List of U.S. Highways in Michigan

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United States Numbered Highways of the State Trunkline Highway System
US Highway 102 markerUS Highway 16 markerUS Highway 23 marker
Highway markers from different years for former US Highway 102 (1926), former US Highway 16 (1948), and current US Highway 23 (1973)
US Highways in Michigan highlighted in red
System information
Maintained by MDOT
Length: 2,299.653 mi[3] (3,700.933 km)
Plus 159.621 mi [3] (256.885 km) of business routes
Formed: November 11, 1926 (1926-11-11)[1][2]
Highway names
US Highways: US Highway nn (US nn)
Special Routes:
  • Alternate US Highway nn (US nnA)
  • Business US Highway nn (Bus. US nn)
  • Bypass US Highway nn (Byp. US nn)
  • Truck US Highway nn (Truck US nn)
System links

The US Highways in Michigan are the segments of the national United States Numbered Highway System[4] that are owned and maintained by the US state of Michigan,[5] totaling about 2,300 miles (3,701 km).[3] The longest of these is US Highway 23 (US 23) at around 362 miles (583 km). On a national level, the standards and numbering for the system are handled by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), while the highways in Michigan are maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT).

The original highways were approved on November 11, 1926, by AASHTO including 14 mainline highways. A handful of these original highway designations no longer run within Michigan, and a few numbers have been added since the 1930s. Since 1999, there have been 13 mainline highways, and with the creation of a business route for Constantine, there are a total of 30 special routes in the state. Several highways have been converted to freeways, some of which are now Interstate Highways and no longer part of the US Highway System. These freeway conversions started in the 1940s and 1950s and continued through to the turn of the 21st century.

Description[edit]

MDOT is the agency responsible for the day-to-day maintenance and operations of the State Trunkline Highway System, which includes the U.S. Highways in Michigan. The numbering for these highways is coordinated through AASHTO,[6] an organization composed of the various state departments of transportation in the United States.[7] Under the scheme finalized in 1926, two-digit US Highways are numbered in a grid; east–west highways have even numbers while north–south routes have odd numbers. The lowest numbers are in the east and the north. The east–west highways in Michigan number in the single digits up to the low 20s. The north–south highways range from the low 20s into the 40s. There are also three three-digit highways numbered in the 100s and one in the 200s as branches of related two-digit highways.[8]

In Michigan, the US Highway System covers about 2,300 miles (3,701 km) of mainline highways and another 160 miles (257 km) of special routes.[3] There are 13 mainline highways and 30 special routes in total, including one business route that is unsigned.[8][9] Two of the mainline highways in the Upper Peninsula exit the state and re-enter, resulting in two discontinuous segments of highway for each in Michigan.[10] The longest US Highway in the state is US Highway 23 (US 23) at just over 362 miles (583 km) spanning from the Ohio state line north to the Straits of Mackinac in the Lower Peninsula, while the shortest is the 2.3-mile (3.7 km) segment of US 8 south of Norway in Dickinson County. Special routes range in length from about 1 14 miles (2.0 km) for Business US 2 (Bus. US 2) in Ironwood to 10 miles (16 km) for Bus. US 131 in Kalamazoo.[3]

History[edit]

 Map
US Highway number assignments on November 11, 1926, in Michigan

The US Highway System was approved on November 11, 1926.[1] At the time, 14 mainline highways were designated in Michigan.[2] Within two years, US 102 was renumbered as part of an extended US 141, and the former designation was decommissioned.[11] Since then, another four designations were added in the state during the 1930s. One of these, US 112S was a suffixed, directional branch of the US 112 mainline; it was removed a few years[12] after being designated in 1931.[13] Around the same time period, the first alternate routes were designated, numbered with an "A" suffix.[a]

During World War II, the Michigan State Highway Department (MSHD)[b] built the Willow Run Expressway to carry workers from Detroit to the defense plants at Willow Run Airport.[19] This expressway was numbered as a part of US 112 initially.[20] During the 1950s, additional highways were converted to freeways before the coming of the Interstate Highway System in 1957. The first highway renumbered as an Interstate was US 24A in the southeastern corner of the state, which became part of Interstate 75 (I-75) in 1959.[21]

Major numbering changes started in the 1960s as Michigan retired or rerouted its US Highways with the completion of Interstates. US 12 replaced US 112 in 1962 when the I-94 designation supplanted most of the original US 12.[22] Later that year, US 16 was decommissioned in favor of I-96.[23] This trend continued into the 1970s when US 25 was decommissioned as redundant to sections of I-75 and I-94.[24]

Not all freeway conversions of existing US Highways resulted in the removal of US Highway numbers. In 1968, the state submitted a request for additional Interstate Highway mileage to the federal government, including a proposal to convert US 131.[25] This specific project was not approved although the state continued its own efforts to convert the highway, including various segments opened in the 1970s[26] and 1980s.[27] Other highways converted to freeways included US 10, US 23, US 27, US 31 and US 127.[8]

At the end of the 1970s, MDOT took part in a Federal Highway Administration-backed initiative called the Positive Guidance Demonstration Project, and the two agencies audited signage practices in the vicinity of the I-96/M-37 and I-296/US 131 interchange in Walker, north of Grand Rapids. MDOT determined that usage of the I-296 designation was "a potential source of confusion for motorists".[28] Following this program, the Reflective Systems Unit at MDOT reviewed the state of two- and three-way concurrencies along the highway system in Michigan. They approached the department's Trunkline Numbering Committee and the district traffic and safety engineers on October 19, 1982, for proposals to reduce or eliminate the various overlapping designations to "avoid driver confusion and save funds".[29] The initial discussion report included the various remaining overlaps between Interstate and US Highways.[29] When the unit released its final recommendations on March 17, 1983, various changes were proposed.[30] In 1983, US 2 was truncated, removing the overlap with I-75,[31] and in 1986, US 10 was similarly shortened to remove an overlap with I-75.[32] US 33 was all but eliminated in the state in 1986 as well, eliminating its overlap with US 31.[33] Over a decade later, two highway designations were completely removed from the state in 1990s when US 33 and US 27 were truncated to end in Indiana in 1997[34] and 1999,[35] respectively. The latter also removed an overlap with I-69.[36]

Additional freeway sections opened around the turn of the 21st century. The St. Johns Bypass along then-US 27 opened on August 31, 1998;[37] and bypasses of Cadillac and Manton on US 131 opened in 2001[38] and 2003.[39] A 9.5-mile (15.3 km) freeway segment of US 31 north from Berrien Springs to Napier Avenue also opened in 2003.[40][41] MDOT completed a re-evaluation of the environmental studies for the conversion of US 127 to a full freeway between Ithaca and St. Johns in 2009; future activities were limited to right-of-way acquisition without any commitments for actual construction.[42] Plans are also still in place to complete the rest of the US 31 freeway near Benton Harbor,[43] but funding has not been available.[44]

Mainline highways[edit]

Number Length (mi)[3] Length (km) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Formed Removed Notes
US 2 109.177 175.703 US 2 at Ironwood US 2/US 141 at Mastodon Township south of Crystal Falls 1926[2] current Western segment
US 2 195.974 315.390 US 2/US 141 at Breitung Township near Iron Mountain I-75 & BL I-75 in St. Ignace 1926[2] current Eastern segment
US 8 2.322 3.737 US 8 at Norway Township US 2 in Norway 1926[2] current
US 10 139.656 224.755 Car ferry docks in Ludington I-75/US 23 & BS I-75/M-25 in Monitor Township near Bay City 1926[2] current Connects to US 10 in Wisconsin via the SS Badger car ferry
US 12 210.077 338.086 US 12 at New Buffalo Township Michigan & Cass avenues in Detroit 1926[2] current
US 16 210.643 338.997 Car ferry docks in Muskegon US 10, US 12, US 25 & US 112 in Detroit 1926[2] 1962[23] Replaced by I-96
US 23 362.152 582.827 US 23/US 223 at Whiteford Township near Temperance I-75 in Mackinaw City 1926[2] current Longest US highway in Michigan
US 24 79.828 128.471 US 24 at Bedford Township near Erie I-75 in Springfield Township near Clarkston 1926[2] current
US 25 190.953 307.309 US 25 at Erie Township M-25 & M-53 in Port Austin 1926[2] 1973[24] Replaced by M-125, I-75, I-94, and M-25[24]
US 27 218.195 351.151 I-69/US 27 at Kinderhook Township I-75 in Beaver Creek Township near Grayling 1926[2] 1999[35] Replaced by I-69 and US 127; signage removed in 2002[45]
US 31 356.527 573.775 US 31 at Bertrand Township near Niles I-75 in Mackinaw Township near Mackinaw City 1926[2] current
US 33 2.835 4.562 US 33 at Milton Township US 12 in Milton Township south of Niles 1937[46] 1997[34] Replaced by M-51; signage removed in 1998[47]
US 41 278.769 448.635 US 41 at Menominee Cul-de-sac at Fort Wilkins State Park near Copper Harbor 1926[2] current
US 45 54.759 88.126 US 45/WIS 32 at Watersmeet Township Ontonagon & River streets in Ontonagon c. 1935[48] current
US 102 44.094 70.962 US 2 in Crystal Falls US 41/M-28 in Covington Township 1926[2] 1928[11] Replaced by US 141
US 112 205.507 330.731 US 12 in New Buffalo Township US 10, US 12, US 16 & US 25 in Detroit 1926[2] 1962[22] Replaced by US 12 when I-94 replaced US 12
US 112S 1.709 2.750 US 112S at Mason Township US 112 in Mason Township near Adamsville 1933[13] 1935[12] Replaced by M-205, now a county road
US 127 212.168 341.451 US 127 at the WrightMedina township line near Waldron I-75 in Beaver Creek Township near Grayling 1926[2] current
US 131 269.313 433.417 US 131 at Mottville Township near White Pigeon US 31 in Petoskey 1926[2] current
US 141 7.892 12.701 US 141 at Quinnesec US 2/US 141 in Breitung Township near Iron Mountain 1928[11] current Southern segment
US 141 43.602 70.171 US 2/US 141 at Mastodon Township south of Crystal Falls US 41/M-28 in Covington Township 1928[11] current Northern segment
US 223 45.695 73.539 US 23/US 223 at Whiteford Township near Temperance US 127 in Woodstock Township near Somerset 1930[49] current
  •       Former

Special routes[edit]

Number Length (mi)[3] Length (km) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Formed Removed Notes

Bus. US 2
1.270 2.044 Wisconsin state line at Ironwood US 2 in Ironwood 1942[50] current Business spur; previously included a connection across the state line into Hurley, Wisconsin[51]

Bus. US 10
2.095 3.372 US 10 in Reed City US 10 in Reed City c. 1960[52] current

Bus. US 10
5.002 8.050 US 127/US 10 on the GrantSheridan township line US 10 in Wise Township 1975[53] current Serves Clare

Bus. US 10
7.200 11.587 US 10 in Midland US 10 & M-20 in Midland 1960[54] current Western end is in Midland County and eastern end is in Bay County[3]

Bus. US 10
14.767 23.765 US 10 in Mount Morris Township US 10 in Grand Blanc Township 1941[55] 1962[56] Served Flint; replaced by Bus. M-54, also since returned to local control

Bus. US 10
6.925 11.145 US 10 in Waterford Township US 10 in Bloomfield Township 1961[57] 1986[58] Served Pontiac; replaced by Bus. US 24
US 12A 3.767 6.062 US 12 in Kalamazoo US 12 in Comstock 1931[15] 1954[59] Replaced by M-96

Bus. US 12
11.955 19.240 I-94/US 12 in Texas Township I-94/US 12 in Comstock Township 1959[60] 1961[61] Served Kalamazoo; replaced by BL I-94

Bus. US 12
9.678 15.575 I-94/US 12 in Battle Creek Township I-94/US 12 in Emmett Township 1940[62] 1961[63] Served Battle Creek; replaced by BL I-94

Bus. US 12
3.716 5.980 I-94/US 12 in Marshall Township I-94/US 12 in Marengo Township 1960[64] 1961[65] Served Marshall; replaced by BL I-94

Bus. US 12
4.520 7.274 I-94/US 12 in Albion I-94/US 14 in Parma Township 1960[64] 1961[65] Replaced by BL I-94

Bus. US 12
10.274 16.534 I-94/US 12 in Blackman Township I-94/US 12 in Leoni Township c. 1951[66] 1960[67] Served Jackson; replaced by BL I-94

Bus. US 12
5.327 8.573 US 12 in Bertrand Township US 12 & M-51 in Niles Township 1962[22] 2010[68] Served Niles; replaced by M-51, M-139

Bus. US 12
8.020 12.907 I-94/US 12 in Ypsilanti US 12 in Van Buren Township 1962[22] current Replaced Bus. US 112

Byp. US 16
20.197 32.504 US 16 in Walker Township US 16 in Cascade Township 1942[69] 1953[70] Bypassed Grand Rapids; replaced by the US 16 mainline, now part of M-11

Bus. US 16
17.102 27.523 US 16 in Walker US 16 in Cascade Township 1953[70] 1962[71] Served Grand Rapids; returned to local control
US 16A 3.863 6.217 US 16 in Farmington Hills US 16 in Farmington Hills 1933[13] 1956[72] Bypassed Farmington; replaced by the US 16 mainline, now part of M-5

Bus. US 16
4.129 6.645 US 16 in Farmington Hills US 16 in Farmington Hills 1956[72] 1961[73] Served Farmington; replaced by BL I-96, now unsigned

Bus. US 23
5.781 9.304 BL I-94/US 23 & M-17 in Pittsfield Township US 23/M-14 in Ann Arbor Township 1962[74] current Serves Ann Arbor

Bus. US 23
3.009 4.843 US 23 in Fenton US 23 in Fenton c. 1958[75] 2006[76] Southern 1.723 mi (2.773 km) unsigned after 1975;[77] now under city control

Bus. US 23
8.006 12.884 US 10/US 23 in Bridgeport Township US 23/M-81 in Saginaw 1953[78] 1961[79] Replaced by BL I-75

Bus. US 23
2.714 4.368 US 23 in Bay City US 23/M-47 & M-20 in Bay City 1941[80] 1961[81] Replaced by BL I-75/M-25 and M-84

Bus. US 23
4.074 6.556 US 23 in Belknap Township US 23 in Rogers City 1942[82] current
US 24A 33.783 54.368 Ohio state line south of Erie US 25 in Taylor 1945[83] 1959[21] Replaced by I-75

Bus. US 24
7.121 11.460 US 24 in Bloomfield Township US 24 in Waterford Township 1986[58] current Serves Pontiac; formerly Bus. US 10
US 25A 5.111 8.225 Ohio state line in Erie Township US 25 in Erie Township 1937[84] 1945[83] Replaced by US 24A and later I-75
US 25A 2.481 3.993 M-51 in Fort Gratiot Township US 25 in Fort Gratiot Township 1940[85] 1963[86] Replaced by US 25 and later M-25

Bus. US 25
8.382 13.490 I-94/US 25 in Kimball Township US 25 in Fort Gratiot Township 1963[86] 1973[87] Served Marysville and Port Huron; replaced by M-25 and later BL I-94

Bus. US 27
2.986 4.806 I-69/US 27 & BL I-94 in Marshall Township I-94 in Marshall Township 1967[88] 1972[89] Served Marshall; sections not concurrent with BL I-94 turned over to local control

Bus. US 27
4.891 7.871 I-69/US 27 on the CarmelEaton township line I-69/US 27 in Charlotte 1961[90] 1974[91] Replaced by BL I-69

Truck US 27
1.529 2.461 US 27/M-78 in Lansing US 27/M-78 in Lansing 1936[92] 1950[93] Replaced by US 27

Bus. US 27
4.725 7.604 BL I-96 in Lansing I-69/US 27 in DeWitt Township 1984[94] 2002[95] Replaced by unsigned Bus. US 127 in Lansing

Bus. US 27
8.808 14.175 US 27 in Olive Township US 27 in Bingham Township 1998[96] 2002[36] Served St. Johns; replaced by Bus. US 127

Bus. US 27
3.745 6.027 US 27 on the IthacaNorth Star Township line US 27 in Emerson Township 1961[97] 2002[36] Replaced by Bus. US 127
US 27A 5.255 8.457 US 27 east of Alma US 27 & M-46 west of St. Louis 1929[14] 1961[97] Replaced by Bus. US 27

Bus. US 27
5.631 9.062 US 27 on the EmersonBethany township line US 27 in Pine River Township 1961[97] 2002[36] Served Alma; replaced US 27A and replaced by Bus. US 127

Bus. US 27
4.711 7.582 US 27 on the Pine RiverBethany township line US 27 in Pine River Township 1961[97] 2002[36] Served St. Louis; replaced by Bus. US 127

Bus. US 27
5.688 9.154 US 127 in Union Township US 127 in Union Township 1961[97] 2002[36] Served Mt. Pleasant; replaced by Bus. US 127

Bus. US 27
3.374 5.430 US 127 in Vernon Township US 127/US 10 in Grant Township 1961[97] 2002[36] Served Clare; replaced by Bus. US 127

Bus. US 27
6.903 11.109 US 127 & M-61 in Hayes Township US 127 in Hayes Township 1961[97] 2002[36] Served Harrison; replaced by Bus. US 127

Bus. US 31
3.587 5.773 Bus. US 12 in Niles Old US 31 in Niles Township 1987[98] 2010[99] Replaced by M-139

Bus. US 31
3.572 5.749 US 31 in South Haven Township US 31 in South Haven c. 1942[100] 1963[101] Replaced by BL I-196

Bus. US 31
4.120 6.630 BL I-196/US 31 in Holland US 31 & BL I-196 in Holland Township 1954[102] 2004[103] Returned to city control
US 31A 4.763 7.665 US 16 & US 31 in Muskegon Heights US 31 in Muskegon 1932[16] c. 1941[104] Replaced by Bus. US 31

Bus. US 31
9.870 15.884 I-96 & US 31 in Norton Shores US 31 in North Muskegon c. 1941[104] current Serves Muskegon; replaced US 31A

Bus. US 31
4.680 7.532 US 31 in Whitehall Township US 31 in Montague Township 1964[105] current Serves Whitehall and Montague

Bus. US 31
2.138 3.441 US 31 in Hart Township Johnson and State streets in Hart 1987[106] current Business spur

Bus. US 31
7.151 11.508 US 31 in Weare Township US 31 on the Pentwater–Weare township line 1955[107] current Serves Pentwater

Bus. US 31
3.172 5.105 US 31 in Pere Marquette Township US 10 in Ludington 2005[108] current Business spur

Bus. US 41
2.343 3.771 US 41/M-28 in Marquette US 41/M-28 in Marquette 1963[109] 2005[110] Returned to city control

Bus. US 41
4.873 7.842 US 41/M-28 in Ishpeming US 41/M-28 in Negaunee 1937[111] 1958[112] Replaced by Bus. M-28

Bus. US 41
4.256 6.849 US 41 in Baraga US 41 in Baraga Township 1940[113] 1942[114] Returned to local control

Bus. US 112
5.434 8.745 US 112 in Bertrand Township US 112 & M-60 in Milton Township c. 1956[115] 1962[22] Served Niles; replaced by Bus. US 12

Byp. US 112
8.023 12.912 US 112 & M-17 in Pittsfield Township US 112 in Van Buren Township c. 1942[116] 1956[117] Bypassed Ypsilanti; replaced by I-94

Bus. US 112
8.020 12.907 US 112 in Ypsilanti US 112 in Van Buren Township 1956[117] 1962[22] Replaced by Bus. US 12

Bus. US 127
6.443 10.369 US 127 & M-50 in Summit Township I-94, US 127 & M-50 in Blackman Township c. 1959[118] current Seves Jackson

Bus. US 127
2.369 3.813 US 127 in Mason US 127 & M-36 in Mason c. 1946[119] 1964[120] Sections not concurrent with M-36 turned over to local control
Bus. US 127 4.725 7.604 BL I-96 in Lansing I-69 in DeWitt Township 2002[95] current Unsigned; replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 127
8.808 14.175 US 127 in Olive Township US 127 in Bingham Township 2002[36] current Serves St. Johns; replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 127
3.745 6.027 US 127 on the IthacaNorth Star Township line US 127 in Emerson Township 2002[36] current Replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 127
5.631 9.062 US 127 on the EmersonBethany township line US 127 in Pine River Township 2002[36] current Serves Alma; replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 127
4.711 7.582 US 127 on the Pine RiverBethany township line US 127 in Pine River Township 2002[36] current Serves St. Louis; replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 127
5.688 9.154 US 127 in Union Township US 127 in Union Township 2002[36] current Serves Mt. Pleasant; replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 127
3.374 5.430 US 127 in Vernon Township US 127/US 10 in Grant Township 2002[36] current Serves Clare; replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 127
6.903 11.109 US 127 & M-61 in Hayes Township US 127 in Hayes Township 2002[36] current Serves Harrison; replaced Bus. US 27

Bus. US 131
3.656 5.884 US 131 in Constantine Township US 131 in Constantine Township 2013[121] current Serves Constantine

Bus. US 131
2.982 4.799 US 131/M-60 in Three Rivers US 131 in Three Rivers 1953[122] current

Bus. US 131
9.999 16.092 US 131 & I-94 in Oshtemo Township US 131 in Kalamazoo Township 1964[123] current Serves Kalamazoo

Byp. US 131
14.253 22.938 US 131 in Grand Rapids US 131 in Plainfield Township 1945[124] 1953[70] Replaced by M-11, M-37 and M-44

Bus. US 131
2.419 3.893 US 131 in Grand Rapids I-296/US 131 in Grand Rapids 1953[70] current

Bus. US 131
6.860 11.040 US 131/M-20 in Big Rapids Township US 131 & B-96 in Big Rapids Township 1983[125] current Serves Big Rapids

Bus. US 131
5.597 9.007 US 131/M-55 in Clam Lake Township US 131 in Haring Township 2001[38] current Serves Cadillac

Bus. US 131
5.667 9.120 US 131 & M-42 in Cedar Creek Township US 131 in Liberty Township 2003[39] current Serves Manton

Bus. US 223
3.751 6.037 US 223 & M-52 in Adrian US 223 in Adrian c. 1956[126] current
  •       Former

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ US 27A was created in 1929,[14] US 12A in 1931,[15] US 31A in 1932,[16] and US 16A in 1933.[13]
  2. ^ The Michigan State Highway Department was reorganized into the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation on August 23, 1973,[17] and the name was later shortened to its current form in 1978.[18]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b McNichol (2006), p. 74.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r BPR & AASHO (1926).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Michigan Department of Transportation & Michigan Center for Shared Solutions and Technology Partnerships (2009). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 18, 2010. 
  4. ^ Swift (2011), p. 5.
  5. ^ Hamilton (2007), p. 8.
  6. ^ American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (n.d.). "Standing Committee on Highways (SCOH) Overview". American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  7. ^ McNichol (2006), pp. 57, 121.
  8. ^ a b c Rand McNally (2013), pp. 50–1.
  9. ^ MDOT (2015b), Lansing inset.
  10. ^ MDOT (2015a), §§ D4–D5.
  11. ^ a b c d "Continuation of Highway 141". The Manitowoc Herald-News. September 20, 1928. p. 13. Retrieved June 15, 2016 – via NewspaperArchive.com. 
  12. ^ a b MSHD & Rand McNally (1935a); MSHD & Rand McNally (1935b).
  13. ^ a b c d MSHD & Rand McNally (1933a); MSHD & Rand McNally (1933b).
  14. ^ a b MSHD (1929); MSHD & H.M. Gousha (1930).
  15. ^ a b MSHD & Rand McNally (1931a); MSHD & Rand McNally (1931b).
  16. ^ a b MSHD & Rand McNally (1932), Muskegon inset; MSHD & Rand McNally (1933a), Muskegon inset.
  17. ^ Kulsea & Shawver (1980), p. 27.
  18. ^ Kulsea & Shawver (1980), pp. 30–31.
  19. ^ Kulsea & Shawver (1980), pp. 17–18.
  20. ^ MSHD (1945), § M12.
  21. ^ a b "Interstate 75 Road Markers Are Unveiled". The Herald-Press. St. Joseph, MI. Associated Press. October 13, 1959. p. 3. OCLC 10117184. Retrieved June 15, 2016 – via NewspaperArchive.com. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f "Area Road Signs To Be Changed". The News-Palladium. Benton Harbor, MI. Associated Press. January 9, 1962. § 2, p. 5. Retrieved May 3, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  23. ^ a b MSHD (1962), §§ K8–M14; MSHD (1963), §§ K8–M14.
  24. ^ a b c "Will Eliminate US 25 Markings". Ironwood Daily Globe. Associated Press. p. 19. OCLC 10890811. 
  25. ^ "Highway Additions Requested By State". The Owosso Argus-Press. Associated Press. November 14, 1968. p. 7. OCLC 9802802. Retrieved December 5, 2010 – via Google News. 
  26. ^ "News Capsules: Freeway". Ludington Daily News. November 2, 1976. p. 1. OCLC 27033604. Retrieved December 5, 2010 – via Google News. 
  27. ^ Hoogterp, Ed (January 18, 1981). "US 131 Won't Hit the Straits". The Grand Rapids Press. pp. 1F, 2F. OCLC 9975013. 
  28. ^ Conner, Robert E (April 11, 1979). "Removing I-296 Signs in Grand Rapids" (Letter). Letter to Donald E. Trull. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. 
  29. ^ a b Kanillopoolos, John J. (October 19, 1982). "Dual and Triple Routing on State Trunklines" (Letter). Letter to Trunkline Numbering Committee. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. 
  30. ^ Kanillopoolos, John J. (March 17, 1983). "Dual and Triple Routing on State Trunklines" (Letter). Letter to Trunkline Numbering Committee. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. 
  31. ^ MDOT (1983), §§ C10–C11; MDOT (1984), §§ C10–C11.
  32. ^ MDOT (1986), §§ J11–M13; MDOT (1987), §§ J11–M13.
  33. ^ Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering (June 9, 1986). "Route Numbering Committee Agenda" (PDF) (Report). State College, PA: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Retrieved April 9, 2015 – via Wikimedia Commons. 
  34. ^ a b Zink, Ray (April 27, 1997). "Report of the Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering to the Standing Committee on Highways" (PDF) (Report). Des Moines, IA: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Retrieved April 9, 2015. 
  35. ^ a b Zink, Ray (April 17, 1999). "Report of the Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering to the Standing Committee on Highways" (PDF) (Report). Little Rock, AR: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Retrieved May 24, 2008. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o MDOT (2002a), §§ G10–L11; MDOT (2003a), §§ G10–L11.
  37. ^ Truscott, John (August 31, 1998). "Governor Engler Opens US 27 Freeway" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2008. 
  38. ^ a b Bornheimer, Hank (October 27, 2001). "Temporary Recreation Trail Ready for Traffic—You Can Walk, Run, Skate or Bike the Cadillac Bypass—until Tuesday". The Grand Rapids Press. p. A1. OCLC 9975013. 
  39. ^ a b MDOT (2003a), § H9; MDOT (2004a), § H9.
  40. ^ Aiken, Scott (August 23, 2003). "Better Late than Never: US 31 Freeway Finally Reaches Twin Cities". The Herald-Palladium. St. Joseph, MI. pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 34793533. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  41. ^ Martin, Julie A. (August 27, 2003). "US 31 in Berrien County Opens Today!" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on December 25, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2013. 
  42. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (n.d.). "Overview". US 127 St. Johns to Ithaca Freeway. Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  43. ^ Aiken, Scott (October 20, 2013). "When, Oh When, Will 31 Be Done? MDOT Says Linking the Freeway to I-94 East of Benton Harbor Is Years Away". The Herald-Palladium. Benton Harbor, MI. Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
  44. ^ Haroldson, Tom (September 4, 2013). "MDOT Officials Concerned Funding Issues Can Delay, Kill Needed Projects". Kalamazoo Gazette. Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  45. ^ Ranzenberger, Mark (April 27, 2008). "US 127 Signs Getting Updated". The Morning Sun. Mount Pleasant, MI. pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 22378715. Retrieved August 23, 2012 – via NewsBank. (subscription required (help)). 
  46. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1937a), §§ N7–N8; MSHD & Rand McNally (1937b), §§ N7–N8.
  47. ^ "Portion of US 33 Is Now Indiana 933: Name Changes Along Lincoln Way, North to State Line". South Bend Tribune. April 18, 1998. p. A6. OCLC 8793233. Retrieved December 29, 2008 – via ProQuest Archive. (subscription required (help)). 
  48. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1934); MSHD & Rand McNally (1935a).
  49. ^ ODOH (1930); ODOH (1931), §§ E4–B14.
  50. ^ "US 2 Business Route Through Ironwood". The Bessemer Herald. August 14, 1942. p. 7. Retrieved November 9, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  51. ^ WisDOT (2001), § E2; WisDOT (2003), § E2.
  52. ^ MSHD (1958), § I9; MSHD (1960), § I9.
  53. ^ MDSHT (1975), § I10; MDSHT (1976), 6 I10.
  54. ^ MSHD (1960), § J11; MSHD (1961), § J11.
  55. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1941a), § K12; MSHD & Rand McNally (1941b), § K12.
  56. ^ MSHD (1962), § K12; MSHD (1963), § K12.
  57. ^ MSHD (1960), Pontiac inset; MSHD (1961), Detroit Metropolitan Area inset, §§ A5–B6.
  58. ^ a b MDOT (1986), Detroit and Vicinity inset, §§ A6–B7; MDOT (1987), Detroit and Vicinity inset, §§ A6–B7.
  59. ^ MSHD (1954a), Kalamazoo inset; MSHD (1954b), Kalamazoo inset.
  60. ^ "Marshall Area Chronology for 1959". Marshall Evening Chronicle. December 31, 1959. pp. 4–5. OCLC 18110507. Retrieved August 21, 2013 – via NewspaperArchive.com. (subscription required (help)). 
  61. ^ MSHD (1961), Kalamazoo inset; MSHD (1962), Kalamazoo inset.
  62. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1940b), Battle Creek inset; MSHD & Rand McNally (1940c), Battle Creek inset.
  63. ^ MSHD (1961), Battle Creek inset; MSHD (1962), Battle Creek inset.
  64. ^ a b MSHD (1960), § M10.
  65. ^ a b MSHD (1961), § M10.
  66. ^ MSHD (1951b), § M11; MSHD (1952a), § M11.
  67. ^ MSHD (1960), Jackson inset; MSHD (1961), Jackson inset.
  68. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (May 7, 2010). "Contract Number 2010-0086". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 7, 2010 – via Yahoo! Groups: Great Lakes Roads. (registration required (help)). 
  69. ^ MSHD (1942), Grand Rapids inset.
  70. ^ a b c d MSHD (1953a), Grand Rapids inset; MSHD (1953b), Grand Rapids inset.
  71. ^ MSHD (1962), Grand Rapids inset; MSHD (1963), Grand Rapids inset.
  72. ^ a b MSHD (1956a), Detroit Area inset; (MSHD 1956b, Detroit Area inset)
  73. ^ MSHD (1961), Detroit Area inset; MSHD (1962), Detroit Area inset.
  74. ^ MSHD (1962), § M12; MSHD (1963), § M12.
  75. ^ MSHD (1958), § L12; MSHD (1960), § L12.
  76. ^ MDOT (2006), § L12; MDOT (2007), § L12.
  77. ^ MDSHT (1975), § L12; MDOT (1976), § L12.
  78. ^ MSHD (1953a), Saginaw inset; MSHD (1953b), Saginaw inset.
  79. ^ MSHD (1961), Saginaw inset; MSHD (1962), Saginaw inset.
  80. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1940c), Bay City inset; MSHD & Rand McNally (1941a), Bay City inset.
  81. ^ MSHD (1960), Bay City inset; MSHD (1961), Bay City inset.
  82. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1941b), § E12; MSHD & Rand McNally (1942), § E12.
  83. ^ a b MSHD (1945), § N13.
  84. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1937a), § N13; MSHD & Rand McNally (1937b), § N13.
  85. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1939b), § K14; MSHD & Rand McNally (1940a), § K14.
  86. ^ a b MSHD (1963), § K14; MSHD (1964), § K14.
  87. ^ MDSH (1973), Port Huron inset; MDSHT (1974), Port Huron inset.
  88. ^ MDSH (1967), § M10; MDSH (1968), § M10.
  89. ^ MDSH (1972), § M10; MDSH (1973), § M10.
  90. ^ MSHD (1962), § L10; MSHD (1963), § L10.
  91. ^ MDSHT (1974), § L10; MDSHT (1975), § L10.
  92. ^ MSHD (1936a), Lansing inset.
  93. ^ MSHD (1950a), Lansing inset; MSHD (1950b), Lansing inset.
  94. ^ MDOT (1984), Lansing inset; MDOT (1985), Lansing inset.
  95. ^ a b MDOT (2002b), Lansing inset; MDOT (2003b), Lansing inset.
  96. ^ MDOT (1998), § K11; MDOT (1999), § K11.
  97. ^ a b c d e f g MSHD (1961), §§ I10–K11; MSHD (1962), §§ I10–K11.
  98. ^ MDOT (1987), §§ N7–N8; MDOT (1988), §§ N7–N8.
  99. ^ Schirripa, Nick (April 13, 2010). "US 12 BR Resurfacing in Niles to Start April 19" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on December 10, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
    ——— (April 22, 2010). "MDOT Meeting to Discuss Replacement of Historic Niles Bridge" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on December 10, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  100. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1942), § M7; MSHD & Rand McNally (1943), § M7.
  101. ^ MSHD (1963), § M7; MSHD (1964), § M7.
  102. ^ MSHD (1954a), § L8; MSHD (1954b), § L8.
  103. ^ MDOT (2004a), § L8; MDOT (2005), § L8.
  104. ^ a b MSHD (Rand McNally1940c), Muskegon inset; MSHD & Rand McNally (1941a), Muskegon inset.
  105. ^ MSHD (1964), § J7; MSHD (1965), § J7.
  106. ^ MDOT (1987), § J8; MDOT (1988), § J8.
  107. ^ MSHD (1955a), § J7; MSHD (1955b), § J7.
  108. ^ MDOT (2005), § I7; MDOT (2006), § I7.
  109. ^ "Bypass To Cut Travel Time by 20 Minutes". The Mining Journal. Marquette, MI. November 20, 1963. p. 13. ISSN 0898-4964. OCLC 9729223. 
  110. ^ Garner, Dawn (November 9, 2005). "MDOT and City of Marquette Complete Jurisdictional Transfer" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2008. 
  111. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1937a), § C5; MSHD & Rand McNally (1937b), § C5.
  112. ^ MSHD (1958), § C5.
  113. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1939), § B4; MSHD & Rand McNally (1940a), § B4.
  114. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1942), § B4;
  115. ^ MSHD (1956b), Niles inset; MSHD (1957a), Niles inset.
  116. ^ MSHD & Rand McNally (1942), § M12; MSHD & Rand McNally (1943), § M12.
  117. ^ a b MSHD (1956a), § M12; MSHD (1956b), § M12.
  118. ^ MSHD (1958), Jackson inset; MSHD (1960), Jackson inset.
  119. ^ MSHD (1946), § M11; MSHD (1947), § M11.
  120. ^ MSHD (1964), § M11; MSHD (1965), § M11.
  121. ^ Westaby, Robb (October 30, 2013). "New US 131 Bypass Opens". Grand Rapids, MI: WXMI-TV. Retrieved October 30, 2013. 
  122. ^ MSHD (1953a), § N9; MSHD (1953b), § N9.
  123. ^ MSHD (1964), Kalamazoo inset; MSHD (1965), Kalamazoo inset.
  124. ^ MSHD (1945), Grand Rapids inset.
  125. ^ MDOT (1983), § J9; MDOT (1984), § J9.
  126. ^ MSHD (1955b), § N12; MSHD (1956a), § N12.

Works cited[edit]

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External links[edit]