List of Tour de France general classification winners

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General classification (GC)
at the Tour de France
A man with black curly hair
Miguel Indurain, winner of five consecutive GC Tour titles from 1991 to 1995.
Location Since 1975, finished on the Champs-Élysées, Paris, France
Dates July annually
← 2017
2018 →

This is a list of the Tour de France general classification winners. The Tour de France is an annual road bicycle race held over 23 days in July. Established in 1903 by newspaper L'Auto, the Tour is the most well-known and prestigious of cycling's three "Grand Tours"; the others are the Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España.[1] The race usually covers approximately 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi), passing through France and neighbouring countries such as Belgium.[2] The race is broken into day-long stages. Individual finishing times for each stage are totalled to determine the overall winner at the end of the race. The course changes every year, but has always finished in Paris; since 1975 it has finished along the Champs-Élysées.

The rider with the lowest aggregate time at the end of each day wears the yellow jersey, representing the leader of the general classification. There are other jerseys as well: the green jersey, worn by the leader of the points classification; the polka dot jersey, worn by the leader of the mountains classification; and the white jersey, worn by the leader of the young rider classification.

Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx, Bernard Hinault and Miguel Indurain, have won the most Tours with five each. Indurain is the only man to win five consecutive Tours. Henri Cornet is the youngest winner; he won in 1904, just short of his 20th birthday. Firmin Lambot is the oldest winner, having been 36 years, 4 months old when he won in 1922.[3] French cyclists have won the most Tours; 21 cyclists have won 36 Tours among them. Belgian cyclists are second with 18 victories, and Spanish riders are third with 12 wins.[4] The most recent winner is Geraint Thomas of Team Sky, who won the 2018 Tour, his first. His team, Team Sky, have provided three of the last four individual winners, all British, between them winning six of the last seven Tours[5]

After it emerged that Lance Armstrong had used performance-enhancing drugs, in October 2012 the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) stripped Armstrong of the seven consecutive Tour general classification titles between 1999 and 2005.[6][7]

History[edit]

The Tour de France was established in 1903 by newspaper L'Auto, in an attempt to increase its sales. The first race was won by Frenchman Maurice Garin. He won again the next year, but was disqualified after allegations that he had been transported by car or rail arose. Henri Cornet became the winner after the dispute was settled; he is the youngest to win the Tour. Following the scandals in 1904, the scoring system was changed from being time-based to a points-based system, in which the cyclist who has the fewest points at the end of the race is victorious. This system lasted until 1912, when the time-based system was re-introduced. French cyclists were successful in the early Tours; the first non-Frenchman to win the Tour was François Faber of Luxembourg, who won in 1909.[8]

Belgian riders were more successful before and after the First World War (which suspended the Tour from 1915 to 1918). In the 1920s, trade teams dominated the Tour; cyclists such as Nicolas Frantz won the Tour with the Alcyon team. However, when Alcyon cyclist Maurice De Waele won the Tour in 1929 while ill, the organisers decided to introduce national teams the following year, to stop team tactics from undermining the race. Because of the Second World War, the Tour de France was suspended from 1940 to 1946.[9]

A yellow jersey with writing on it
The yellow jersey (French: Maillot jaune), worn by the leader of the general classification

After the Second World War, no one dominated the Tour until Louison Bobet, who won three consecutive Tours from 1953 to 1955—he was the first person to achieve this feat.[10] This was bettered by the French cyclist Jacques Anquetil, who won four successive Tours from 1961 to 1964. Anquetil, who also won in 1957, became the first to win five Tours.[11] Anquetil's five victories were matched when Belgian cyclist Eddy Merckx won four successive Tours from 1969 to 1972 and the 1974 Tour. Merckx is the only person to have won the general, points and king of the mountains classifications in the same Tour. He achieved this in 1969, when he won his first Tour.[12]

Merckx looked to be heading for a record sixth Tour victory in 1975, but Bernard Thévenet beat him, becoming the first French winner in seven years. Thévenet won again in 1977; however, he was eclipsed in following years by fellow Frenchman Bernard Hinault, who won consecutive Tours in 1978 and 1979. Hinault won the Tour at his first attempt in 1978; becoming one of 11 cyclists (including Anquetil, Merckx, Hugo Koblet and Fausto Coppi) managed to do so.[13] In 1980, Hinault was going for a third consecutive win, but had to pull out because of tendinitis, and the Tour was won by Joop Zoetemelk.[14] Hinault returned in 1981 and won that race as well as the one after that. Hinault sat out the Tour in 1983, and another Frenchman—Laurent Fignon—achieved victory. Fignon won again the following year, beating Hinault; Hinault recovered in 1985 to win his fifth Tour.

American Greg LeMond became the first non-European to win the Tour in 1986. LeMond missed out in 1987 and 1988, but returned in 1989 to win the Tour by finishing eight seconds ahead of Laurent Fignon, the smallest winning margin in the Tour's history. LeMond also won in 1990.[15] In 1991, Spaniard Miguel Indurain won his first Tour. Indurain came to dominate the Tour, winning four more Tours consecutively—making him the first person to win five consecutive Tours.[16] He tried to win a record-high sixth Tour in 1996, but was beaten by Bjarne Riis, who later admitted to using Erythropoietin.[17] Jan Ullrich and Marco Pantani won in 1997 and 1998, respectively; however, Pantani's victory was overshadowed by doping scandals.[18]

The 1999 Tour saw the first victory of Lance Armstrong,[19] which was followed by six more, for a total of seven consecutive victories.[20] He was stripped of his titles in October 2012, when it emerged he had used performance-enhancing drugs throughout much of his career, including the Tour de France victories.[7] Floyd Landis won the Tour in 2006, but was later stripped of his title, after a drug-control test demonstrated the presence of a skewed testosterone/epitestosterone ratio.[21] Óscar Pereiro was subsequently awarded the victory. Alberto Contador won the 2007 Tour with the Discovery Channel. The 2007 Tour was also marred by doping scandals, thus Contador was unable to defend his title in 2008, as his Astana team was banned for its part. Fellow Spaniard Carlos Sastre of Team CSC won.[22] Contador and Astana returned in 2009 to regain the title. He won the Tour again in 2010, but was later stripped of his title after he was found guilty of doping. Runner-up Andy Schleck was awarded the victory.

Cadel Evans became the first Australian to win the Tour in 2011.[23] The following year, Bradley Wiggins became the first British cyclist to win the Tour.[24] Chris Froome became the second successive British winner in 2013, which was the 100th edition of the race.[25] He could not defend his title the following year, as he crashed out in stage 5, with Vincenzo Nibali winning his first Tour.[26] Froome regained the title in 2015 and then successfully defended it in 2016, the first rider in over 20 years to do so.[27] He then backed it up with a third consecutive win in 2017.[5]

Winners[edit]

Key
dagger Winner won points classification in the same year
* Winner won mountains classification in the same year
# Winner won young rider classification in the same year
double-dagger Winner won points and mountains classification in the same year
  • The "Year" column refers to the year the competition was held, and wikilinks to the article about that season.
  • The "Distance" column refers to the distance over which the race was held.
  • The "Margin" column refers to the margin of time or points by which the winner defeated the runner-up.
  • The "Stage wins" column refers to the number of stage wins the winner had during the race.
Tour de France general classification winners
Year Country Cyclist Sponsor/Team Distance Time/Points Margin Stage wins Stages in lead
1903  France Maurice Garin La Française 2,428 km (1,509 mi) 94h 33' 14" + 2h 59' 21" 3 6
1904  France Maurice Garin Henri Cornet[E] Conte 2,428 km (1,509 mi) 96h 05' 55" + 2h 16' 14" 1 3
1905  France Louis Trousselier Peugeot–Wolber 2,994 km (1,860 mi) 35 26 5 10
1906  France René Pottier Peugeot–Wolber 4,637 km (2,881 mi) 31 8 5 12
1907  France Lucien Petit-Breton Peugeot–Wolber 4,488 km (2,789 mi) 47 19 2 5
1908  France Lucien Petit-Breton Peugeot–Wolber 4,497 km (2,794 mi) 36 32 5 13
1909  Luxembourg François Faber Alcyon–Dunlop 4,498 km (2,795 mi) 37 20 6 13
1910  France Octave Lapize Alcyon–Dunlop 4,734 km (2,942 mi) 63 4 4 3
1911  France Gustave Garrigou Alcyon–Dunlop 5,343 km (3,320 mi) 43 18 2 13
1912  Belgium Odile Defraye Alcyon–Dunlop 5,289 km (3,286 mi) 49 59 3 13
1913  Belgium Philippe Thys Peugeot–Wolber 5,287 km (3,285 mi) 197h 54' 00" + 8' 37" 1 8
1914  Belgium Philippe Thys Peugeot–Wolber 5,380 km (3,340 mi) 200h 28' 48" + 1' 50" 1 15
1915 World War I
1916
1917
1918
1919  Belgium Firmin Lambot La Sportive 5,560 km (3,450 mi) 231h 07' 15" + 1h 42' 54" 1 2
1920  Belgium Philippe Thys La Sportive 5,503 km (3,419 mi) 228h 36' 13" + 57' 21" 4 14
1921  Belgium Léon Scieur La Sportive 5,485 km (3,408 mi) 221h 50' 26" + 18' 36" 2 14
1922  Belgium Firmin Lambot Peugeot–Wolber 5,375 km (3,340 mi) 222h 08' 06" + 41' 15" 0 3
1923  France Henri Pélissier Automoto–Hutchinson 5,386 km (3,347 mi) 222h 15' 30" + 30 '41" 3 6
1924  Italy Ottavio Bottecchia Automoto 5,425 km (3,371 mi) 226h 18' 21" + 35' 36" 4 15
1925  Italy Ottavio Bottecchia Automoto–Hutchinson 5,440 km (3,380 mi) 219h 10' 18" + 54' 20" 4 13
1926  Belgium Lucien Buysse Automoto–Hutchinson 5,745 km (3,570 mi) 238h 44' 25" + 1h 22' 25" 2 8
1927  Luxembourg Nicolas Frantz Alcyon–Dunlop 5,398 km (3,354 mi) 198h 16' 42" + 1h 48' 41" 3 14
1928  Luxembourg Nicolas Frantz Alcyon–Dunlop 5,476 km (3,403 mi) 192h 48' 58" + 50' 07" 5 22
1929  Belgium Maurice De Waele Alcyon–Dunlop 5,286 km (3,285 mi) 186h 39' 15" +44' 23" 1 16
1930  France André Leducq Alcyon–Dunlop 4,822 km (2,996 mi) 172h 12' 16" + 14' 13" 2 13
1931  France Antonin Magne France 5,091 km (3,163 mi) 177h 10' 03" + 12' 56" 1 16
1932  France André Leducq France 4,479 km (2,783 mi) 154h 11' 49" + 24' 03" 6 19
1933  France Georges Speicher France 4,395 km (2,731 mi) 147h 51' 37" + 4' 01" 3 12
1934  France Antonin Magne France 4,470 km (2,780 mi) 147h 13' 58" + 27' 31" 3 22
1935  Belgium Romain Maes Belgium 4,338 km (2,696 mi) 141h 23' 00" + 17' 52" 3 21
1936  Belgium Sylvère Maes Belgium 4,442 km (2,760 mi) 142h 47' 32" + 26' 55" 4 14
1937  France Roger Lapébie France 4,415 km (2,743 mi) 138h 58' 31" + 7' 17" 3 4
1938  Italy Gino Bartali* Italy 4,694 km (2,917 mi) 148h 29' 12" + 18' 27" 2 8
1939  Belgium Sylvère Maes* Belgium 4,224 km (2,625 mi) 132h 03' 17" + 30' 38" 2 4
1940 World War II
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947  France Jean Robic France 4,642 km (2,884 mi) 148h 11' 25" + 3' 58" 3 1
1948  Italy Gino Bartali* Italy 4,922 km (3,058 mi) 147h 10' 36" + 26' 16" 7 9
1949  Italy Fausto Coppi* Italy 4,808 km (2,988 mi) 149h 40' 49" + 10' 55" 3 5
1950   Switzerland Ferdinand Kübler Switzerland 4,773 km (2,966 mi) 145h 36' 56" + 9' 30" 3 11
1951   Switzerland Hugo Koblet Switzerland 4,690 km (2,910 mi) 142h 20' 14" + 22' 00" 5 11
1952  Italy Fausto Coppi* Italy 4,898 km (3,043 mi) 151h 57' 20" + 28' 17" 5 14
1953  France Louison Bobet France 4,476 km (2,781 mi) 129h 23' 25" + 14' 18" 2 5
1954  France Louison Bobet France 4,656 km (2,893 mi) 140h 06' 05" + 15' 49" 3 14
1955  France Louison Bobet France 4,495 km (2,793 mi) 130h 29' 26" + 4' 53" 2 6
1956  France Roger Walkowiak France 4,498 km (2,795 mi) 124h 01' 16" + 1' 25" 0 8
1957  France Jacques Anquetil France 4,669 km (2,901 mi) 135h 44' 42" + 14' 56" 4 15
1958  Luxembourg Charly Gaul Luxembourg 4,319 km (2,684 mi) 116h 59' 05" + 3' 10" 4 2
1959  Spain Federico Bahamontes* Spain 4,358 km (2,708 mi) 123h 46' 45" + 4' 01" 1 6
1960  Italy Gastone Nencini Italy 4,173 km (2,593 mi) 112h 08' 42" + 5' 02" 0 14
1961  France Jacques Anquetil France 4,397 km (2,732 mi) 122h 01' 33" + 12' 14" 2 21
1962  France Jacques Anquetil Saint-Raphaël–Helyett–Hutchinson 4,274 km (2,656 mi) 114h 31' 54" + 4' 59" 2 3
1963  France Jacques Anquetil Saint-Raphaël–Gitane–R. Geminiani 4,138 km (2,571 mi) 113h 30' 05" + 3' 35" 4 5
1964  France Jacques Anquetil Saint-Raphaël–Gitane–Dunlop 4,504 km (2,799 mi) 127h 09' 44" + 55" 4 6
1965  Italy Felice Gimondi Salvarani 4,188 km (2,602 mi) 116h 42' 06" + 2' 40" 3 18
1966  France Lucien Aimar Ford France–Hutchinson 4,329 km (2,690 mi) 117h 34' 21" + 1' 07" 0 6
1967  France Roger Pingeon Peugeot–BP–Michelin 4,779 km (2,970 mi) 136h 53' 50" + 3' 40" 1 17
1968  Netherlands Jan Janssen Pelforth–Sauvage–Lejeune 4,492 km (2,791 mi) 133h 49' 42" + 38" 2 1
1969  Belgium Eddy Merckxdouble-dagger Faema 4,117 km (2,558 mi) 116h 16' 02" + 17' 54" 6 18
1970  Belgium Eddy Merckx* Faemino–Faema 4,254 km (2,643 mi) 119h 31' 49" + 12' 41" 8 20
1971  Belgium Eddy Merckxdagger Molteni 3,608 km (2,242 mi) 96h 45' 14" + 9' 51" 4 17
1972  Belgium Eddy Merckxdagger Molteni 3,846 km (2,390 mi) 108h 17' 18" + 10' 41" 6 15
1973  Spain Luis Ocaña Bic 4,090 km (2,540 mi) 122h 25' 34" + 15' 51" 6 14
1974  Belgium Eddy Merckx Molteni 4,098 km (2,546 mi) 116h 16' 58" + 8' 04" 8 18
1975  France Bernard Thévenet Peugeot–BP–Michelin 4,000 km (2,500 mi) 114h 35' 31" + 2' 47" 2 8
1976  Belgium Lucien Van Impe Gitane–Campagnolo 4,017 km (2,496 mi) 116h 22' 23" + 4' 14" 1 12
1977  France Bernard Thévenet Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 4,096 km (2,545 mi) 115h 38' 30" + 48" 1 8
1978  France Bernard Hinault Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 3,908 km (2,428 mi) 108h 18' 00" + 3' 56" 3 3
1979  France Bernard Hinaultdagger Renault–Gitane 3,765 km (2,339 mi) 103h 06' 50" + 13' 07" 7 17
1980  Netherlands Joop Zoetemelk TI–Raleigh–Creda 3,842 km (2,387 mi) 109h 19' 14" + 6' 55" 2 10
1981  France Bernard Hinault Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,753 km (2,332 mi) 96h 19' 38" + 14' 34" 5 18
1982  France Bernard Hinault Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,507 km (2,179 mi) 92h 08' 46" + 6' 21" 4 12
1983  France Laurent Fignon# Renault–Elf 3,809 km (2,367 mi) 105h 07' 52" + 4' 04" 1 6
1984  France Laurent Fignon Renault–Elf 4,021 km (2,499 mi) 112h 03' 40" + 10' 32" 5 7
1985  France Bernard Hinault La Vie Claire 4,109 km (2,553 mi) 113h 24' 23" + 1' 42" 2 16
1986  United States Greg LeMond La Vie Claire 4,094 km (2,544 mi) 110h 35' 19" + 3' 10" 1 7
1987  Ireland Stephen Roche Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 4,231 km (2,629 mi) 115h 27' 42" + 40" 1 3
1988  Spain Pedro Delgado Reynolds 3,286 km (2,042 mi) 84h 27' 53" + 7' 13" 1 11
1989  United States Greg LeMond AD Renting–W-Cup–Bottecchia 3,285 km (2,041 mi) 87h 38' 35" + 8" 3 8
1990  United States Greg LeMond Z–Tomasso 3,504 km (2,177 mi) 90h 43' 20" + 2' 16" 0 2
1991  Spain Miguel Indurain Banesto 3,914 km (2,432 mi) 101h 01' 20" + 3' 36" 2 10
1992  Spain Miguel Indurain Banesto 3,983 km (2,475 mi) 100h 49' 30" + 4' 35" 3 10
1993  Spain Miguel Indurain Banesto 3,714 km (2,308 mi) 95h 57' 09" + 4' 59" 2 14
1994  Spain Miguel Indurain Banesto 3,978 km (2,472 mi) 103h 38' 38" + 5' 39" 1 13
1995  Spain Miguel Indurain Banesto 3,635 km (2,259 mi) 92h 44' 59" + 4' 35" 2 13
1996  Denmark Bjarne Riis[A] Team Telekom 3,765 km (2,339 mi) 95h 57' 16" + 1' 41" 2 13
1997  Germany Jan Ullrich# Team Telekom 3,950 km (2,450 mi) 100h 30' 35" + 9' 09" 2 12
1998  Italy Marco Pantani Mercatone Uno–Bianchi 3,875 km (2,408 mi) 92h 49' 46" + 3' 21" 2 7
1999[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service 3,687 km (2,291 mi) 91h 32' 16" + 7' 37" 4 15
2000[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service 3,662 km (2,275 mi) 92h 33' 08" + 6' 02" 1 12
2001[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service 3,458 km (2,149 mi) 86h 17' 28" + 6' 44" 4 8
2002[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service 3,272 km (2,033 mi) 82h 05' 12" + 7' 17" 4 11
2003[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service 3,427 km (2,129 mi) 83h 41' 12" + 1' 01" 1 13
2004[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service 3,391 km (2,107 mi) 83h 36' 02" + 6' 19" 5 7
2005[B]  United States Lance Armstrong Discovery Channel 3,593 km (2,233 mi) 86h 15' 02" + 4' 40" 1 17
2006  Spain Floyd Landis Óscar Pereiro[C] Caisse d'Epargne–Illes Balears 3,657 km (2,272 mi) 89h 40' 27" + 32" 0 8
2007  Spain Alberto Contador# Discovery Channel 3,570 km (2,220 mi) 91h 00' 26" + 23" 1 4
2008  Spain Carlos Sastre* Team CSC 3,559 km (2,211 mi) 87h 52' 52" + 58" 1 5
2009  Spain Alberto Contador Astana 3,459 km (2,149 mi) 85h 48' 35" + 4' 11" 2 7
2010  Luxembourg Alberto Contador Andy Schleck#[D] Team Saxo Bank 3,642 km (2,263 mi) 91h 59' 27" + 1' 22" 2 12
2011  Australia Cadel Evans BMC Racing Team 3,430 km (2,130 mi) 86h 12' 22" + 1' 34" 1 2
2012  Great Britain Bradley Wiggins Team Sky 3,496 km (2,172 mi) 87h 34' 47" + 3' 21" 2 14
2013  Great Britain Chris Froome Team Sky 3,404 km (2,115 mi) 83h 56' 20" + 4' 20" 3 14
2014  Italy Vincenzo Nibali Astana 3,660.5 km (2,274.5 mi) 89h 59' 06" + 7' 37" 4 19
2015  Great Britain Chris Froome* Team Sky 3,360.3 km (2,088.0 mi) 84h 46' 14" + 1' 12" 1 16
2016  Great Britain Chris Froome Team Sky 3,529 km (2,193 mi) 89h 04' 48" + 4' 05" 2 14
2017  Great Britain Chris Froome Team Sky 3,540 km (2,200 mi) 86h 20' 55" + 54" 0 15
2018  Great Britain Geraint Thomas Team Sky 3,349 km (2,081 mi) 83h 17' 13" + 1' 51" 2 11

Multiple winners[edit]

The following riders have won the Tour de France on 2 or more occasions. Since the retirement of two-time winner Alberto Contador in 2017, the only active rider on the list as of that year is Chris Froome, currently with 4 wins. Contador had originally won three Tours, but was stripped of one following an anti-doping violation.[D]

Lance Armstrong was removed from the head of the list after having all seven of his Tour victories stripped when he was found guilty of repeated doping offences. Had his tainted Tour victories been reallocated (as were the victories of Floyd Landis and Contador) to the second placed rider in each race, Jan Ullrich would have joined the list with 4 Tour wins. However, the race organisers ASO decided not to reallocate the titles won in those years, in recognition of the historic doping problem in the sport at that time - Ullrich himself having been banned for a doping violation. Ullrich, therefore, has a single Tour victory to his name.

Multiple winners of the Tour de France general classification
Cyclist Total Years
 Jacques Anquetil (FRA) 5 1957, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964
 Eddy Merckx (BEL) 5 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974
 Bernard Hinault (FRA) 5 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1985
 Miguel Indurain (ESP) 5 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
 Chris Froome (GBR) 4 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017
 Philippe Thys (BEL) 3 1913, 1914, 1920
 Louison Bobet (FRA) 3 1953, 1954, 1955
 Greg LeMond (USA) 3 1986, 1989, 1990
 Lucien Petit-Breton (FRA) 2 1907, 1908
 Firmin Lambot (BEL) 2 1919, 1922
 Ottavio Bottecchia (ITA) 2 1924, 1925
 Nicolas Frantz (LUX) 2 1927, 1928
 André Leducq (FRA) 2 1930, 1932
 Antonin Magne (FRA) 2 1931, 1934
 Sylvère Maes (BEL) 2 1936, 1939
 Gino Bartali (ITA) 2 1938, 1948
 Fausto Coppi (ITA) 2 1949, 1952
 Bernard Thévenet (FRA) 2 1975, 1977
 Laurent Fignon (FRA) 2 1983, 1984
 Alberto Contador (ESP)[D] 2 2007, 2009

By nationality[edit]

Tour de France general classification winners by nationality
Country No. of wins No. of winning cyclists
 France 36 23
 Belgium 18 10
 Spain[D] 12 7
 Italy 10 7
 Great Britain 6 3
 Luxembourg 5 4
 United States[B][C] 3 1
 Netherlands 2 2
  Switzerland 2 2
 Denmark 1 1
 Germany 1 1
 Ireland 1 1
 Australia 1 1

Footnotes[edit]

A. ^ Bjarne Riis has admitted to doping during the 1996 Tour de France. The organizers of the Tour de France have stated that they no longer consider him to be the winner, although Union Cycliste Internationale has so far refused to change the official status due to the amount of time passed since his win. Jan Ullrich was placed second on the podium in Paris.[28]

B. a b c d e f g h Lance Armstrong was declared winner of seven consecutive Tours from 1999 to 2005. However, in October 2012 he was stripped of all titles by the UCI due to the use of performance-enhancing drugs. The Tour director Christian Prudhomme had previously declared that if this happened, there would be no alternate winners for those years, but this has not yet been made official.[29]

C. a b Floyd Landis was the winner at the podium ceremony in Paris on the last day of the 2006 Tour, but subsequently was found to have tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs during stage 17 of the race. The United States Anti-Doping Agency found him guilty of using synthetic testosterone during the race and stripped him of his title on 20 September 2007.[30]

D. a b c Alberto Contador was the winner at the podium ceremony in Paris on the last day of the 2010 Tour, but subsequently was found to have tested positive for the prohibited substance Clenbuterol on a rest day. The Court of Arbitration for Sport found him guilty of using clenbuterol during the race and stripped him of his title on 6 February 2012.[31]

E. ^ Henri Cornet was declared the winner of 1904 race after the disqualification of Maurice Garin for cheating.

References[edit]

  1. ^ FAQ. Union Cycliste Internationale. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2009. 
  2. ^ Dauncey, Hugh; Hare, Geoff (2003). Tour de France: 1903-2003. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7146-5362-4. 
  3. ^ Scholiansky, Christopher (6 July 2009). "Will He? Won't He? Can Armstrong Win Tour de France?". American Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  4. ^ "Guide Historique 2017" (PDF). Tour de France. Retrieved 9 October 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Fletcher, Paul (23 July 2017). "Tour de France 2017: Chris Froome wins yellow jersey for the fourth time". BBC Sport. Retrieved 26 September 2017. 
  6. ^ "Armstrong seals seventh Tour win". BBC Sport. 24 July 2005. Retrieved 17 August 2009. 
  7. ^ a b "Armstrong stripped of all seven Tour de France wins by UCI". BBC Sport. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  8. ^ "1903–1914: Pioneers and 'assassins'". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  9. ^ "1930–1939: Adapt to survive". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  10. ^ "1947–1956: Post-war rivalries". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  11. ^ "1957–1966: Anquetil 5–0 Poulidor". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  12. ^ "1967–1977: Tragedy before a Cannibal's feast". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 18 August 2009. 
  13. ^ "1978–1984: The Badger's golden era". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 19 August 2009. 
  14. ^ Armijo, Vic (1999). The complete idiot's guide to cycling. Alpha Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-02-862929-9. 
  15. ^ "1985–1990: American, Irishman and Spaniard". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  16. ^ "1991–1995: Big Mig's masterclass". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  17. ^ Duff, Alex (25 May 2007). "Riis, Tour de France Champ, Says He Took Banned Drugs". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2009. 
  18. ^ "1996–2000: Doping and the great recovery". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  19. ^ "Overall standings 2002". BBC Sport. 28 July 2002. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
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See also[edit]