547–c. 551; 560–564)
  4. Paul II (c. 551/564–578)[nb 3]
    vacant (578–581)[nb 4]
  5. Peter III (578/581–591)[nb 5]
  6. Julian II (591–594)[nb 6]
    vacant (594-603)[nb 7]
  7. Athanasius I Gammolo (594/595/603–631)[nb 8]
  8. John III (631–648)[nb 9]
  9. Theodore (649–666/667)
  10. Severus II bar Masqeh (667/668–680/684)[nb 10]
    vacant (680–684)[nb 11]
  11. Athanasius II Baldoyo (683/684–687)
  12. Julian III (687–707/708)[nb 12]
  13. Elias I (709–723/724)
  14. Athanasius III (724–739/740)
  15. Iwannis I (739/740–754/755)[nb 13]
    Isaac I (755–756)[nb 14]
    Athanasius Sandalaya (756–758)[nb 15]
  16. George I (758/759–789/790)[6]
    John of Raqqa (758–762)[nb 16]
    David of Dara (762–774)[nb 17]
  17. Joseph (790–791/792)[6]
  18. Quriaqos of Tagrit (793–817)
    Abraham (807/808–837)[nb 18]
  19. Dionysius I Telmaharoyo (818–845)
    Simeon (c. 837)[nb 19]
  20. John IV (846/847–873/874)[nb 20]
    vacant (874–878)
  21. Ignatius II (878–883)[nb 21]
    vacant (883–887)
  22. Theodosius Romanus (887–896)
    vacant (896–897)[nb 22]
  23. Dionysius II (896/897–908/909)[6]
  24. John V (910–922)[nb 23]
  25. Baselius I (923–935)
  26. John VI (936–953)
  27. Iwannis II (954–957)[nb 24]
  28. Dionysius III (958–961)
  29. Abraham I (962–963)
    vacant (963–965)
  30. John VII Sarigta (965–985)[nb 25]
  31. Athanasius IV Salhoyo (986/987–1002/1003)[nb 26]
  32. John VIII bar Abdoun (1004–1030/1031/1033)[nb 27][10]
  33. Dionysius IV Yahyo (1031–1042)
    vacant (1042–1049)[nb 28]
  34. John IX bar ʿAbdun (1042/1048/1049–1057)
  35. Athanasius V Yahyo (1057/1058–1062/1064)[nb 29]
  36. John X bar Shushan (1063/1064–1072/1073)[nb 30]
  37. Baselius II (1074–1075)[nb 31]
    John bar ʿAbdun (1075–1076/1077)[nb 32]
  38. Dionysius V Laʿzar (1077–1078/1079)
    vacant (1078/1079–86)
  39. Iwannis III (1086–1087/1088)
  40. Dionysius VI (1088–1090)
  41. Athanasius VI bar Khamoro (1090/1091–1129)[nb 33][12]
  42. John XI bar Mawdyono (1129/1130–1137)[nb 34]
  43. Athanasius VII bar Qatra (1138/1139–1166)[nb 35]
  44. Michael I (1166–1199)
    Theodore bar Wahbun (1180–1193)[nb 36]
  45. Athanasius VIII bar Salibi (1199–1207)[nb 37]
    Michael II the Younger (1199/1200–1215)[nb 38]
  46. John XII (1207/1208–1219/1220)[nb 39]
    vacant (1220–1222)
  47. Ignatius III David (1222–1252)
    Dionysius VII ʿAngur (1252–1261)[15]
  48. John XIII bar Ma'dani (1252–1263)[nb 40]
  49. Ignatius IV Yeshu (1264–1282/1283)
  50. Philoxenus I Nemrud (1283–1292)

Syriac patriarchs from 1292 to 1445[edit]

On the death of Patriarch Philoxenus I Nemrud in 1292, the Syriac Orthodox Church split into the patriarchates of Antioch, Mardin, and Melitene. A separate patriarchate of Tur Abdin broke off from the patriarchate of Mardin in 1364. The patriarchate of Melitene ended in c. 1360, and the patriarch of Mardin Ignatius Behnam Hadloyo was acknowledged as the patriarch of Antioch in 1445, thus ending the schism.

Patriarchate of Tur Abdin (1364–1840)

Syriac patriarchs from 1445 to 1782[edit]

  1. Ignatius Behnam Hadloyo (1445-1455)
  2. Ignatius Khalaf Maʿdnoyo (1455/1456–84)[nb 48]
  3. Ignatius John XIV (1484–1493)[nb 49]
  4. Ignatius Noah of Lebanon (1493/1494–1509)
  5. Ignatius Yeshu I (1509–1510/1519)[nb 50]
  6. Ignatius Jacob I (1510/1512–1517/1519)[nb 51][22]
  7. Ignatius David I (1519–1521)[nb 52]
  8. Ignatius Abdullah I (1521–1557)
  9. Ignatius Nimat Allah (1557–1576)
  10. Ignatius David II Shah (1576–1591)
  11. Ignatius Pilate (1591–1597)
  12. Ignatius Hidayat Allah (1597/1598–1640)
  13. Ignatius Simon (1640–1653)
    Ignatius Shukrallah I (1640–1670)[nb 53]
  14. Ignatius Yeshu II (1653/1655–1661)[nb 54]
  15. Ignatius Abdulmasih I (1661/1662–1686)
  16. Ignatius George II (1687–1708)
  17. Ignatius Isaac II (1709–1722)[nb 55]
  18. Ignatius Shukrallah II (1722/1723–1745)
  19. Ignatius George III (1745/1746–1768)
  20. Ignatius George IV (1768–1781)

Syriac Orthodox patriarchs from 1782 to present[edit]

For Syriac Catholic patriarchs from 1783, see List of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs of Antioch
  1. Ignatius Matthew (1782–1817/1819)
  2. Ignatius John (1817–1818)[23]
  3. Ignatius George V (1819–1836/1839)
  4. Ignatius Elias II (1836/1839–1847)
  5. Ignatius Jacob II (1847–1871)
  6. Ignatius Peter IV (1872–1894)[nb 56]
  7. Ignatius Abdulmasih II (1894/1895–1903)[nb 57]
  8. Ignatius Abdullah II (1906–1915)
    vacant (1915–1917)
  9. Ignatius Elias III (1917–1932/1933)
  10. Ignatius Aphrem I (1933–1957)
  11. Ignatius Jacob III (1957–1980)
  12. Ignatius Zakka I (1980–2014)
  13. Ignatius Aphrem II (2014–present)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Severus was deposed in 518 by Emperor Justin I, but continued to be recognised as patriarch by non-Chalcedonians until his death in 538.
  2. ^ According to the Zuqnin Chronicle, Sergius reigned in c. 544–c. 547, whereas John of Ephesus places his reign in c. 557–560.[1]
  3. ^ According to the Zuqnin Chronicle, Paul became patriarch in c. 551, whereas John of Ephesus dates the beginning of his reign to 564.[1] Paul was deposed in 578 by Pope Peter IV of Alexandria, but continued to be recognised as patriarch by his supporters until his death in 581.[2]
  4. ^ Peter III may have become patriarch in 578, and thus no vacancy may have taken place.[1]
  5. ^ Peter III became patriarch in either the same year as the deposition of Paul II in 578 or after his death in 581.[1]
  6. ^ Julian is counted as either Julian I as the first Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch by that name,[3] or Julian II, after Julian (r. 471–475/476).[4]
  7. ^ Athanasius I may have become patriarch in 594, and thus no vacancy may have taken place.[5]
  8. ^ According to Michael the Syrian, Athanasius became patriarch in 594/595, whereas Jacob of Edessa dates the beginning of his reign to 603.[5]
  9. ^ John is counted as either John I, as the first Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch by that name,[6] John II,[1] or John III.[7]
  10. ^ The end of Severus' reign is placed either at his deposition in 680,[1][8] or at his death in 684.[3]
  11. ^ The patriarchal office is only considered vacant at this time if Severus II is not acknowledged as the patriarch after his deposition in 680.
  12. ^ Julian is also counted as Julian II as the second Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch by that name.[3]
  13. ^ Iwannis is also counted as John III.[3]
  14. ^ Isaac is regarded as an illegitimate patriarch.[3]
  15. ^ Athanasius is considered either semi-legitimate, and counted as Athanasius IV,[6] or wholly illegitimate.[3]
  16. ^ John of Raqqa is considered an illegitimate patriarch.[1]
  17. ^ David of Dara is considered an illegitimate patriarch.[1]
  18. ^ Abraham is considered an illegitimate patriarch.[9]
  19. ^ Simeon is considered an illegitimate patriarch.[9]
  20. ^ John is also counted as John III.[6]
  21. ^ Ignatius is either counted as Ignatius I as the first Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch by that name,[3] or Ignatius II, after Ignatius (r. c. 70–c. 107).
  22. ^ Dionysius II may have become patriarch in 896, and thus no vacancy may have taken place.[3]
  23. ^ John is also counted as John IV.[3]
  24. ^ Iwannis is also counted as John VI or John VII.[3]
  25. ^ John is also counted as John VI.[3]
  26. ^ Athanasius is also counted as Athanasius V, after Athanasius Sandalaya.[6]
  27. ^ John is also counted as John VII.[3]
  28. ^ John IX bar ʿAbdun may have become patriarch in 1042, and thus no vacancy may have taken place.[3]
  29. ^ Athanasius is also counted as Athanasius VI.[3]
  30. ^ John is also counted as John VIII, after John bar Abdun (r. 1004–1030)[11] or John IX, after John bar Abdun (r. 1049-1057).[3]
  31. ^ Baselius is also counted as Baselius III.[3]
  32. ^ John is counted as John IX,[11] John X, or John XI.[3]
  33. ^ Athanasius is also counted as Athanasius VII.[3]
  34. ^ John is also counted as John X, John XII, and John XIII.[3]
  35. ^ Athanasius is also counted as Athanasius VI.[3]
  36. ^ Theodore bar Wahbun is considered an illegitimate patriarch.[13]
  37. ^ Athanasius is also counted as Athanasius VII and Athanasius IX.[3]
  38. ^ Michael II the Younger is considered an illegitimate patriarch.[14]
  39. ^ John is counted as John XI, John XIII, or John XIV.[3]
  40. ^ John bar Ma'dani was consecrated as patriarch after Dionysius VII, and both claimed the patriarchal office simultaneously until Dionysius' death in 1261, after which John was recognised as the sole patriarch.[15] In modern historiography, neither patriarchs are considered illegitimate.
  41. ^ Michael is counted as either Michael I as the first patriarch by that name in this line,[3] Michael II after Michael I (r. 1166–1199),[16] or Michael III after Michael II the Younger (r. 1199–1215).[3]
  42. ^ Michael is also counted as Michael II as the second patriarch by that name in this line, and Michael IV.[3]
  43. ^ Ignatius bar Wahib is counted as either Ignatius I as the first patriarch of Mardin by that name,[17] or Ignatius V, after Ignatius IV Yeshu (r. 1264–1283).[3]
  44. ^ Ismail is counted as Ignatius VI.[3]
  45. ^ Ismail is counted as Ignatius VII.[3]
  46. ^ Abraham is counted as either Abraham II,[18] Ignatius II,[19] or Ignatius VIII.[3]
  47. ^ Behnam is counted as either Ignatius V,[20] or Ignatius IX.[3] Patriarch of Antioch from 1445 to 1455.
  48. ^ Khalaf is counted as Ignatius X.[3]
  49. ^ John is also counted as Ignatius X.[3]
  50. ^ Yeshu is also counted as Yeshu III.[3] Yeshu's death was either in 1510 or 1519.
  51. ^ Jacob became patriarch either after the death of Ignatius Noah and reigned simultaneously with Ignatius Yeshu,[21] or succeeded Yeshu on his death in 1510.[3]
  52. ^ David is also counted as David II.[3]
  53. ^ Shukrallah is regarded as an illegitimate patriarch.[3]
  54. ^ Yeshu is also counted as Yeshu IV.[3]
  55. ^ Isaac is counted as Isaac II, after Isaac (r. 755–756).[21]
  56. ^ Peter is also counted as Peter III,[3] and Peter VII.[21]
  57. ^ Abdulmasih was deposed in 1903, but continued to be recognised as patriarch by his supporters until his death in 1915.[24]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Wilmshurst (2019), pp. 806-807.
  2. ^ Van Rompay (2011a).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Burleson & Van Rompay (2011).
  4. ^ Wilmshurst (2019), pp. 806–807.
  5. ^ a b Palmer (1993), pp. 257-258.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Palmer (1990), p. 263.
  7. ^ Barsoum (2003), p. 320.
  8. ^ Van Rompay (2011b).
  9. ^ a b Palmer (1990), p. 181.
  10. ^ Bataille (1955), p. 449.
  11. ^ a b Wilmshurst (2019), p. 807.
  12. ^ Barsoum (2003), p. 423.
  13. ^ Barsoum (2003), p. 443.
  14. ^ Barsoum (2003), p. 450.
  15. ^ a b Barsoum (2003), p. 460.
  16. ^ Barsoum (2003), p. 488.
  17. ^ James E. Walters (17 August 2016). "Ignatius I (V) bar Wahib". A Guide to Syriac Authors. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  18. ^ James E. Walters (17 August 2016). "Abraham II Gharib". A Guide to Syriac Authors. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  19. ^ Barsoum (2008), pp. 35-36.
  20. ^ Carlson (2018), p. 257.
  21. ^ a b c Wilmshurst (2019), p. 809.
  22. ^ Barsoum (2003), p. 511.
  23. ^ "Chronological List of the Patriarchs of Antioch". Syriac Orthodox Resources. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  24. ^ Kiraz (2011).

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barsoum, Ephrem (2003). The Scattered Pearls: A History of Syriac Literature and Sciences. Translated by Matti Moosa (2nd ed.). Gorgias Press.
  • Barsoum, Ephrem (2008). History of the Za‘faran Monastery. Translated by Matti Moosa. Gorgias Press.
  • Bataille, André (1955). Traité d'études byzantines. 1. Presses universitaires de France.
  • Burleson, Samuel; Van Rompay, Lucas (2011). "List of Patriarchs: II. The Syriac Orthodox Church and its Uniate continuations". In Sebastian P. Brock; Aaron M. Butts; George A. Kiraz; Lucas Van Rompay (eds.). Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition. Gorgias Press. Retrieved 3 October 2019.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Carlson, Thomas A. (2018). Christianity in Fifteenth-Century Iraq. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kiraz, George A. (2011). "ʿAbdulmasīḥ II". In Sebastian P. Brock; Aaron M. Butts; George A. Kiraz; Lucas Van Rompay (eds.). Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition. Gorgias Press. Retrieved 21 May 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Palmer, Andrew (1990). Monk and Mason on the Tigris Frontier: The Early History of Tur Abdin. Cambridge University Press.
  • Palmer, Andrew (1993). The Seventh Century in the West Syrian Chronicles. Liverpool University Press.
  • Van Rompay, Lucas (2011a). "Pawlos of Beth Ukome". In Sebastian P. Brock; Aaron M. Butts; George A. Kiraz; Lucas Van Rompay (eds.). Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition. Gorgias Press. Retrieved 21 May 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Van Rompay, Lucas (2011b). "Severos bar Mashqo". In Sebastian P. Brock; Aaron M. Butts; George A. Kiraz; Lucas Van Rompay (eds.). Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition. Gorgias Press. Retrieved 21 May 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Wilmshurst, David (2019). "West Syrian patriarchs and maphrians". In Daniel King (ed.). The Syriac World. Routledge. pp. 806–813.