List of U.S. jurisdictions banning conversion therapy

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Map of U.S. cities and counties that have bans on sexual orientation and gender identity change efforts.
  No ban on conversion therapy for minors
Photo of a man signing a document
Murray in 2016
Photo of a man signing a document
Malloy in 2017
Mayor Ed Murray and governor Dannel Malloy signing legislation, banning the practice of conversion therapy on minor clients in Seattle and Connecticut, respectively.

This is a list of jurisdictions in the United States banning conversion therapy, the pseudoscientific practice of attempting to change an individual's sexual orientation or gender identity using psychological or spiritual interventions. A total of 20 states, as well as the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and 100 municipalities (mostly located in Florida, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota), have banned the practice of conversion therapy on minor clients. Penalties range from fines to imprisonment. The District of Columbia is the only U.S. jurisdiction whose ban also applies to adults. Three states ban the use of state and federal funds for conversion therapy on minors. As of November 20, 2020, any bans in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama are suspended due to a 2–1 decision by the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, with Judges Britt Grant and Barbara Lagoa in the majority and Judge Beverly Martin dissenting.[1][2][3]

States[edit]

States with bans on conversion therapy for minor clients on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity or expression
  Ban only applies to state and federal funding of conversion therapy on minors.
State Date of enactment Date effective Legalization method Details
1.[4]  New Jersey August 19, 2013 August 19, 2013 Legislative statute On June 24, 2013, the New Jersey Assembly voted 56–14 in favor of AB 3371.[5] On June 27, 2013, the New Jersey State Senate voted 28–9 to pass the bill.[6] On August 19, 2013, Governor Chris Christie (R) signed the legislation into law, and it took effect the same day.[7]
2.[8]  California September 30, 2012 August 29, 2013 Legislative statute On May 30, 2012, the California State Senate voted 23–13 in favor of SB-1172.[9][10] The California State Assembly voted 52–22 in favor of the bill on August 28, 2012.[citation needed] On September 30, 2012, Governor Jerry Brown (D) signed it into law, and it was scheduled to go into effect on January 1, 2013.[11] On December 21, 2012, in the case of Welch v. Brown, Judge William B. Shubb granted a preliminary injunction to SB-1172 from going into effect.[12] On August 29, 2013, in the case of Pickup v. Brown and Welch v. Brown, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld SB-1172 and reversed the lower court order granting a preliminary injunction.[13] On May 1, 2017, the Supreme Court rejected an appeal of the case.[14]
3.[15]  Oregon May 18, 2015 May 18, 2015 Legislative statute On March 17, 2015, the Oregon House of Representatives voted 41–18 in favor of HB 2307, and the Oregon State Senate voted 21–8 in favor of the bill on May 7, 2015. On May 18, 2015, Governor Kate Brown (D) signed the bill into law and it went into effect the same day.[16][17]
4.[18]  Illinois August 20, 2015 January 1, 2016 Legislative statute On May 19, 2015, the Illinois House of Representatives voted 68–43 in favor of HB 217.[19] The bill passed the Illinois State Senate on May 29, 2015 by 34 votes to 19.[20] On August 20, 2015, Governor Bruce Rauner (R) signed the legislation, and it went into effect on January 1, 2016.[21]
5.[22]  Vermont May 25, 2016 July 1, 2016 Legislative statute On March 17, 2016, the Vermont Senate unanimously approved S.132.[23][24] On April 26, the Vermont House of Representatives approved it with amendments. The Senate concurred with the amendments on April 29.[25] Governor Peter Shumlin (D) signed the bill on May 25. It went into effect on July 1.[26]
6.[27]  New Mexico April 7, 2017 April 7, 2017 Legislative statute The state Senate approved SB 121 on February 16, 2017 by a 32–6 vote, and the state House of Representatives concurred on March 15, 2017 by a 44–23 vote. The bill was signed by Governor Susana Martinez (R) on April 7, 2017.[28][29] The law went into effect immediately.
7.[30]  Connecticut May 10, 2017 May 10, 2017 Legislative statute The state House of Representatives approved HB 6695 on May 2, 2017 by a 141–8 vote, and the Senate concurred on May 10, 2017 by a 36–0 vote. The bill was signed by Governor Dannel Malloy (D) the same day and took effect immediately.[31]
8.[32]  Rhode Island July 19, 2017 July 19, 2017 Legislative statute H 5277 was passed by the state House 69–0 on May 30, 2017.[33][34][35] The Senate approved the bill 29–0 on June 30. It was signed by Governor Gina Raimondo (D) on July 19, 2017 and took effect immediately.[36]
9.[37]  Nevada May 17, 2017 January 1, 2018 Legislative statute SB 201 was passed by the state Senate 15–5 on April 4, 2017 and by the Assembly 31–8 on May 9.[38][39][40] The Senate concurred with the House's amendments on the same day. The bill was signed by Governor Brian Sandoval (R) on May 17, 2017,[41][42] and went into effect on January 1, 2018.
10.[43]  Washington March 28, 2018 June 7, 2018 Legislative statute SB 5722 passed the state Senate 32–16 on January 19, 2018 and the state House 66–32 on February 28.[44] After the Senate concurred with the amended House version on March 3, it was signed by Governor Jay Inslee (D) on March 28, 2018.[45][46] It took effect on June 7, 2018.
11.[47]  Hawaii May 25, 2018 July 1, 2018 Legislative statute SB 270 passed the state Senate on March 6, 2018 by a vote of 24–1, and passed the state House of Representatives on April 10, 2018 by a vote of 49–2. A conference committee of both chambers concluded on April 27, 2018 with an amended bill. It was approved by both chambers on May 1, and was signed by Governor David Ige (D) on May 25, 2018. The law took effect on July 1, 2018.[48][49]
12.[50]  Delaware July 23, 2018 July 23, 2018 Legislative statute SB 65 passed the state Senate by a vote of 12–3 on May 17, 2017, and the state House on June 7, 2018 by a vote of 24–14.[51] The bill was signed by Governor John Carney (D) on July 23, 2018, and took effect immediately.[52]
13.[53]  Maryland May 15, 2018 October 1, 2018 Legislative statute SB 1028 passed the state Senate on March 27, 2018, by a vote of 34–12, and the state House on April 4, 2018, by a vote of 95–27.[54][55] The bill was signed by Governor Larry Hogan (R) on May 15, 2018, and went into effect on October 1, 2018.[56][57]
14.[58]  New Hampshire June 8, 2018 January 1, 2019 Legislative statute HB 587 passed the state House on February 8, 2018, by a vote of 179–171, and the state Senate on April 19, 2018, by a vote of 14–10, with an amendment.[59][60] The House accepted the Senate's amendment on May 10, 2018.[61] It was signed by Governor Chris Sununu (R) on June 8, 2018 and took effect on January 1, 2019.[62]
15.[63]  New York January 25, 2019 January 25, 2019 Legislative statute A576 passed the state Assembly on January 15, 2019 by a vote of 134–3, and passed the state Senate that same day by a vote of 57–4.[64][65] The bill was signed by Governor Andrew Cuomo (D) on January 25, 2019, and took effect immediately upon receiving his signature. Since 2016, conversion therapy has been banned in New York from coverage by insurers and Medicaid, or from being practiced by any state-licensed or operated mental health facility per executive order.[66]
16.[67]  Massachusetts April 8, 2019 April 8, 2019 Legislative statute H140 was passed in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by a vote of 147–8 on March 13, 2019, and in the state Senate by a vote of 34–0 on March 28, 2019. Governor Charlie Baker (R) signed the legislation into law on April 8, 2019. The law prohibits licensed health care providers from practicing conversion therapy on minors within the state.[68]
17.[69]  Colorado May 31, 2019 August 2, 2019 Legislative statute On February 19, 2019, the Colorado House of Representatives passed HB19-1129,[70] which would ban conversion therapy on minors, with a vote of 42–20. It was approved by the state Senate with amendments by a vote of 21–13 on March 25, 2019. The House concurred with the amendments on April 5, 2019. The bill was signed by Governor Jared Polis (D) on May 31, and took effect 90 days after adjournment of the legislative session.[71][72]
18.[73]  Maine May 29, 2019 September 17, 2019 Legislative statute On May 8, 2019, the Maine House of Representatives passed LD 1025,[74] which would ban conversion therapy on minors, with a vote of 91–46. It later passed in the Maine Senate on May 21, 2019, by a vote of 25–9. Governor Janet Mills (D) signed the legislation into law on May 29, 2019. The law prohibits licensed health care providers from practicing conversion therapy on minors within the state, and took effect 90 days after the adjournment of the legislative session.[75] A bill that previously passed the Maine Legislature in June 2018 was vetoed by former Governor Paul LePage the following month and failed to survive a veto override attempt.[citation needed]
19.[76]  North Carolina August 2, 2019 August 2, 2019 Executive order On August 2, 2019, North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper signed an executive order banning any state funding of conversion therapy on minors.[77][78][79]
20.[80]  Utah January 21, 2020 January 21, 2020 Executive order After a bill to ban conversion therapy on minors failed to pass the Utah Senate, Governor Gary Herbert (R) signed an executive order prohibiting conversion therapy on minors by regulation on January 21, 2020.[81]
21.[82]  Virginia March 2, 2020 July 1, 2020 Legislative statute On February 3, 2020, the House of Delegates passed HB 386,[83] which would ban conversion therapy on minors, with a vote of 66–27. It was approved by the state Senate on February 17, in a vote of 22–18. Governor Ralph Northam (D) signed the legislation into law on March 2, 2020, and it took effect on July 1, 2020.[citation needed]
22.[84]  Wisconsin June 1, 2021 June 1, 2021 Executive order On June 1, 2021, Wisconsin Governor Tony Evers signed an executive order disallowing state and federal funds to be allocated by the Department of Health Services, the Department of Children and Families, and the Department of Corrections to conversion therapy.[85][86][87] Earlier that year, lawmakers in the Wisconsin Legislature had moved to protect the practice.[88]
23.[89]  Michigan June 14, 2021 June 14, 2021 Executive order On June 14, 2021, Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed an executive order prohibiting the use of state or federal funds for conversion therapy on minors.[90][91][92]
24.[93]  Minnesota July 15, 2021 July 15, 2021 Executive order Following a legislative attempt at a ban being stripped from the budget bill, Governor Tim Walz (D) signed an executive order prohibiting conversion therapy on minors by regulation on July 19, 2021.[94]

Territories[edit]

Territories with bans on conversion therapy on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity or expression
Territory Date of enactment Date effective Legalization method Details
1.[95]  District of Columbia December 22, 2014 March 11, 2015 Legislative statute On December 2, 2014, the Council of the District of Columbia voted unanimously (12 ayes) in favor of B20-0501. On December 22, 2014, Mayor Vincent C. Gray (D) signed the legislation into law. The act passed congressional review and took effect on March 11, 2015.

On January 16, 2019, Mayor Muriel Bowser (D) signed B22-0972, a bill approved unanimously by the City Council extending the ban to adults who are under the care of a conservator or guardian.[96] The law went into effect on March 13, 2019.[97][98]

2.[99]  Puerto Rico March 27, 2019 March 27, 2019 Executive order On March 27, 2019, Governor Ricardo Rosselló (PNP) issued an executive order prohibiting conversion therapy of minors, taking effect immediately.[100] Territorial agencies were provided 90 days for promulgation of the new order.

Counties, municipalities and communities[edit]

Counties, municipalities and communities with bans on conversion therapy for minors on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity or expression
  Ban suspended under a decision by the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals.[1]
  Vote pending
County, municipality or community Date of enactment Date effective Legalization method Details
1.[101] Cincinnati, Ohio December 9, 2015 January 9, 2016 Ordinance On December 9, 2015, the Cincinnati City Council voted 7–2 in favor of Ordinance 373 and it went into effect on January 9, 2016.[102]
2.[103] Miami Beach, Florida June 8, 2016 June 18, 2016 Ordinance On June 8, 2016, Miami Beach voted to ban conversion therapy. The ban was sponsored by Commissioner John Elizabeth Alemàn and was unanimously approved by the City Commission.[104][105] The ban took effect on June 18.
3.[106] Wilton Manors, Florida September 13, 2016 September 13, 2016 Ordinance On September 13, 2016, the City Commission of Wilton Manors unanimously approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy. The ban took effect that same day.[107]
4.[108] Seattle, Washington August 1, 2016 October 2, 2016 Ordinance On August 1, 2016, the Seattle City Council voted to ban conversion therapy on minors.[109][110] The ban was sponsored by councilmember Lorena González and was unanimously approved by all other eight city councilmembers. Mayor Ed Murray signed the ordinance on August 3 and it took effect on October 2.
5.[111] Miami, Florida October 13, 2016 October 13, 2016 Ordinance On October 13, 2016, the Miami City Commission voted 3–2 in favor of banning the use of conversion therapy on minors.[112][113] The ban was sponsored by Commissioner Francis Suarez and took effect that same day.
6.[114] West Palm Beach, Florida November 7, 2016 November 7, 2016 Ordinance On November 7, 2016, the City Commission of West Palm Beach unanimously approved an ordinance in its second reading banning conversion therapy. The ban took effect upon adoption.[115]
7.[116] Bay Harbor Islands, Florida November 14, 2016 November 14, 2016 Ordinance On November 14, 2016, the Bay Harbor Islands Town Council approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy. The ordinance came into effect that same day.[116]
8.[117] Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania December 13, 2016 December 20, 2016 Ordinance The Pittsburgh City Council voted in favor of an ordinance prohibiting conversion therapy on minors, by a vote of 9–0, on December 13, 2016. The ordinance went into effect on December 20, following Mayor Bill Peduto's signature.[118]
9.[119] Boynton Beach, Florida January 17, 2017 January 17, 2017 Ordinance On January 3, 2017, an ordinance banning conversion therapy in Boynton Beach passed its first reading.[120] The ordinance passed its second reading on January 17 and went into effect immediately.[119]
10.[121] Lake Worth, Florida January 10, 2017 January 20, 2017 Ordinance On December 13, 2016, the Lake Worth City Commission unanimously passed an ordinance banning conversion therapy on minors, in its first reading.[122] The ordinance passed its second reading, in a 5–0 vote, on January 10, 2017 and went into effect on January 20.
11.[123] El Portal, Florida January 24, 2017 January 24, 2017 Ordinance An ordinance banning conversion therapy passed its first reading in the El Portal Village Council in October 2016. The ordinance passed its second reading on January 24 and went into effect that same day.[123]
12.[124] Toledo, Ohio February 7, 2017 February 7, 2017 Ordinance An ordinance banning conversion therapy was unanimously (12–0) approved by the Toledo City Council on February 7, 2017.[125]
13.[126] Key West, Florida March 7, 2017 March 7, 2017 Ordinance On February 8, 2017, the Key West City Commission approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy, in its first reading. The ordinance passed its second reading on March 7 and took effect immediately.
14.[127] North Bay Village, Florida March 14, 2017 March 14, 2017 Ordinance On March 14, 2017, the Commission of North Bay Village voted to ban conversion therapy. The ban took effect immediately upon adoption.[127]
15.[128] Columbus, Ohio March 27, 2017 March 27, 2017 Ordinance On March 13, the City Council of Columbus approved an ordinance, banning the use of conversion therapy on minors, in its first reading. The ordinance was introduced by Council President Zach Klein. It unanimously passed its second reading on March 27 and took effect immediately.[129][130]
16.[131] Tampa, Florida April 6, 2017 April 6, 2017 Ordinance On April 6, the Tampa City Council unanimously approved a conversion therapy ban. The ban went into effect immediately.[132] This ordinance was struck down by a federal court in October 2019.[133]
17.[134] Delray Beach, Florida May 2, 2017 May 2, 2017 Ordinance On April 18, 2017, the Delray Beach City Commission approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy, in its first reading.[135] The ordinance unanimously passed its second reading in the City Commission on May 2.[136] The ban took effect immediately.
18.[137] Riviera Beach, Florida May 4, 2017 May 4, 2017 Ordinance The Riviera Beach City Council unanimously approved a conversion therapy ban on May 4. The ban went into effect that same day.[138]
19.[139] Wellington, Florida June 27, 2017 June 27, 2017 Ordinance On June 27, 2017, the Wellington Village Council approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy, in its second reading. The ban took effect immediately.[140]
20.[141] Dayton, Ohio July 5, 2017 July 5, 2017 Ordinance On June 28, 2017, the Dayton City Council passed an ordinance banning conversion therapy.[142][143] The ordinance passed its second reading on July 5 and went into force immediately.
21.[144] Philadelphia, Pennsylvania July 11, 2017 July 11, 2017 Ordinance On June 22, 2017, the Philadelphia City Council approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy. It was signed by Mayor Jim Kenney on July 11, 2017.[145] The ordinance went into effect immediately.
22.[146] Allentown, Pennsylvania July 20, 2017 July 20, 2017 Ordinance On July 19, 2017, the Allentown City Council approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy.[147][148] It was signed by Mayor Ed Pawlowski the next day.[149] The ordinance went into effect immediately.
23.[150] Greenacres, Florida August 7, 2017 August 7, 2017 Ordinance On August 7, 2017, the Greenacres City Council approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy, in a 4–1 vote.[151] The ordinance took effect immediately.[152]
24.[153] Athens, Ohio August 21, 2017 August 21, 2017 Ordinance On August 21, 2017, the Athens City Council unanimously approved an ordinance banning conversion therapy within city limits.[154] The ordinance went into effect immediately.
25.[155] Pima County, Arizona August 1, 2017 August 31, 2017 Ordinance The Pima County Board of Supervisors passed, in a 3–2 vote, an ordinance banning conversion therapy.[156][157] The ordinance went into effect 30 days later, upon filing with the Arizona Department of State.
26.[158] Boca Raton, Florida October 10, 2017 October 10, 2017 Ordinance The Boca Raton City Council voted 4–1 to enact an ordinance banning conversion therapy on October 10, 2017.[159][160] The ordinance went into effect immediately.
27.[161] Oakland Park, Florida October 18, 2017 October 18, 2017 Ordinance The City Commission of Oakland Park approved a conversion therapy ban on October 18, 2017 in a unanimous 4–0 vote.[162] The ordinance went into force upon adoption.
28.[163] Palm Beach County, Florida December 19, 2017 December 21, 2017 Ordinance On December 19, 2017, the Palm Beach County Board of Commissioners approved, in a 5–2 vote, an ordinance banning conversion therapy. The ordinance applies to all incorporated and unincorporated municipalities in the county. It took effect upon filing with the Florida Department of State on December 21, 2017.[164]
29.[165] Reading, Pennsylvania December 21, 2017 December 21, 2017 Ordinance The Reading City Council approved a conversion therapy ban on December 18, 2017 in a unanimous vote. It was signed by Mayor Wally Scott on December 21, 2017.[166] The ordinance went into force upon adoption.
30.[167] Doylestown, Pennsylvania December 18, 2017 December 23, 2017 Ordinance The Borough Council of Doylestown passed (7–1) a conversion therapy ban on December 18, 2017. It came into effect five days later.[168]
31.[169] Broward County, Florida January 9, 2018 January 9, 2018 Ordinance On January 9, 2018, the Broward County Commission approved unanimously an ordinance banning conversion therapy.[170] The ordinance took effect upon filing with the Florida Department of State, which happened that same day.
32.[171] State College, Pennsylvania February 5, 2018 February 5, 2018 Ordinance On February 5, 2018, the Borough Council of State College approved unanimously an ordinance banning conversion therapy.[172]
33.[173] Erie County, New York February 15, 2018 March 7, 2018 Ordinance The Erie County Legislature unanimously approved a conversion therapy ban on February 15, 2018.[174] The ordinance was controversially named the "Prevention of Emotional Neglect and Childhood Endangerment" (P.E.N.C.E) after Vice President Mike Pence. After County Executive Mark Poloncarz had provided his signature on March 5, the law went into effect upon filing with the New York Department of State on March 7, 2018.[175][176]
34.[177] Yardley, Pennsylvania March 6, 2018 March 11, 2018 Ordinance On March 6, the Yardley Borough Council unanimously approved an anti-discrimination ordinance banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity and prohibiting conversion therapy on minors.[178][179] The ordinance went into force five days later.
35.[180] Gainesville, Florida April 5, 2018 April 5, 2018 Ordinance On April 5, 2018, the Gainesville City Commission unanimously approved a conversion therapy ordinance.[181][182] It went into effect immediately.
36.[183] Milwaukee, Wisconsin April 4, 2018 April 14, 2018 Ordinance On March 27, 2018, the Milwaukee Common Council passed (12–2) a conversion therapy ordinance banning the practice in the city of Milwaukee.[184] Mayor Tom Barrett signed the ordinance into law on April 4, and it went into effect 10 days later.[185]
37.[186] New York City, New York January 5, 2018 May 5, 2018 Ordinance In June 2017, a bill to ban conversion therapy was introduced to the New York City Council.[187] The City Council passed (43–2) the ban on November 30. Mayor Bill de Blasio returned the bill unsigned on January 5, thus allowing it to become law. It went into effect 120 days later.[188] The ban applies to minors as well as adults. In September 2019, following a lawsuit by an anti-LGBT hate group,[189] Alliance Defending Freedom, the City Council moved to repeal the ban on conversion therapy for adults, citing how a ruling by the Second Circuit or the conservative Supreme Court could damage efforts against the practice nationwide.[190]
38.[191] Albany, New York May 21, 2018 May 21, 2018 Ordinance On May 21, 2018, an ordinance to ban conversion therapy was unanimously approved by the city's Common Council.[192] The ordinance went into effect immediately.
39.[193] Bellefonte, Pennsylvania July 16, 2018 July 16, 2018 Ordinance On July 16, 2018, an ordinance to ban conversion therapy was approved by the Borough Council.[194] The ordinance went into effect immediately.
40.[195] Bethlehem, Pennsylvania July 17, 2018 July 17, 2018 Ordinance On July 3, 2018, an ordinance to ban conversion therapy was approved unanimously by the City Council,[196] and on July 17, 2018, was approved in a second and final reading.[197] The ordinance was dubbed the Appropriate Mental Health Services Ordinance.[198] It went into effect immediately.[citation needed]
41.[199] Madison, Wisconsin July 10, 2018 July 20, 2018 Ordinance On July 10, 2018, an ordinance to ban conversion therapy was approved by the city's Common Council.[200] The ordinance went into effect on July 20, 2018.
42.[201] Ulster County, New York July 20, 2018 July 27, 2018 Ordinance On June 20, 2018, an ordinance to ban conversion therapy on minors was unanimously approved by the Ulster County Legislature.[202] It was signed by County Executive Michael P. Hein on July 20, 2018, and took effect upon filing with the New York Secretary of State on July 27, 2018.[203][204]
43.[205] Rochester, New York July 25, 2018 August 25, 2018 Ordinance In July 2018, consumer protection legislation was introduced to the City Council to prohibit conversion therapy.[206] On July 24, 2018, an ordinance to ban conversion therapy on minors was unanimously approved by the City Council. It was deemed duly adopted on July 25 and took effect 30 days later.[205]
44.[207] Albany County, New York July 9, 2018 August 31, 2018 Ordinance On July 9, 2018, the Albany County Legislature approved an ordinance to ban conversion therapy by a vote of 37–1.[208] The ordinance was signed and adopted by the County Executive on August 2, 2018, and was filed with the New York Secretary of State on August 31, 2018.[209]
45.[210] Eau Claire, Wisconsin October 9, 2018 October 9, 2018 Ordinance On October 9, 2018, the Eau Claire City Council unanimously passed an ordinance to protect minors from conversion therapy.[211][212]
46.[213] Lakewood, Ohio October 15, 2018 October 15, 2018 Ordinance On October 15, 2018, the Lakewood City Council unanimously approved a measure to ban conversion therapy.[214][215] Fines for violating the law range from $500 to $1,000.
47.[216] Westchester County, New York October 18, 2018 October 26, 2018 Ordinance On October 1, 2018, the Westchester County Board of Legislators unanimously voted to ban the practice of conversion therapy.[217][218] County Executive George Latimer signed the ordinance into law on October 18,[219] and on October 26, 2018, it was filed with the New York Department of State.[216] Those practicing conversion therapy may face a misdemeanor punishable by a $1,000 fine or up to one year imprisonment.[220]
48.[221] Newtown Township, Pennsylvania November 28, 2018 November 28, 2018 Ordinance On November 28, 2018, the Newtown Township (Bucks County) Board of Supervisors voted 4–0 to prohibit conversion therapy in a bill establishing a Human Rights Commission, enacting immediately upon passage.[222][223]
49.[224] Cudahy, Wisconsin January 2, 2019 January 2, 2019 Ordinance On January 2, 2019, the Cudahy Common Council voted to prohibit conversion therapy by a vote of 4–1.[225]
50.[226] Denver, Colorado January 8, 2019 January 8, 2019 Ordinance On January 7, 2019, the Denver City Council unanimously voted to ban the practice of conversion therapy,[227] and the ordinance was signed into law by Mayor Michael Hancock the following day.[226] Violations of the ordinance may be subject to penalties of $150 to $999 per violation.[228] The ban was seen as "largely symbolic", as the city had no known practitioners of conversion therapy.[229]
51.[230] Erie, Pennsylvania June 5, 2019 June 5, 2019 Ordinance On June 5, 2019, the Erie City Council approved a conversion therapy ban.[231]
52.[232] Shorewood, Wisconsin June 17, 2019 June 17, 2019 Ordinance An ordinance banning the practice of conversion therapy was approved by the Shorewood Village Board on June 17, 2019, and went into effect immediately upon passage.[233] The ban does not apply to free services.[234]
53.[235] Huntington Woods, Michigan June 4, 2019 June 24, 2019 Ordinance In a unanimous vote, the Huntington Woods City Commission approved a ban on conversion therapy.[236] The ordinance went into force 20 days later.[235]
54.[237] Alachua County, Florida May 28, 2019 July 9, 2019 Ordinance In a unanimous vote on May 28, 2019, the Alachua County Commission voted to prohibit the practice of conversion therapy on minors within the county. The bill took effect 10 days after filing with the Florida Secretary of State. Violators of the ordinance may be fined $500 per violation.[238][239]
55.[240] Kent, Ohio July 17, 2019 July 17, 2019 Ordinance An ordinance to ban conversion therapy on minors was unanimously passed by the Kent City Council on July 17, 2019, and became effective that same day.[240]
56.[241] Racine, Wisconsin July 16, 2019 July 18, 2019 Ordinance On July 8, 2019, the Racine Common Council's Finance and Personnel Committee unanimously approved a conversion therapy ordinance banning the practice.[242] On July 16, the council passed the ordinance 11–3, and Mayor Cory Mason signed it into law on July 18.[243][244] It allows for fines up to $1000 for each day the ordinance is violated.[242]
57.[245] Sheboygan, Wisconsin August 5, 2019 August 5, 2019 Ordinance On August 5, 2019, the Sheboygan Common Council passed (8–1) a conversion therapy ordinance banning the practice in the city of Sheboygan.[246]
58.[247] Superior, Wisconsin August 20, 2019 August 20, 2019 Ordinance An ordinance banning conversion therapy on minors was passed by the Superior City Council on August 20, 2019, and took effect immedidately upon passage.[248]
59.[249] Glendale, Wisconsin August 26, 2019 August 26, 2019 Ordinance An ordinance banning conversion therapy was approved by the Glendale Common Council on August 26, 2019.[250]
60.[251] Fort Lauderdale, Florida September 17, 2019 September 17, 2019 Ordinance On September 12, 2019, the Fort Lauderdale City Commission passed, in its first reading, an ordinance, which among other things, bans the use of conversion therapy on minors. The ban unanimously passed its second and final reading on September 17 and took effect immediately.[252][253][254]
61.[255] East Lansing, Michigan September 10, 2019 September 18, 2019 Ordinance In a divided 3–2 vote, the East Lansing City Council approved a conversion therapy ban,[256] which took effect 8 days later.[citation needed]
62.[257] Columbia, Missouri October 7, 2019 October 7, 2019 Ordinance The Columbia City Council unanimously approved a conversion therapy ordinance on October 7, 2019.[258][259]
63.[260] Ferndale, Michigan October 14, 2019 October 14, 2019 Ordinance The Ferndale City Council unanimously passed a conversion therapy ban on October 14, 2019, making the practice a misdemeanor and punishable by up to 93 days in jail and a fine of $500.[261]
64.[262] Kansas City, Missouri November 14, 2019 November 14, 2019 Ordinance A conversion therapy ordinance was introduced on October 24, 2019,[citation needed] and was passed unanimously in its final reading on November 14.[263][264]
65.[265] Minneapolis, Minnesota November 22, 2019 November 30, 2019 Ordinance An ordinance banning the use of conversion therapy on minors was unanimously passed by the Minneapolis City Council on November 22, 2019. It was signed by Mayor Jacob Frey on November 26 and was published four days later.[266]
66.[267] St. Louis, Missouri December 23, 2019 December 23, 2019 Ordinance On December 23, 2019, Mayor Lyda Krewson signed an ordinance prohibiting the use of conversion therapy on minors. The ordinance had previously been approved by the Board of Aldermen.[268]
67.[269] Berkley, Michigan December 2, 2019 January 1, 2020 Ordinance The Berkley City Council held a first reading on an ordinance to prohibit conversion therapy in early November. The ordinance passed its final reading on December 2, 2019, and went into effect 30 days later.[270]
68.[271] Duluth, Minnesota December 16, 2019 January 15, 2020 Ordinance An ordinance banning conversion therapy for minors was approved unanimously by the Duluth City Council on December 16, 2019. It went into effect 30 days later on January 15, 2020.[272]
69.[273] Appleton, Wisconsin January 22, 2020 January 22, 2020 Ordinance The Appleton Common Council passed a conversion therapy ban on January 22, 2020, by a 14–1 vote.[274]
70.[275] Allegheny County, Pennsylvania February 11, 2020 February 14, 2020 Ordinance A ban on conversion therapy was approved 13–2 on February 11, 2020.[276][277] Final approval was granted three days later.[275]
71.[278] Covington, Kentucky March 24, 2020 March 24, 2020 Ordinance The Covington City Council passed a conversion therapy ban on March 24, 2020, by a unanimous vote of 5–0.[279]
72.[280] Tallahassee, Florida April 8, 2020 April 8, 2020 Ordinance An ordinance banning conversion therapy for minors was approved unanimously by the Tallahassee City Council on April 8, 2020, and it went into effect immediately.[281][282]
73.[283] Davenport, Iowa April 22, 2020 April 28, 2020 Ordinance An ordinance banning conversion therapy for minors was approved 8–2 on April 22, 2020,[284][285] and went into effect upon publication on April 28.[citation needed] Mayor Mike Matson stated the bill was inspired in part by Davenport's score on the Human Rights Campaign's municpital equality index.[286]
74.[287] Roeland Park, Kansas June 1, 2020 June 1, 2020 Ordinance A ordinance to ban conversion therapy was introduced to the City Council in May 2020. It passed the Council on June 1, by a 7–0 vote, and went into effect that same day after Mayor Mike Kelly had given his signature.[288]
75.[289] Red Wing, Minnesota June 22, 2020 July 6, 2020 Ordinance On June 22, 2020, the Red Wing City Council passed an ordinance to ban conversion therapy, taking effect two weeks later.[290] It went into effect on July 6, 2020.[291]
76.[292] Saint Paul, Minnesota June 17, 2020 July 17, 2020 Ordinance The St. Paul City Council unanimously passed a conversion therapy ban on June 17, 2020, with penalties of up to $1,000.[293] The ordinance went into effect one month later.[291]
77. Madison Heights, Michigan July 27, 2020 Ordinance On July 27, 2020, the Madison Heights City Council voted unanimously make conversion therapy by healthcare providers a criminal offense subject to imprisonment and fines.[294]
78. Royal Oak, Michigan August 10, 2020 August 10, 2020 Ordinance On August 10, 2020, the Royal Oak City Commission passed an ordinance which makes it a criminal misdemeanor – punishable by up to 90 days in jail and a $500 fine – for a mental health professional to engage in conversion therapy with a minor.[295] The ordinance was drafted after a unanimous resolution on June 22, 2020.[296]
79.[297] West St. Paul, Minnesota August 17, 2020 August 17, 2020 Ordinance A conversion therapy ban was passed 5–1 on August 17, 2020, and went into force upon passage.[298]
80.[299] Winona, Minnesota August 17, 2020 September 2020 Ordinance The Winona City Council unanimously (6–0) passed a conversion therapy ban on August 17, 2020.[291] One council member was absent during the vote.[300] The ordinance makes the practice subject an administrative offense subject to a fine,[301] and it went into effect in September 2020.[291]
81.[302] Anchorage, Alaska August 26, 2020 August 26, 2020 Ordinance The Anchorage Assembly passed a conversion therapy ban on August 26, 2020, by a 9–2 vote.[303]
82.[304] West Allis, Wisconsin September 1, 2020 September 1, 2020 Ordinance The West Allis Common Council passed a conversion therapy ban on September 1, 2020, by a 6–3 vote.[305] The ordinance makes conversion therapy on minors illegal and punishable by a $5,000 fine.[305]
83.[306] Middletown Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania September 8, 2020 September 8, 2020 Ordinance On September 8, 2020, the Township of Middletown's Board of Supervisors voted unanimously to establish a Human Relations Commission.[307][306] Under this ordinance, conversion therapy performed on a minor by a mental health professional is unlawful discrimination.[306]
84.[308] Louisville, Kentucky September 17, 2020 October 1, 2020 Ordinance On September 2, 2020, Louisville Councilman Bill Hollander filed an ordinance to ban conversion therapy by licensed professionals and to prevent public funds from being used for the practice.[309] On September 9, the Louisville Metro Council's Community Affairs, Health and Education Committee unanimously voted to recommend the ordinance,[310] and on September 17, the Council passed it by a 24–1 vote.[311] The ordinance went into effect two weeks later after Mayor Greg Fischer signed it into law on October 1.[312]
85.[313] Kenosha, Wisconsin October 5, 2020 October 5, 2020 Ordinance The Kenosha City Council passed an ordinance outlawing conversion therapy on October 5, 2020, by a 14–1 vote.[314] The ordinance makes conversion therapy for compensation – or knowingly assisting or facilitating such a practice – punishable by a fine and 90 days in jail.[314]
86. Robbinsdale, Minnesota February 2, 2021 February 2, 2021 Ordinance On January 5, 2021, the Robbinsdale City Council voted unanimously to pass a first reading of a conversion therapy ban.[315] They passed a second reading of the conversion therapy ban, also unanimously, on February 2, 2021.[316] The ban makes conversion therapy performed by a medical practice a level five violation punishable by a fine.[316]
87. Lincoln, Nebraska February 22, 2021 February 22, 2021 Ordinance The Lincoln City Council passed a conversion therapy ban, introduced by Councilman James Michael Bowers, by a 5–1 vote with one member absent on February 22, 2021.[317] The measure was praised by Mayor Leirion Gaylor Baird.[317] The ban applies only to licensed mental health professionals.[318]
88. Scranton, Pennsylvania April 6, 2021 April 6, 2021 Ordinance On April 6, 2021, the Scranton City Council voted 4–0 (with President Bill Gaughan absent), proactively barring licensed mental health professionals from practicing conversion therapy on minors.[319] The measure was proposed that March by Councilwoman Jessica Rothchild, the council's first openly gay member.[320]
89. Bloomington, Minnesota April 19, 2021 Ordinance On April 19, 2021, the Bloomington City Council voted 6–1 to ban conversion therapy for minors and vulnerable adults.[321] In contrast to other – largely proactive – bans in Minnesota, at the time of the ban, Bloomington had two licensed providers who practiced conversion therapy on minors.[322]
90.[323] Lawrence, Kansas April 20, 2021 May 4, 2021 Ordinance On April 20, 2021, the Lawrence City Commission voted unanimously to ban the practice of conversion therapy by licensed providers.[324] While an explicit exception for religious organizations was removed from the ordinance, the ban implicitly does not apply to unlicensed clergy or pastoral counselors.[325][326] The measure was inspired by a similar ban in Roeland Park.[327]
91.[328] Lexington, Kentucky May 6, 2021 May 6, 2021 Ordinance The Lexington-Fayette Urban County Council passed a conversion therapy ban unanimously on May 6, 2021.[329]
92.[330] Sun Prairie, Wisconsin May 18, 2021 May 21, 2021 Ordinance The Sun Prairie City Council unanimously passed a conversion therapy ban on May 18, 2021.[331][332]
93. Columbia, South Carolina June 15, 2021 June 15, 2021 Ordinance On June 15, 2021, the Columbia City Council passed an ordinance in a 4–3 vote which makes conversion therapy a civil violation for licensed counselors or therapists, punishable by a $500 fine.[333][334] The measure had unanimously passed a first reading on May 4 of that year,[335][336] It was denounced by Republican Senator Josh Kimbrell, who sent a letter to Attorney General Alan Wilson suggesting he take legal action to overturn it.[337][338] On May 12, 2021,[339] Kimbrell introduced a bill in the South Carolina Senate called the Medical Ethics and Diversity Act, which seeks to prevent cities from banning conversion therapy. The measure was met with support from Republicans on the chamber's Committee on Medical Affairs.[340][341]
94.[342] Norman, Oklahoma June 29, 2021 Ordinance On May 11, 2021, the Norman, Oklahoma City Council considered a ban on the use of city funds for conversion therapy on minors,[343][344] but some council members felt the ordinance did not go far enough,[345] and no action was taken.[346] On May 24, the Norman Human Rights Commission unanimously recommended the council ban conversion therapy on minors by medical professionals,[347] and on June 22, an ordinance amended from the original to include this provision – making the practice a misdemeanor[348] punishable by up to $750 or up to 60 days in jail – passed a first reading.[349][350] In a unanimous vote on June 29, the council passed the ordinance.[351][352]
95. North Kansas City, Missouri July 20, 2021 July 20, 2021 Ordinance The North Kansas City Council unanimously passed a conversion therapy ban on July 20, 2021.[353]
96. Charleston, West Virginia August 2, 2021 Ordinance On August 2, 2021, the Charleston City Council passed a bill prohibiting mental health providers from using conversion therapy on minors by a vote of 14–9.[354] Violations are punishable by license revocation and a fine of $1,000.[355] This made Charleston the first city in West Virginia to ban conversion therapy.[354]
97.[356] Ann Arbor, Michigan August 16, 2021 August 16, 2021 Ordinance On August 16, 2021, the Ann Arbor City Council unanimously [357] passed an ordinance prohibiting mental health providers and professional counselors from using conversion therapy on minors. Violations are punishable by no more than $500 per day.[358]
98. Prairie Village, Kansas October 18, 2021 October 26, 2021 Ordinance On September 21, 2021, the Prairie Village city council voted 10–2 to draft an ordinance to ban conversion therapy for minors.[359] On October 5, the council voted 11–1 to progress the draft to a final vote,[360] and on October 18, they voted 11–1 to pass the ordinance, with violations resulting in a fine up to $1000 for licensed practitioners. The ban goes into effect on October 26.[361]
99. Morgantown, West Virginia October 19, 2021 October 19, 2021 Ordinance On October 5, 2021, the Morgantown city council voted 7–0 to move an ordinance banning conversion therapy on minors to a final approval following a first reading. Final approval was given in a 7–0 vote on October 19, 2021.[362]
100. Independence, Missouri November 16, 2021 Ordinance On November 16, 2021, the Independence City Council voted 6–0 to ban conversion therapy on minors following two failed efforts.[363][364]

School boards[edit]

School boards with prohibitions on conversion therapy on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity or expression
School board Date of enactment Date effective Legalization method Details
1. Eau Claire Area School District Board of Education, Wisconsin September 24, 2018 September 24, 2018 Policy On September 24, 2018, the Eau Claire School Board voted unanimously (7 ayes) in favor of Board Policy 453.7 - Student Mental Health and Wellness Education, which included a clause stating "the Eau Claire Area School District shall exclusively enter into School-based health center agreements with health clinics and/or providers that agree to abide by the District's Nondiscrimination Policy for Students. The District shall not enter into agreements with health clinics and/or providers that endorse or engage in the practice of conversion therapy." The policy went into effect immediately.[365]

Failed legislation[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

On April 25, 2019, the Minnesota House of Representatives voted to incorporate HF 12, which would ban conversion therapy on minors, into the omnibus health and human services finance bill HF 2414 by a vote of 72–53.[a][367][368] On April 30, 2019, the Minnesota Senate voted to strike the section by a vote of 34–30.[369][b]

In July 2021, an executive order was signed and implemented to ban conversion therapy within Minnesota.[94][371]

Medical, psychological and psychiatric organizations[edit]

Despite the lack of federal legislation regarding bans on conversion therapy, such therapy has been banned by numerous therapy organizations operating in the U.S.[372][373] It has been banned by the American Psychiatric Association since 1998.[374][375] In 2009, conversion therapy was also rebuked by the American Psychological Association.[376] Others include the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Medical Association, the American College of Physicians, the American Academy of Physician Assistants, and many more. Organizations such as GLAAD and Human Rights Campaign have acknowledged that several other psychiatric and psychological organizations in the United States have rejected the practice of conversion therapy as well.[372][373]

Resolutions and proclamations[edit]

As of February 2021, fourteen cities/counties have passed non-binding resolutions or proclamations declaring opposition to conversion therapy. These are Edgewater, Colorado;[377] Westminster, Colorado;[378] Wheat Ridge, Colorado;[379] Indianapolis, Indiana;[380] Atlanta, Georgia;[381] Worcester, Massachusetts;[382] Columbia, Missouri;[383] Suffolk County, New York;[384] Harrisburg, Pennsylvania;[385] Appleton, Wisconsin;[386] Eau Claire County, Wisconsin;[387][388] Richmond, Virginia;[389] Rochester, Minnesota;[390][391] and Shorewood, Wisconsin.[392]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See Sec. 6. 214.078 PROTECTION FROM CONVERSION THERAPY[366]
  2. ^ See 11:32:19[370]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ CHAPTER 150 - AN ACT concerning the protection of minors from attempts to change sexual orientation and supplementing Title 45 of the Revised Statutes
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  8. ^ CHAPTER 835 - An act to add Article 15 (commencing with Section 865) to Chapter 1 of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code, relating to healing arts
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  27. ^ AN ACT RELATING TO PROFESSIONAL SERVICES; ENACTING NEW SECTIONS OF THE UNIFORM LICENSING ACT, THE NURSING PRACTICE ACT, THE MEDICAL PRACTICE ACT, THE PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST ACT, THE OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE ACT, THE COUNSELING AND THERAPY PRACTICE ACT AND THE SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE ACT TO LIST CONVERSION THERAPY AS GROUNDS FOR DISCIPLINARY ACTION.
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  31. ^ H.B. No. 6695
  32. ^ AN ACT RELATING TO HEALTH AND SAFETY
  33. ^ H 5277 SUBSTITUTE A
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  37. ^ An Act relating to health care professionals; prohibiting certain health care professionals from providing sexual orientation or gender identity conversion therapy to a minor; and providing other matters properly relating thereto
  38. ^ SB201
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  43. ^ CONVERSION THERAPY--SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY
  44. ^ SB 5722 - 2017-18
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  47. ^ A BILL FOR AN ACT RELATING TO MINORS
  48. ^ SB270
  49. ^ Ring, Trudy (May 25, 2018). "Hawaii Bans 'Ex-Gay' Therapy on Minors". The Advocate. Archived from the original on August 17, 2018.
  50. ^ AN ACT TO AMEND TITLES 24 AND 29 OF THE DELAWARE CODE RELATING TO CONVERSION THERAPY.
  51. ^ Senate Bill 65
  52. ^ "Delaware Becomes 14th State to Protect LGBTQ Youth from Conversion Therapy" (Press release). National Center for Lesbian Rights. July 23, 2018. Archived from the original on September 21, 2018.
  53. ^ Health Occupations - Conversion Therapy for Minors - Prohibition (Youth Mental Health Protection Act)
  54. ^ Wiggins, Ovetta; Chason, Rachel (March 27, 2018). "Maryland Senate gives initial approval to bill that outlaws 'gay conversion therapy'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 5, 2018.
  55. ^ SB1028
  56. ^ Lavers, Michael K. (May 15, 2018). "Hogan signs bill banning conversion therapy for minors in Md". Washington Blade. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018.
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  58. ^ An Act relative to conversion therapy seeking to change a person's sexual orientation
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  61. ^ Docket of HB587
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  63. ^ A00576
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  67. ^ Bill H.140
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  69. ^ HOUSE BILL 19-1129
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  99. ^ OE-2019-016
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  101. ^ Chapter 769 - SEXUAL ORIENTATION OR GENDER IDENTITY CHANGE EFFORTS
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  106. ^ ORDINANCE NO. 2016-009
  107. ^ 9/13/2016 Regular City Commission Meeting
  108. ^ AN ORDINANCE related to human rights; and adding a new Chapter 14.21 to the Seattle Municipal Code to prohibit the practice of conversion therapy on minors.
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  113. ^ Ordinance 13638
  114. ^ City of West Palm Beach City Commission AGENDA November 7, 2016
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  116. ^ a b TOWN OF BAY HARBOR ISLANDS November 14, 2016 AGENDA
  117. ^ Ordinance supplementing the Pittsburgh Code, Title VI Conduct, Article 1 Regulated Rights and Actions, to add a new Section 628 Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity or Expression Conversion Efforts prohibiting the practice of conversion therapy for LGBTQIA+ minors within the City of Pittsburgh.
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  119. ^ a b City Commission Agenda Tuesday, January 17, 2017
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  121. ^ ARTICLE VII. - PROHIBITION OF CONVERSION THERAPY ON MINORS Page 337: ORDINANCE NO. 2017-02 OF THE CITY OF LAKE WORTH, FLORIDA, AMENDING CHAPTER 15, OFFENSES, TO ADD ARTICLE VII, PROHIBITING THE PRACTICE OF CONVERSION THERAPY ON MINORS; PROVIDING FOR SEVERABILITY, THE REPEAL OF LAWS IN CONFLICT, CODIFICATION, AND AN EFFECTIVE DATE
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  123. ^ a b Regular Village Council Meeting January 24, 2017 Page 7: AN ORDINANCE OF THE VILLAGE OF EL PORTAL, FLORIDA, TO CREATE A NEW CHAPTER IN THE VILLAGE OF EL PORTAL CODE OF ORDINANCES TO PROHIBIT WITHIN THE GEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES OF THE VILLAGE OF EL PORTAL THE USE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION OR GENDER IDENTITY CHANGE EFFORTS WITH MINORS, INCLUDING REPARATIVE AND CONVERSION THERAPY
  124. ^ Repealing Toledo Municipal Code Chapter 554 "Employment, Real Estate Discrimination", enacting a new Chapter 554, "Discrimination Prohibited" to include gender identity as a protected class and set forth additional prohibitions.
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  126. ^ An Ordinance of the City of Key West, Florida amending Chapter 42 of the Code of Ordinances, entitled "Miscellaneous Offenses," by creating Section 42-18, entitled "Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity Change Efforts," to prohibit licensed professionals from engaging in counseling efforts, practices, or treatments with the goal to change a minor's sexual orientation or gender identity; Providing for severability; Providing for repeal of inconsistent provisions; Providing for an effective date.
  127. ^ a b Ordinance No. 2017-004
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  131. ^ AN ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF TAMPA, FLORIDA, RELATING TO CONVERSION THERAPY ON PATIENTS WHO ARE MINORS, MAKING REVISIONS TO CITY OF TAMPA CODE OF ORDINANCES, CHAPTER 14 (OFFENSES); CREATING ARTICLE X, SECTIONS 14-310 – 14-313; AMENDING CHAPTER 19 (PROPERTY MAINTENANCE AND STRUCTURAL STANDARDS); AMENDING SECTION 19.4.(a)(2), DEPARTMENT OF CODE ENFORCEMENT; DUTIES AND SCOPE OF AUTHORITY OF THE DIRECTOR; REPEALING ALL ORDINANCES OR PARTS OF ORDINANCES IN CONFLICT THEREWITH; PROVIDING FOR SEVERABILITY; PROVIDING AN EFFECTIVE DATE.
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