Outline of Turkey

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The location of Turkey
An enlargeable map of the Republic of Turkey

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Turkey:

The Republic of Turkey is a sovereign Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Southwest Asia and Thrace (Rumelia) at the southeastern tip of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe.[1] Turkey borders eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west, Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhichevan), and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea and Archipelago are to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. Separating Anatolia and Thrace are the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosporus and the Dardanelles), which are commonly reckoned to delineate the border between Asia and Europe, thereby making Turkey transcontinental.[2]

Located astride two continents, Turkey's culture has a distinct blend of Eastern and Western tradition. A powerful regional presence in the Eurasian landmass with strong historic, cultural and economic influence in the area between the European Union in the west and Central Asia in the east, Russia in the north and the Middle East in the south, Turkey has come to acquire increasing strategic significance.[3][4]

Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I. Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe (1949), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1952), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1961), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (1973) and the G20 industrial nations (1999). Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member since 1963, and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Meanwhile, Turkey has continued to foster close political, economic and industrial relations with the Eastern world, particularly with the states of the Middle East, Central Asia and East Asia.

General reference[edit]

An enlargeable basic map of Turkey

Geography of Turkey[edit]

An enlargeable topographic map of Turkey
 Syria 822 km
 Iran 499 km
 Iraq 352 km
 Armenia 268 km
 Georgia 252 km
 Bulgaria 240 km
 Greece 206 km
 Azerbaijan 9 km
  • Coastline: 7,200 km

Environment of Turkey[edit]

An enlargeable satellite image of Turkey

Natural geographic features of Turkey[edit]

Regions of Turkey[edit]

Ecoregions of Turkey[edit]

Administrative divisions of Turkey[edit]

Provinces of Turkey[edit]

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces, called iller in Turkish

Districts of Turkey[edit]

The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ilçe).

Demography of Turkey[edit]

Government and politics of Turkey[edit]

Main article: Government of Turkey and Politics of Turkey

Branches of the government of Turkey[edit]

Executive branch of the government of Turkey[edit]

Legislative branch of the government of Turkey[edit]

Judicial branch of the government of Turkey[edit]

There are three supreme courts in Turkey:

Foreign relations of Turkey[edit]

International organization membership[edit]

The Republic of Turkey is a member of:[1]

Law and order in Turkey[edit]

Military of Turkey[edit]

History of Turkey[edit]

Main article: History of Turkey and Timeline of Turkish history

Culture of Turkey[edit]

Art in Turkey[edit]

Sports in Turkey[edit]

Economy and infrastructure of Turkey[edit]

Education in Turkey[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Turkey". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. July 14, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  2. ^ Sabancı University (2005). "Geography of Turkey". Sabancı University. Retrieved 2006-12-13. 
  3. ^ Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk. Overlook. ISBN 1-58567-011-1. 
  4. ^ Shaw, Stanford Jay; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29163-1. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Atlas of Turkey

Public institutions
Additional profiles