List of U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School alumni

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USAF Test Pilot School, Edwards AFB, California

The United States Air Force Test Pilot School (TPS) graduated the following notable alumni who made significant contributions to the aerospace field. The school's mission is to produce experimental test pilots, flight test engineers, and flight test navigators to lead and conduct test and evaluation of aerospace weapon systems.[1] The school was established on September 9, 1944 as the Flight Test Training Unit at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (AFB) in Dayton, Ohio.[2] To take advantage of the uncongested skies and superb flying weather, the school was moved on February 4, 1951 to its present location at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert of Southern California.[2] Edwards AFB is the home of the Air Force Flight Test Center and has been an integral part of flight testing for over fifty years.[3]

Between 1962 and 1972, the Test Pilot School expanded its role to include astronaut training for military test pilots.[4] Thirty-seven TPS graduates of this era were selected for the U.S. space program, and twenty-six went on to earn astronaut's wings by flying in the X-15, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle programs.[5] Although the school no longer trains astronauts, many TPS graduates since 1972 have been selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for duties in space. The school encourages applications from civilians, personnel from other U.S. military services, and individuals from foreign countries.[6] An exchange program allows selected students to attend other test pilot schools including the United States Naval Test Pilot School, the United Kingdom's Empire Test Pilots' School, and France's EPNER.[7]

List of famous alumni[edit]

The following graduates of the USAF Test Pilot School are listed in the roles for which they are most notable.[8] These roles include:

  • Astronaut – Alumni who were trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
  • Flight test – Alumni notable for their work in flight testing including the "Golden Age" of jet flight testing: 1948 to 1968.[9]
  • Military commander – Alumni who achieved notability as the commanding officer of a military unit.
  • Author – Alumni who have authored books on flight test.

Key[edit]

Service
USAF United States Air Force
USAFR United States Air Force Reserve
USN United States Navy
USNR United States Navy Reserve
USMC United States Marine Corps
Civilians From specified U.S. contractors and government agencies
Rank Military rank For individuals who have served in the armed forces. The rank shown is current at the time this list was created and is subject to change.
"n/a" For civilians who have not served in the armed forces and therefore do not have military rank.
Class Year/Letter The year and order in which a class started. For example, 07A was the first of two classes to start in 2007.[10]
Roman Numeral Four Aerospace Research Pilot School (ARPS) classes designated I, II, III, and IV, that prepared students for manned spaceflight operations. These classes were dropped when the USAF lost its manned spaceflight mission.[11]
MOL Classes to train military astronauts of the Manned Orbital Laboratory (MOL) program. MOL was cancelled in 1969 before any of the astronauts went into space.[12]
AFIT The USAF TPS selects up to eight students per year to attend the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. These individuals attend 15 months of class work and thesis preparation prior to completing the USAF TPS curriculum.[7]

Astronauts[edit]

Col. Frank Borman, USAF, first lunar orbit as Apollo 8 commander
Col. Eileen Collins, USAF, first female shuttle pilot, first female shuttle commander
MGen. Michael Collins, USAF, Apollo 11 command module pilot
Capt. Robert Crippen, USN, STS-1 pilot, STS commander
Maj. William "Pete" Knight by modified X-15A-2 after record-setting flight
VADM. Richard H. Truly, USN, NASA administrator, STS commander and pilot
Lt. Col. Ed White, USAF, first U.S. spacewalk
MGen. Bob White, USAF, first to exceed Mach 4, 5 and 6

  *   Individual was killed in a work-related (aviation) accident.

Name Service Rank Class Notable events Ref
Adams, Michael J.Michael J. Adams* USAF O-04Major 1962-0362C, IV, MOL X-15 Flight 191, 1965 USAF MOL Group [13]
Akers, ThomasThomas Akers USAF O-06Colonel 1982-0282B STS-41, STS-49, STS-61, STS-79 [14]
Antonelli, Dominic A.Dominic A. Antonelli USN O-05Commander 1997-0297B 2000 NASA Group [15]
Archambault, LeeLee Archambault USAF O-06Colonel 1994-0294B STS-117 [16]
Bassett, CharlesCharles Bassett* USAF O-03Captain 1962-0162A, III 1963 NASA Group 3 [17]
Blaha, John E.John E. Blaha USAF O-06Colonel 1971-0171A STS-29, STS-33, STS-43, STS-58, STS-79, Mir-22, STS-81 [18]
Bloomfield, Michael J.Michael J. Bloomfield USAF O-06Colonel 1992-0192A STS-86, STS-97, STS-110 [19]
Bobko, Karol J.Karol J. Bobko USAF O-06Colonel 1965-0265B, MOL STS-6, STS-51-D, STS-51-J [20]
Boe, Eric A.Eric A. Boe USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1997-0197A 2000 NASA Group [21]
Borman, FrankFrank Borman USAF O-06Colonel 1960-0360C, I Gemini 7, Apollo 8 [22]
Bowersox, KenKen Bowersox USN O-06Captain 1985-0185A STS-50, STS-61, STS-73, STS-82, STS-113, Expedition 6, Soyuz TMA-1 [23]
Bridges, Jr., Roy D.Roy D. Bridges, Jr. USAF O-08Major General 1970-0270B STS-51-F [24]
Brown, CurtisCurtis Brown USAF O-06Colonel 1985-0285B STS-47, STS-66, STS-77, STS-85, STS-95, STS-103 [25]
Carey, Duane G.Duane G. Carey USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1992-0192A STS-109 [26]
Casper, JohnJohn Casper USAF O-06Colonel 1974-0174A STS-36, STS-54, STS-62, STS-77 [27]
Chilton, Kevin P.Kevin P. Chilton USAF O-10General 1984-0184A STS-49, STS-59, STS-76 [28]
Collins, EileenEileen Collins USAF O-06Colonel 1989-0289B STS-63 (first female shuttle pilot), STS-84, STS-93 (first female shuttle commander), STS-114 [29]
Collins, MichaelMichael Collins USAFR O-08Major General 1960-0360C, III Gemini 10, Apollo 11 [30]
Cooper, GordonGordon Cooper USAF O-06Colonel 1956-0456D Mercury 9, Gemini 5 [31]
Covey, Richard O.Richard O. Covey USAF O-06Colonel 1974-0274B STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-38, STS-61 [32]
Crews, Albert H.Albert H. Crews USAF O-06Colonel 1960-0160A, II, MOL 1962 Dyna-Soar Group, 1965 USAF MOL Group [33]
Crippen, RobertRobert Crippen USN O-06Captain 1965-0165A, MOL STS-1, STS-7, STS-41-C, STS-41-G [34]
Duffy, BrianBrian Duffy USAF O-06Colonel 1982-0282B STS-57, STS-72, STS-92 [35]
Duke, CharlesCharles Duke USAF O-07Brig. General 1964-0364C Apollo 16 [36]
Dutton, JamesJames Dutton USAF O-05Lt Colonel 2000-0100A 2004 NASA Group [37]
Eisele, Donn F.Donn F. Eisele USAF O-06Colonel 1962-0162A Apollo 7 [38]
Engle, JoeJoe Engle USAF O-06Colonel 1961-0361C, III X-15 Flight 138, X-15 Flight 143, X-15 Flight 153, ALT, STS-2, STS-51-I [39]
Fincke, MichaelMichael Fincke USAF O-06Colonel 1993-0293B Soyuz TMA-4, Expedition 9, Soyuz TMA-13, Expedition 18, STS-134 [40]
Finley, John L.John L. Finley USN O-06Captain 1964-0164A, MOL 1965 USAF MOL Group [41]
Fischer, Jack D.Jack D. Fischer USAF O-04Major 2003-0203B 2009 NASA Group 20 [42]
Ford, Kevin A.Kevin A. Ford USAF O-06Colonel 1990-0190A 2000 NASA Group [43]
Fossum, Michael E.Michael E. Fossum USAF O-06Colonel 1985-0185A STS-121, STS-124, Soyuz TMA-02M, Expedition 28 [44]
Freeman, TheodoreTheodore Freeman* USAF O-03Captain 1962-0162A, IV 1963 NASA Group [45]
Fullerton, C. GordonC. Gordon Fullerton USAF O-06Colonel 1964-0264B, MOL ALT, STS-3, STS-51-F [46]
Gardner, GuyGuy Gardner USAF O-06Colonel 1975-0175A STS-27, STS-35, TPS Commandant [47]
Givens, EdwardEdward Givens USAF O-04Major 1958-0258B, III 1966 NASA Group [48]
Grabe, Ronald J.Ronald J. Grabe USAF O-06Colonel 1974-0174A STS-51-J, STS-30, STS-42, STS-57 [49]
Gregory, William G.William G. Gregory USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1987-0187A STS-67 [50]
Grissom, GusGus Grissom* USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1956-0456D Mercury-Redstone 4, Gemini 3, Apollo 1 [51]
Gutierrez, Sidney M.Sidney M. Gutierrez USAF O-06Colonel 1981-0181A STS-40, STS-59 [52]
Haise, FredFred Haise NASA O-00n/a 1964-0164A Apollo 13, ALT [53]
Halsell, James D.James D. Halsell USAF O-06Colonel 1986-0186A STS-65, STS-74, STS-83, STS-94, STS-101 [54]
Hartsfield, HenryHenry Hartsfield USAF O-06Colonel 1964-0364C, MOL STS-4, STS-41-D, STS-61-A [55]
Helms, Susan J.Susan J. Helms USAF O-09Lt. General 1988-0188A STS-54, STS-64, STS-78, STS-101, STS-102, Expedition 2, STS-105 [56]
Henricks, Terence T.Terence T. Henricks USAF O-06Colonel 1983-0183A STS-44, STS-55, STS-70, STS-78 [57]
Horowitz, Scott J.Scott J. Horowitz USAF O-06Colonel 1990-0190A STS-75, STS-82, STS-101, STS-105 [58]
Husband, Richard D.Richard D. Husband* USAF O-06Colonel 1988-0188A STS-96, STS-107 Columbia loss [59]
Irwin, JamesJames Irwin USAF O-06Colonel 1960-0360C, IV Apollo 15 [60]
Johnson, Gregory C.Gregory C. Johnson USNR O-06Captain 1984-0184A STS-125 [61]
Johnson, Gregory H.Gregory H. Johnson USAF O-06Colonel 1994-0194A STS-123 [62]
Kelly, James M.James M. Kelly USAF O-06Colonel 1993-0293B STS-102, STS-114 [63]
Knight, PetePete Knight USAF O-06Colonel 1958-0358C, 63A X-15 Flight 190, California State Senator [64][65]
Lawrence, RobertRobert Lawrence* USAF O-04Major 1966-0266B, MOL First African-American astronaut, 1967 USAF MOL Group [66]
Lawyer, Richard E.Richard E. Lawyer USAF O-06Colonel 1963-0163A, MOL 1965 USAF MOL Group [67]
Lindsey, Steven W.Steven W. Lindsey USAF O-06Colonel 1989-0189A, AFIT STS-87, STS-95, STS-104, STS-121 [68]
Lockhart, PaulPaul Lockhart USAF O-06Colonel 1991-0191A STS-111, STS-113 [69]
Loria, ChristopherChristopher Loria USMC O-06Colonel 1993-0193A 1996 NASA Group [70]
Macleay, LachlanLachlan Macleay USAF O-06Colonel 1960-0160A, IV, MOL 1965 USAF MOL Group [71]
Mattingly, KenKen Mattingly USN O-07Rear Admiral 1965-0265B Apollo 16, STS-4, STS-51-C [72]
McBride, JonJon McBride USN O-06Captain 1975-0175A STS-41-G [73]
McDivitt, JamesJames McDivitt USAF O-07Brig. General 1959-0359C, I Gemini 4, Apollo 9 [74]
McMonagle, Donald R.Donald R. McMonagle USAF O-06Colonel 1981-0181A STS-39, STS-54, STS-66 [75]
Meade, Carl J.Carl J. Meade USAF O-06Colonel 1980-0280B STS-38, STS-50, STS-64 [76]
Melroy, PamelaPamela Melroy USAF O-06Colonel 1991-0291B STS-92, STS-112, STS-120 [77]
Mitchell, EdgarEdgar Mitchell USN O-06Captain 1965-0265B Apollo 14 [78]
Mullane, RichardRichard Mullane USAF O-06Colonel 1975-0275B STS-41-D, STS-27, STS-36 [79]
Nagel, Steven R.Steven R. Nagel USAF O-06Colonel 1975-0175A STS-51-G, STS-61-A, STS-37, STS-55 [80]
Neubeck, Francis G.Francis G. Neubeck USAF O-06Colonel 1960-0360C, III, MOL 1965 USAF MOL Group [81]
Onizuka, EllisonEllison Onizuka* USAF O-06Colonel 1974-0274B STS-51-C, STS-51-L Challenger loss [82]
Overmyer, Robert F.Robert F. Overmyer USMC O-06Colonel 1965-0365C, MOL STS-5, STS-51-B [83]
Peterson, Donald H.Donald H. Peterson USAF O-06Colonel 1966-0266B, MOL STS-6 [84]
Polansky, Mark L.Mark L. Polansky USAF O-03Captain 1986-0286B STS-98, STS-116 [85]
Precourt, Charles J.Charles J. Precourt USAF O-06Colonel 1985-0185A STS-55, STS-71, STS-84, STS-91 [86]
Rogers, Russell L.Russell L. Rogers* USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1958-0358C 1960 Dyna-Soar Group [87]
Roosa, StuartStuart Roosa USAF O-06Colonel 1964-0364C Apollo 14 [88]
Ross, Jerry L.Jerry L. Ross USAF O-06Colonel 1975-0275B STS-61-B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88, STS-110 [89]
Rushworth, Robert A.Robert A. Rushworth USAF O-08Major General 1956-0356C X-15 Flight 87 [90]
Scobee, DickDick Scobee* USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1971-0271B STS-41-C, STS-51-L Challenger loss [91]
Scott, DavidDavid Scott USAF O-06Colonel 1962-0362C, IV Gemini 8, Apollo 9, Apollo 15 [92]
Shaw, Brewster H.Brewster H. Shaw USAF O-06Colonel 1975-0275B STS-9, STS-61-B, STS-28 [93]
Shriver, LorenLoren Shriver USAF O-06Colonel 1975-0175A STS-51-C, STS-31, STS-46 [94]
Slayton, DekeDeke Slayton USAF O-04Major 1955-0355C Apollo-Soyuz Test Project [95]
Stafford, Thomas P.Thomas P. Stafford USAF O-09Lt General 1958-0358C Gemini 6A, Gemini 9A, Apollo 10, ASTP [96]
Sturckow, Frederick W.Frederick W. Sturckow USMC O-06Colonel 1992-0192A STS-88, STS-105, STS-117 [97]
Taylor, James M.James M. Taylor* USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1963-0163A, MOL 1965 USAF MOL Group [98]
Truly, Richard H.Richard H. Truly USN O-09Vice Admiral 1964-0164A, MOL ALT, STS-2, STS-8, NASA Administrator [99][100]
Virts, Terry W.Terry W. Virts USAF O-06Colonel 1998-0298B STS-130 [101]
Walheim, Rex J.Rex J. Walheim USAF O-06Colonel 1992-0192A STS-110, STS-122 [102]
Walker, David M.David M. Walker USN O-06Captain 1971-0171A STS-51-A, STS-30, STS-53, STS-69 [103]
Walz, Carl E.Carl E. Walz USAF O-06Colonel 1983-0183A STS-51, STS-65, STS-79, STS-108, Expedition 4, STS-111 [104]
White II, Edward H.Edward H. White II* USAF O-05Lt Colonel 1959-0359C Gemini 4, Apollo 1 [105]
White, Robert M.Robert M. White USAF O-08Major General 1954-0354C X-15 Flight 62 [106]
Wood, James W.James W. Wood USAF O-06Colonel 1956-0456D 1960 Dyna-Soar Group 1 [87]
Worden, AlfredAlfred Worden USAF O-06Colonel 1964-0364C Apollo 15 [107]
Zamka, George D.George D. Zamka USMC O-06Colonel 1994-0194A STS-120 [108]

Flight test[edit]

BGen. Robert Cardenas, USAF, YB-49 chief USAF test pilot
Lt. Bob Hoover, USAF, test and demonstration pilot
Tony LeVier, Lockheed, chief test pilot
Joseph John "Tym" Tymczyszyn, Test Pilot of America’s first commercial jet aircraft

  *   Individual was killed in a work-related (aviation) accident.

Name Service Rank Class Notable events Ref
Apt, Milburn G.Milburn G. Apt* USAF O-03Captain 1954-0254B First to exceed Mach 3. Speed record of Mach 3.2 in X-2 [109][110]
Ascani, Fred J.Fred J. Ascani USAF O-08Major General 1946-246B Father of Systems Engineering at Wright Field. F-86 speed record [111]
Bong, RichardRichard Bong* USAF O-04Major 1945-0145 United States' highest-scoring air ace. Medal of Honor recipient [112]
Brown, James "JB"James "JB" Brown USAF O-04Major 1986-0186A F-22 Raptor lead test pilot and F-117 Nighthawk chief test pilot [113]
Cardenas, RobertRobert Cardenas USAF O-07Brig. General 1946-1046J B-29 commander on mission to break sound barrier. Chief USAF test pilot for YB-49 flying wing [114]
Chilstrom, KenKen Chilstrom USAF O-06Colonel 1945-0145 Tested over twenty German and Japanese aircraft during World War II. First military pilot to fly XP-86. First jet air race. First transport of air mail by jet [115]
[116]
[117]
[118]
Edwards, GlenGlen Edwards* USAF O-03Captain 1945-0145 Namesake of Edwards Air Force Base [119]
Everest, Frank K.Frank K. Everest USAF O-07Brig. General 1946-0446D Speed record of Mach 2.9 in the X-2. Subject and co-author of The Fastest Man Alive [120]
Fulton, Fitzhugh L.Fitzhugh L. Fulton USAF O-07Brig. General 1952-0252B Altitude record of 85,360 ft (26.02 km) in the B-58. XB-70, YF-12, 747 Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft testiing [121]
Greenamyer, DarrylDarryl Greenamyer Lockheed O-00n/a 1963-0163A Piston engine speed record of 776 km/h (482 mph) in an F8F-2. Low altitude speed record of 1,590 km/h (990 mph) in an F-104 [122][123]
Hoover, BobBob Hoover USAF O-02Lieutenant 1946-0346C Flew chase during the Mach one flight. Named "the greatest stick-and-rudder man who ever lived" by Jimmy Doolittle. Noted air show pilot in Shrike Commander and P-51 [124]
Jabour, JayJay Jabour USAF O-07Brigadier General 1973-0379B ATF and first F-22 Test Force Commander [125]
LeVier, TonyTony LeVier Lockheed O-00n/a 1945-0145 Lockheed chief test pilot. P-38, P-80, XF-90, XF-104, U-2 testing [126]
Tymczyszyn, Joseph John "Tym"Joseph John "Tym" Tymczyszyn FAA O-00n/a 1945-0149C Test Pilot on America's First Commercial Jet Aircraft, the Boeing 707 [127]
Murray, Arthur K.Arthur K. Murray USAF O-04Major 1945-0745G X-1A, X-1B, X-4, X-5 testing [128]
Peterson, BruceBruce Peterson NASA O-00n/a 1963-0163A M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10 lifting body flights [129]
Pisanos, SteveSteve Pisanos USAF O-06Colonel 1945-0445D F-80 Shooting Star, F-102 Delta Dagger, F-4E testing [130]
Ridley, JackJack Ridley* USAF O-06Colonel 1946-0146A Project engineer for the team that broke the sound barrier [131]
Stephens, Robert L.Robert L. Stephens USAF O-06Colonel 1949-0449D Speed and altitude records testing the YF-12 and SR-71 [132]
Thacker, Robert E.Robert E. Thacker USAF O-06Colonel 1946-0146 P-80 Shooting Star, P-82 distance/speed record, Lockheed solar-powered aircraft [133]
Townsend, Guy M.Guy M. Townsend USAF O-07Brig. General 1946-0646F Co-pilot on the first flight of the B-52 Stratofortress. First military pilot to fly the B-47 Stratojet, B-50 Superfortress, B-52 Stratofortress, and the prototype of the KC-135 Stratotanker [134]
Yeager, ChuckChuck Yeager USAF O-07Brig. General 1946-0346C First to travel faster than sound during level flight [135]

Military commanders[edit]

Name Service Rank Class Notable events Ref
Abrahamson, James A.James A. Abrahamson USAF O-09Lt. General 1966-0266B, MOL Strategic Defense Initiative director [136]
Deatrick, Eugene P.Eugene P. Deatrick USAF O-06Colonel 1951-0151A, 53C TPS Commandant. Rescue of Navy Lt. Dieter Dengler [137][138]
Gabreski, GabbyGabby Gabreski USAF O-06Colonel 1951-0145G Top American fighter ace in Europe during World War II [139][140]
Herres, Robert T.Robert T. Herres USAF O-10General 1966-0266B, MOL Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [141]
Kutyna, Donald J.Donald J. Kutyna USAF O-10General 1965-0365C North American Aerospace Defense Command [142]
Loh, John M.John M. Loh USAF O-10General 1967-0267B Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force [143]
Yates, Ronald W. Ronald W. Yates USAF O-10General 1966-0266B Air Force Materiel Command [144]

Authors[edit]

Col. Donald S. Lopez, Sr., USAF, aviation author
Name Service Rank Class Notable events Ref
Lopez, Donald S.Donald S. Lopez USAF O-06Colonel 1947-0647F Author of two aviation books. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum deputy director [145][146][147]
Marrett, George J.George J. Marrett USAF O-03Captain 1964-0164A Author of four aviation books, three on flight testing [148][149][150][151]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ USAF TPS Graduate Course Catalog. p. 9. 
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School History". United States Air Force. Retrieved 2008-08-10. 
  3. ^ "Edwards Air Force Base". United States Air Force. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  4. ^ USAF Test Pilot School 50 Years and Beyond. p. 233. 
  5. ^ Young, J. Forging Aerospace Power for America. pp. 3–4. 
  6. ^ USAF TPS Graduate Course Catalog. p. 19. 
  7. ^ a b USAF TPS Graduate Course Catalog. p. 18. 
  8. ^ For the purposes of this list, notability is per the definition at WP:BIO and WP:MILMOS#NOTE.
  9. ^ Marrett, G. Contrails Over the Mojave. p. 6. ISBN 1-59114-511-2. 
  10. ^ USAF TPS Graduate Course Catalog. p. 8. 
  11. ^ USAF Test Pilot School 50 Years and Beyond. p. 50. 
  12. ^ "Astrospies". NOVA. PBS. December 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  13. ^ "Adams Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  14. ^ "Akers Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  15. ^ "Antonelli Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  16. ^ "Archambault Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  17. ^ "Bassett Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  18. ^ "Blaha Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  19. ^ "Bloomfield Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  20. ^ "Bobko Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  21. ^ "Boe Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  22. ^ "Borman Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  23. ^ "Bowersox Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  24. ^ "Bridges Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  25. ^ "Brown Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  26. ^ "Carey Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  27. ^ "Casper Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  28. ^ "Chilton Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  29. ^ "E. Collins Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  30. ^ "M. Collins Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  31. ^ "Cooper Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  32. ^ "Covey Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  33. ^ "Crews Biography". NOVA Astrospies. PBS. December 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  34. ^ "Crippen Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  35. ^ "Duffy Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  36. ^ "Duke Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  37. ^ "Dutton Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  38. ^ "Eisele Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  39. ^ "Engle Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  40. ^ "Fincke Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  41. ^ "Finley Biography". NOVA Astrospies. PBS. December 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  42. ^ "Fischer Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  43. ^ "Ford Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  44. ^ "Fossum Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  45. ^ "Freeman Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  46. ^ "Fullerton Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  47. ^ "Gardner Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  48. ^ "Givens Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  49. ^ "Grabe Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  50. ^ "Gregory Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  51. ^ "Grissom Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  52. ^ "Gutierrez Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  53. ^ "Haise Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  54. ^ "Halsell Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  55. ^ "Hartsfield Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  56. ^ "Helms Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  57. ^ "Henricks Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  58. ^ "Horowitz Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  59. ^ "Husband Biography". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
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