Glossary of North American railway terms

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of U.S. railfan jargon)

This article contains a list of terms, jargon, and slang used to varying degrees by railfans and railroad employees in the United States and Canada. Although not exhaustive, many of the entries in this list appear from time to time in specialist, rail-related publications. Inclusion of a term in this list does not necessarily imply its universal adoption by all railfans and railroad employees, and there may be significant regional variation in usage.


3-step protection (US)
The protection given by a locomotive engineer to an employee working near, between, or under cars to which the locomotive is coupled, via a three-step process:
  1. Fully apply independent brake.
  2. Set reverser to neutral.
  3. Turn off generator field (or notify the ground employee, depending on company-specific rules and locomotive type, that protection is provided).[1][2]
10 wheeler (US)
The 10-wheeler wheel arrangement
A steam locomotive with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement[3]
241 (US)
Procession of a train past a stop signal with verbal permission from the dispatcher.[4] Derives from Rule 241, which is used to grant such permission under certain rule sets.[5]
251 (US)
On most Class I railroads, this rule references the tradition of "right hand" running on double track (or more) main lines. Trackage signalled for 251 operation typically has full speed signals and speed limits on the right main, and reduced speed (dwarf) signals and speed limits on the left main.
261 (US)
On most Class I railroads, this rule references bi-directional operation on any mainline track. Multi track mainlines signalled for 261 operation have full speed signals and speed limits on all available tracks as conditions warrant. Rule 261 operation is the default operating procedure on single track mainlines.


A unit (US)
A BNSF Railway A unit
A diesel locomotive (or more rarely an electric locomotive) equipped with a driving cab and a control system to control other locomotives in a multiple unit, and therefore able to be the lead unit in a consist of several locomotives controlled from a single position[6]
A nickname for EMD's SD70ACe locomotive[7][8]
Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System (ACSES)
A positive train control cab signaling system developed by Alstom.[9]
Advanced Train Control System (ATCS)
A system of railroad equipment designed to ensure safety by monitoring locomotive and train locations, providing analysis and reporting, and automating track warrants and similar orders.[10]
A nickname for the DH643 diesel-hydraulic locomotive built by the American Locomotive Company (ALCO)[citation needed]
ALCO RSD-15 locomotive, named for its long, low nose[11][12][13]
An Amfleet passenger car, named because the car shape is a rounded stainless steel tube[14]
Angel seat (US)
A cupola-style caboose with an angel seat above
The second level seats on a cupola-style caboose[15][16]
Angle bar
A metal plate that joins the ends of rails in jointed track[17]
A small shelter that serves as a train station for Amtrak trains in a small town. Normally, there are no manned services offered at these small stations.[18] More generally, any station built under Amtrak's Standard Stations Program in the 1970s and 1980s.[19][20]
Association of American Railroads (AAR)
An industry trade group representing primarily the major freight railroads of North America (Canada, Mexico and the United States)[21]
Automatic equipment identification (AEI) (US)
An automatic tracking system using RFID technology[22][23]
Auto Train (US)
A passenger train service first operated by Auto-Train Corporation and then by Amtrak between Lorton, Virginia and Sanford, Florida that carries the passengers' automobiles aboard the same train in autoracks
Autorack or auto carrier (US)
A consist of autorack cars
A specialized freight car for transporting automobiles[22][24]


A GE B23-7, B30-7, or B36-7 locomotive. By analogy with U-boat, since with the Dash 7 line, the "B" or "C" moved to the beginning of the designation.[25]
Baby Boat
A GE U18B locomotive[13]
Baby Tunnel Motor
An EMD GP15-1 or GP15T locomotive, so-called because its low air intakes resemble those of the much larger SD40T-2 and SD45T-2[13]
Bad order
A rail car that has a mechanical defect, and is sometimes set out on a spur to be repaired. The statement, "I am going to set out a bad order" is railroader slang for a bathroom break (usually a "number two" type break).
A nickname for Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad (Milwaukee Road) locomotives after the railroad was sold to the Soo Line Railroad. Soo Line covered up the Milwaukee Road name and logo on the orange locomotives with black paint, causing them to resemble bandits.[26] Also often applied to similarly patched, second-hand locomotives, especially if the patches are crudely applied.[27]
Empty flat, spine, or well cars[28]
Beans or Going to Beans
Taking a break from work to eat[29][30][31]
Big Blue
A nickname for Conrail due to the medium blue livery that their locomotives were painted[32][33]
Big G
  1. A Guilford Rail System locomotive showing the Big G paint scheme
    A nickname for Guilford Rail System, in reference to the large "G" emblem on their locomotives and boxcars[34]
  2. The Great Northern Railway[35][unreliable source?][36][37]
Big Hole[38][39][40]
  1. The "Big Hole" is the Emergency position of the engineer's air brake valve.
  2. When the engineer makes an emergency brake application, he moves his brake valve to the emergency, "Big Hole", position. The result of putting the air brake valve into the Big Hole position will cause the instantaneous total loss of all brake air pressure in the train line which causes the brakes on all train cars and engines to automatically apply creating an emergency stop of the train. This action is called, "Big Holing It".
  3. If a train line is "broken" either to an unexpected uncoupling or a train line hose rupture caused by a derailment or other accident, a "Big Hole" condition occurs which causes the total loss of all brake air pressure in the train line which automatically causes an emergency stop of the train.
Big hook
A railroad crane[41][42]
Big Mac
A nickname given to EMD's SD70MAC, SD80MAC, and SD90MAC locomotive models[43]
Big Orange
A nickname given to BNSF, named after their orange livery
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway locomotive in the pre-1972 blue and yellow scheme[13]
Black Widow
A Southern Pacific locomotive (all black with some silver)[13]
Bloody Nose
A Southern Pacific locomotive (post-1959 gray and red paint scheme where the nose of the diesel locomotive was painted in scarlet red),[13] or the Amtrak Phase I paint scheme: A reddish-orange nose and then the Amtrak Chevron logo on the side of the locomotive.
One of two Santa Fe paint schemes. The standard freight scheme from 1972 until the BNSF Railway merger was dark blue with yellow on the front, with the same color division as the warbonnet scheme. It is also known as Yellowbonnet. Bluebonnet can also mean a warbonnet unit with only the red painted over, resulting in a silver and blue locomotive; this was used on passenger engines transferred to freight service after the formation of Amtrak.[13]
There are two different uses of this term.
  1. 1. A nickname given to GE U34CH locomotives because they were delivered in dark blue and silver NJDOT paint
  2. 2. A nickname given to Alco PA locomotives of the Nickel Plate Road due to their distinctive royal blue and white paint scheme.
A nickname given to the Reading Railroad's heavyweight MU cars, in reference to the bright blue and white paint scheme they wore in later years before being sold to SEPTA
A transverse floating beam member of truck suspension system supporting the weight of vehicle body[44]
Blue Devil
A Canadian National locomotive painted in a blue-and-white livery
A cabless B unit or slug. Although a slug and a B unit differ in terms of an engine, both serve the purpose of adding more tractive effort.[45][46]
A boxcar
A type of rolling stock with a flat bottom enclosed on all sides and top, which is loaded and unloaded from sliding doors on each side[47][48]
Brakeman (US)
A train crew member who performs railcar and track management, often a single job description along with switchman ("brakeman/switchman"). A brakeman manually activated brakes on railroad cars before the advent of air brakes.
Brakeman's caboose (US)
A small hut at one end of a railway wagon to protect the brakeman from the elements
Bright Future
The middle CSX tricolor paint scheme (also known as Yellow Nose 2 or YN2)[citation needed]
Buda Car
A type of inspection car or speeder, typically streamlined, manufactured by Buda Engine Co. They were sometimes built out of an ordinary automobile body, with flanged wheels added. They were driven by small engines from 30 to 200 horsepower.[49]
Buffer Car or Spacer Car
A railroad car, typically empty, placed between a train's locomotives and cars containing hazardous materials, particularly unit trains carrying oil.[50]
A caboose on the Boston and Maine Railroad[51]
A railroad police officer[13][35]
B unit
A BNSF Railway B Unit
A cabless booster locomotive, controlled via multiple unit from a cab-equipped A unit, sometimes equipped with limited controls for hostling[13][52][53]
Butthead or Butt Head
GM Electro-Motive Division model 'MP' or 'SW' endcab switching locomotives[54]


C Light (US)
A single lamp attached to wayside signals with a "C" plate bolted to it. The aspect is Rule 280a - Clear to Next Interlocking. This aspect is only seen in the Eastern United States on rail lines operating Cab Signal Systems. Cab signal lines only have wayside signals at interlockings and diamonds. When a locomotive does not have working cab signals, the dispatcher will activate the C light (indication is a flashing white lamp) to notify the crew that they may proceed to the next interlocking at the speed permitted by the wayside signal's aspect. A locomotive without cab signals that does not receive a C light at an interlocking may proceed past the signal not exceeding Restricted Speed, or with a Form D or other Track Warrant authorization.
Cab car (US)
A passenger coach which has a full set of train controls at one end, allowing for the use of push-pull train operation[55]
Cab unit (US)
A locomotive which derives its structural strength from a bridge-truss design framework in the sides and roof, which cover the full width of the locomotive
Former EMD F40PH locomotives with the diesel engine removed, and a roll-up baggage door installed in the center of the carbody; used as cab/baggage cars in Amtrak push-pull service. Portmanteau of 'cab' and 'baggage'.[56]
A nickname for EMD SD9 locomotives, in reference to their smooth ride quality reminiscent of a Cadillac automobile. This nickname is said to have originated on the Southern Pacific Railroad.[citation needed]
An EMD TR1, one of several models of cow-calf locomotives
A cabless switcher[46]
Can Opener
Conrail's herald[57][58]
Car knocker
Railroad car repair-person or car inspector. The term is derived from a worker who taps or "knocks" on railroad equipment to check its soundness.[59]
Norfolk Southern locomotives with white stripes painted on the nose, which are said to look like catfish whiskers[citation needed]
Union Pacific's EMD DDA40X locomotives. World's most powerful diesel locomotives, delivered in 1969, the year of Union Pacific's centennial.[60]
A nickname given to a 12-axled Baldwin diesel locomotive. Also a tender (as on a steam engine) with seven axles (two axles in a truck, followed by five fixed axles).[61]
Centralized traffic control (CTC) (US)
A system in which signals and switches for a given area of track are controlled from a centralized location[62]
Red colored signal aspects (lights) when mixed with other colors of a signal aspect (e.g. "Two cherries and a lemon" would denote a Red over Red over Yellow aspect colors)[citation needed]
Chessie System's kitten logo; the profile of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway's sleeping kitten mascot Chessie appears inside the corporate C logo[63][64]
Cinder dick
Railroad police detective. The term is derived from the fact that railroad police have to walk on ballast, which is sometimes known as "cinders" (before dieselization, many railroads used spent steam locomotive cinders for ballast)[65][66]
Circus loading
Loading trailers on flatcars sequentially from the end; the standard method of loading in early piggyback service[67]
Coal drag
A train loaded with coal[68]
Coal jimmy
A small, low-capacity hopper car for carrying coal[69]
Changing the front destination signs on buses or trains, sometimes including rollsign changes.
Coffin car
A nickname for a passenger car with an engineer's cab. Also known as a cab car or control car. So named due to the alleged additional danger posed to passengers in such cars (which are pushed by the heavier trailing locomotive) in frontal collisions.[70]
Color position light (CPL)
A type of signal used most prominently by the Baltimore & Ohio and the Norfolk & Western railroads[71][72]
Conductor (US)
The person in charge of a train and its crew. On passenger trains, a conductor is also responsible for tasks such as assisting passengers and collecting tickets.
The group of rail vehicles making up a train, or more commonly a group of locomotives connected together for multiple-unit (MU) operation[73][74]
Control point (CP) (US)
An interlocking, or the location of a track signal or other marker with which dispatchers can specify when controlling trains[62]
Cornfield meet (US)
A head-on collision between two trains[75][76][77][78]
Coupler (US)
An AAR Type "E" coupler
The mechanical connector at either end of a railroad car allowing it to couple together with other cars to form a train[62]
Covered wagon
An EMD E-unit or F-unit locomotive[42][62]
A switcher locomotive, when paired with a calf[46]
Cowl unit (US)
An Amtrak EMD F40PH is one of many cowl units
A locomotive for which structural strength comes from the underframe instead of the sides and roof
A small industrial locomotive[79]
Cross-tie (US)
See Railroad tie
A caboose[80]
Cut (US)
A set of cars coupled together[81]


Dark Future
A CSX EMD SD40-2 in Dark Future paint
The current CSX paint scheme, also known as Yellow Nose 3 (YN3) or Gold Nose 1 (GN1)[82]
Dark Territory
Rail lines without wayside (train control) signals[83]
Darth Vader
Darth Vader signals
The lens hood on a modern style of railroad signals, due to its vague resemblance to the helmet of Darth Vader from Star Wars[84][85]
A passenger train that is traveling along a line but is not carrying passengers[86]
Illinois Central Railroad Deathstar logo
The logo of Illinois Central Railroad, which has the letter "i" inside a circle, based on a vague resemblance to the Death Star battle station in Star Wars[citation needed]
Level crossing of two railroad tracks, at any angle from 15° to 90°[86]
A nickname given to small locomotives, particularly one running in industrial service or on narrow gauge tracks.[87] Also, a small old-fashioned trolley.[88]
Distributed power unit (DPU)
A locomotive or multiple locomotives in the middle or at the end of a train. Can either be manned or automatically controlled. Manned units are preferred to be called "helpers" by railfans and some railroad personnel.[89]
Double header (US)
A configuration in which two steam locomotives are coupled head-to-tail in order to haul a heavy train up a long or steep hill. In the present day, double headers (and occasionally triple headers) are done primarily on large passenger trains or as a show for railfans.
Nickname for the Canadian-built GMD SD40-2F, SD50F, SD60F, GE C40-8M, and BBD HR-616. These locomotives feature a full-width carbody with improved rear visibility, designed by William L. Draper, an employee of Canadian National Railway.[90]
Dynamic braking or dynamics
A method of braking in which the motors on the locomotive wheels generate electric power from the momentum of the moving train, and this power is dissipated through resistor grids as heat[91][92]
Dynamite the train or dynamite
Causing an emergency brake application (whether intentional or not)[93][94]


Eight and sand
Term used to wish train crews well wishes and quick uneventful journey. Comes from notch 8 (the highest power setting of modern locomotive throttles), and to apply sand to prevent wheel slipping.[95]
Elephant style
Three Burlington Northern Railroad locomotives coupled elephant style
A consist of multiple locomotives with all units facing forward, resembling the nose-to-tail train of elephants in a circus parade[96][97]
Clear aspects (green colored signal lights) indicating maximum allowable speed for that section of track or route. Emeralds are the opposite of "Rubies".[citation needed]
When a train has made a full brake application due to adverse event, or has lost its train air due to a defective valve (a "kicker"), or a broken air line or train separation. The train crew will normally declare that they are "in emergency" over the train radio, thus warning other trains and the dispatcher that there is a problem.[98][99]
End-of-train-device (ETD) or flashing rear-end device (FRED)
An ETD on a container train
A form of electronic caboose with a flashing red light mounted on the end of a train. Also monitors various train functions such as brake-pipe pressure, motion, and GPS location.[100][101][102]
Engineer (US)
The operator of a locomotive[100]
A nickname given to the Southern Pacific Railroad by railfans[103]
A former Conrail locomotive or employee[104]
The Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR 392.10) requires drivers of vehicles carrying passengers for hire, school buses carrying students, and vehicles carrying hazardous materials to stop before crossing the tracks. State or local laws or regulations establish which crossings may be posted as "exempt" from this requirement to stop; except when a train, locomotive, or other railroad equipment is approaching or occupying the highway-rail grade crossing, or the driver's view is blocked.[105]


Fallen flag
A defunct railroad, having either merged or discontinued operations[106]
Federal Employers Liability Act (FELA)
A U.S. federal law that protects and compensates railroaders injured on the job[107]
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (US)
The agency which oversees rail operation regulations and safety requirements for U.S. freight, passenger and commuter rail operations[101]
Converting a double-stack container train to single stack by removing the top layer of containers, allowing the rest of the train to proceed along track that lacks double stack clearance. The removed containers can be trucked to local destinations. The opposite process is toupee.[108]
The EMD SD45, with its dynamic brake blisters and radiators that distinctively flare from the top of the unit. Also Flare 45. Both forms distinguish the SD45 from the SD45-2 and SD45T-2, which lack flared radiators.[109] The GP40X and SD70M models also bear similar flared radiators.[citation needed]
Flatcar (US)
A train of loaded flatcars
A type of rolling stock, which can be a flat-bottomed car with no sides on which freight (including intermodal containers) can be stacked. A bulkhead is a flatcar with walls on the front and rear. A center-beam bulkhead is a bulkhead flatcar with an additional wall dividing one side of the flatcar from the other, but still without any sides.[101]
Industry slang for trailer-on-flatcar service in the 1970s, especially in the trade journal Railway Age[110]
A railfan, particularly one whose enthusiasm appears excessive. They figuratively "foam at the mouth" while railfanning.[111]
Flying switch or drop (US)
The practice of uncoupling a locomotive from a car in motion and running over a switch, whereupon an employee on the ground lines the switch to divert the car onto an adjacent track.[112][113] Once commonplace, this practice has led to several lawsuits against railroad companies and is now strictly prohibited due to the high risk to life and property.[114][115][116][117][118]
Foreign power
Foreign power from Canadian Pacific and BNSF on a Norfolk Southern train
Motive power from one railroad that runs along another railroad[119]
Form D (US)
A paper form authorizing movements over a specific stretch of track. Also called a Track Warrant Control.
Freight (US)
The products which are carried
Freight car (US)
A car designed to transport freight
Frog (US)
A casting with "X" shaped grooves used in switches and crossovers[101]
Fucking rail nut (FRN)
A derogatory term used by some railroaders for railfans[120]
Funeral train
  1. A train transporting the bodies of deceased leaders, government officials, or other significant people to a graveyard
  2. A train consisting of one or more locomotives carrying other locomotives for scrapping


Gandy dancer
A track maintenance worker[121][122]
A nickname for EMD's GP series of locomotives[122]
A Metro-North Railroad or Amtrak GE P32AC-DM locomotive[citation needed]
From "generator set", a locomotive that uses multiple high-speed diesel engines and generators, rather than a single medium-speed diesel engine and a single generator. Sometimes confused with Green Goat locomotives; the only similarities between the two types are their outward appearance and that both are designed to reduce air pollution and fuel consumption.[123]
A nickname for GE Evolution Series locomotives, in reference to the GEVO-12 engine used in those units[124]
An unpainted (but usually numbered) locomotive that has not yet been painted with company's livery. A ghost locomotive can be either in transport from the locomotive builder to the paint shop, or an unpainted locomotive may have been placed in revenue service without livery due to power shortage or, in rare cases, pushed out of the factory preemptively due to an impending labor strike. May also refer to an EMD E8, #4261, belonging to the Boston commuter agency, MBTA. This locomotive was known for its unique, plain light-gray paint.[citation needed]
A locomotive used in yard switching service[35][68][122]
Gold Nose 1 (GN1) or YN3
The current CSX paint scheme[citation needed]
Gondola (US)
A gondola car
A type of rolling stock with a flat bottom and relatively low sides, used to haul material such as ore or scrap, and loaded and unloaded from the top which may be covered or uncovered[122][125]
Green and Cream (Cream and Green)
BNSF's post-Burlington Northern green-and-white livery
Green Goat
A demonstrator Green Goat locomotive
A type of "hybrid" switching locomotive utilizing a small diesel engine and a large bank of rechargeable batteries[126]
Guard rail (US)
A double rail section of track, sometimes found in train yards and on bridges to prevent derailments or limit damage caused by derailments by having rail on both sides of the wheel flange. Also found on curves with a tight radius, switches, and crossings.[122]


A caboose[127][128]
  1. A GE locomotive with "winged" radiators, when running long hood forward
  2. A nickname given to certain early ALCO roadswitchers with a high nose, as well as the GE BQ23-7[citation needed]
Handcar (US)
A handcar
A small, hand-powered railroad car used for track inspection
Heavy rail (US)
A city-based transit rail system that runs on its own dedicated track and often underground. Subways are considered heavy rail. Refers to commuter rail and inter-city rail when used by the FRA or in other countries.[129][130]
Heavyweight (US)
During the period between around 1910 and the mid-1930s, most passenger cars in the US were built with three axle trucks, concrete floors, and riveted, double walled sides and often weighed 90 tons or more. Heavyweight construction was used to improve ride quality.[131][132]
A locomotive temporarily coupled to heavy-tonnage trains to assist them over steep grades[133]
High ball
  1. Another term for a clear signal, derived from the days of steam where a station operator would hoist a large wooden ball up a standard, signalling that the engineer was authorized to proceed[35][68][131][134]
  2. A slang term used among railroad employees to convey to the crew of a train that they were clear to proceed[135][136]
High cube (US)
A boxcar whose vertical clearance is excessive[137][138]
Hog law
The federal hours-of-service law that forbids certain classes of railroad employees, including those operating trains, from working longer than a certain time after reporting for duty, currently 12 hours[139][140]
A locomotive engineer[35][68][131][141]
Honorary steam engine
Common term for ALCO diesel locomotives, due to their turbo lag resulting in a tendency to blow large amounts of black smoke when throttling up[142][143]
Hood unit (US)
TPW 400, an ALCO RS-11, a type of hood unit
A locomotive whose sides and roof are nonstructural and do not extend the full width of the locomotive. Structural strength comes from the underframe.[131]
Horsehead or 'Mister Ed'
Norfolk Southern's current locomotive livery with a horse's head embedded in the NS Logo[144]
Horsepower hours
How long motive power from another railroad is used on a specific railroad[119]
Hospital train
A train composed of defective "bad order" equipment or locomotives that are en route to a repair shop[145]
Hot box
An overheated wheel bearing. This comes from the era before the widespread use of roller bearings where the ends of an axle rested in solid copper bearings housed in a journal box filled with oil soaked cotton waste. An overheated axle led to a hot journal box that often ignited the oiled waste. The term is used to refer to a railway wheel bearing that has over-heated due to internal friction caused by some fault in the bearing.[131][146][147]
Hot rail (US)
  1. Any section of track over which a train movement is imminent. The closer or faster the approaching train, the "hotter" the rail.[148]
  2. On some electrified railroads and rapid transit lines, the third rail which supplies power to locomotives or cars[149][150][151]
Hotel power (US)
Electric power used to provide for the comfort of passengers aboard a train en route[152]
Hotshot (US)
A fast, long-distance train given priority on the track over other trains[153][154][155]


Interlocking (US)
The interlocking tower and tracks in Des Plaines, Illinois
Any location that includes a switch or crossing of two tracks, derived from the early practice of installation of a system of mechanical equipment called an interlocking plant to prevent collisions. See also signal box. Interlocking is also the term for the actual mechanical or electrical apparatus that prevents switch/points and signals from being operated in ways that would allow for conflicting train movements.[156]


Jenny (plural Jennies)
A relatively short, open top hopper car primarily used in the transport of iron ore.
Jersey Builder
A nickname given to Central Railroad of New Jersey commuter trains in the 1970s due to the fact it used former Great Northern, Northern Pacific and Burlington Northern railroad passenger cars used on the famed Empire Builder passenger train still in their former owners paint schemes with CNJ patches on them.
Johnson Bar (US)
On a locomotive, a long, heavy lever that operates the reversing gear[157]
Synonym for the verb "couple" used by brakemen when flat switching a yard. Talking on the radio, they will tell the engineer how many car lengths to back up in order to couple to another car (i.e. "five cars to a joint")[158]
Joint bar (US)
A metal plate that joins the ends of rails in jointed track
Juice Train
A preserved refrigerator car that was used on the Juice Train
A unit train of Tropicana cars[159]


Knock down (US)
To pass an absolute signal and thereby change its aspect to stop; originated in the days of semaphore signals whose arms would drop to the stop aspect when passed[160]
Southern Pacific Santa Fe Railroad's red, yellow, and black paint scheme, which resembled the packaging of Kodachrome color transparency film. This was the scheme instituted when the merger between Southern Pacific and Santa Fe was assumed to be approved. Hundreds of locomotives were painted in Kodachrome colors before the merger was denied.[citation needed]


Lantern (US)
A brakeman's lantern from the Chicago and North Western Railway which burned kerosene to produce light
A portable (often handheld) light source that is used to signal train crews[161]
Level junction (US)
A junction in which all track crossings take place at grade and routings must therefore be controlled by signals and interlocking
Light engine or light power
A locomotive unit traveling to a destination without a train attached. Can be a power pool transfer (relocation of a surplus of locomotives from one location to another), or can be a helper locomotive/locomotives being sent or returning from helping a heavy tonnage train over a grade.[162]
Lightning Slinger
A telegraph operator[68]
Lineup or lined up
To have switches aligned correctly before a move (e.g. over the radio, "Would you call the dispatcher for a lineup so we can get out of here?")[163][164]
A short freight train that is localized to a specific line or area, and switches out cars from rail yards or industrial spurs
Long hood forward (LHF)
A Norfolk Southern EMD GP38-2 operating long hood forward through Ridgewood, New Jersey.
A locomotive moving backwards (the direction of its long hood) that is either leading a train, most often a local, or part of a light power move


Mainline (US)
A principal artery of a railway system[165]
Main rod (US)
The drive rod connecting the crosshead to a driving-wheel or axle in a steam locomotive[166]
Maintenance of way (MOW) (US)
A spiker is an example of MOW equipment
The maintenance of a railroad's rights of way, including track[165]
A westbound Southern Pacific manifest train
A freight train with a mixture of car types and cargoes. Also known as a Mixed Freight Train.[165][167]
Mating Worms
The intertwined P and C letters of the Penn Central logo[citation needed]
Meatball or Swedish Meatball
Amtrak EMD AEM-7 or ABB ALP-44 electric locomotives; so named for their design being based on the Swedish Rc4.[168]
Four permanently coupled ore cars (jennies)[169]
A locomotive that is paired with a slug[46]
Mud hop (US)
Someone who walks in the "mud" along the rails verifying car lineup[170]
Mud Missile
A derogatory nickname given to GE Genesis locomotives, in reference to one's involvement in the 1993 Big Bayou Canot train disaster[citation needed]
Named for the Canadian Pacific paint scheme given from 1968 to 1996[171][172][173]
Multiple-unit train control (US)
The ability of diesel and electric locomotives or multiple units to be joined together and controlled from one driving station. Such a set of joined locomotives is called a consist or (colloquially) "lash-up" and is said to be "MUed together".[165]


Acronym for the former name of the Rail Passengers Association, the National Association for Rail Passengers.
A derisive acronym for "not in my backyard" describing residents who are opposed to trains running through their neighborhoods
The Northeast Operating Rules Advisory Committee is responsible for standardizing operations and signal rules and aspects among a variety of widely interconnected rail systems through the Northeastern region of the United States. Until 1999, Conrail was the largest system operator to follow NORAC rules. Properties formerly owned by Conrail have since modified wayside signal aspects to conform with individual company rules and aspect plans, until such time that replacement infrastructure is installed.
Nose to ass (N2A)
A group of locomotives that are oriented elephant style[citation needed]


Office-car special (OCS)
A train composed of passenger cars that are privately owned by the railroad corporation and which travels along their rail lines, so that upper level management can review facilities, assess the addition or reconstruction of facilities that are needed for expansion or modernization; as well as streamlining of operations or removal of obsolete infrastructure. Also, these trains are used to escort visiting upper level management from other railroads for the purpose of a proposed purchase or sale of a rail line.[174][175][176]
One-man operation (OMO) (US)
Operation of a train by the driver or motorman alone, without a conductor
Train crew members who have reached their daily 12-hour maximum of hours worked and must cease working due to regulations[177]
A train of exclusively locomotives, usually retired, that exceeds the ordinary maximum number of locomotives in one train[citation needed]
Owl-eyed Cars
An uncommon nickname for Pennsylvania Railroad's MP54s and related heavyweight MU cars, in reference to their distinctive porthole front windows that give the appearance of a pair of eyes when viewed from the front[178][179]


A nickname for the Canadian Pacific Railway's 1968–1996 logo featuring a black triangle within a white half-circle, which resembles the main character of the video arcade game Pac-Man. It was CP's corporate logo for all business aspects: Railway (CP Rail), shipping (CP Ships), telecommunications (CNCP), trucking (CP Express), and airline (CP Air). It was officially known as the Multimark.[180][unreliable source?][85]
Passenger car (US)
Railway vehicle for use in passenger trains[181][182]
Union Pacific 588, formerly owned by Southern Pacific, showing a patch paint job of the new owner's reporting marks
A locomotive or car wearing a new reporting mark or number on a "patch" over existing paint, usually of the former owner's
Pennsy Style
A nickname for old Pennsylvania Railroad position light signals[183][unreliable source?]
Pepsi Can
An Amtrak GE Dash 8-32BWH, in reference to the units' original paint scheme with large red and blue stripes. Also referred to as "Cutters" for the striping's supposed similarity to striping on Coast Guard vessels.[citation needed]
Pig train
A train devoted exclusively to intermodal traffic, generally trailers on flatcars (TOFC) or containers on flatcars (COFC)[184][185]
Plate (US)
The measurement of a freight car's vertical clearance. Plate F and above is considered excess height, and such cars must avoid low-clearance routes.[186] See also: Loading gauge
Pole switching (also called "poling")
Detail of a photo showing the poling pocket on the corner of a freight car in the 1930s
A method of switching cars on adjacent tracks in which a pole is positioned between the locomotive and car, then the locomotive pushes the car using the pole. The pole is fitted into poling pockets on the locomotive and car to ensure it does not move during the switching maneuver.[187][188][189][190]
Pointless Arrow
Amtrak's first paint scheme, circa 1971
A nickname for the General Electric P30CH locomotives. So termed by the similar appearance of the model name to the word pooch: P30CH / POOCH.[191]
Position light signal (Pennsylvania)
Signals made by the Pennsylvania Railroad that make use of a circular disc with up to eight lights mounted in a circle, with one light in the center. The lights would line up in a straight line to give the indication.[192][193]
Power Move (PM)
When multiple locomotives move within a place to get to another without railcars[citation needed]
Private varnish (PV)
Privately owned passenger cars[194][195]
  1. BNSF Railway's current bright orange paint scheme[citation needed]
  2. CSX's or Amtrak's maintenance-of-way paint scheme[196]
  3. Formerly ICG's all-orange scheme[citation needed]


Shorthand nickname for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad (CB&Q)[197][198]
Quarterly inspection, Q-inspection, or periodic inspection (US)
In the United States, a federally-mandated safety inspection performed on a locomotive every 92 operating days[199]
Quiet zone (US)
A designation by the Federal Railroad Administration that removes the requirement for train operators to sound their horn when approaching each public crossing in a certain area, often near residential neighborhoods who have asked for the status. Because the train does not sound its horn while approaching the crossings, safety upgrades to all of the crossings must be made in order to compensate. These upgrades usually include double gates, additional signage, lights, and bells, if they are not already present. Additionally, the residents requesting the status must indemnify the railroad from any resulting crossing mishaps.[200]


  1. A nickname for a stretch of Metra Commuter Rail line and BNSF freight line between Chicago and Aurora where commuter trains and freight trains commonly attain high speeds.[201]
  2. The parallel tracks of the O&W and DL&W north of Norwich.[202]
Norfolk Southern locomotives that have the entire area around the cab windows painted white, resembling the face of a raccoon[citation needed]
  1. Multiple autoracks
  2. The portion of an autorack which is attached to a flatcar in order to protect the vehicles inside and may contain one, two, or three levels depending on the height of the vehicles being shipped[citation needed]
Rail sled (US)
A form of wheel chock that slips onto the rail under the wheel of rolling stock which prevents the vehicle from rolling[citation needed]
Rainbow consist, Skittles consist, or Skittles lineup
  1. A group of locomotives of different colors or liveries leading a single train[203]
  2. A passenger train made up of cars bearing different liveries[204]
Rare mileage
A passenger train traveling over track that does not have regular passenger service[205]
Red Barn
A CP SD40-2F Red Barn
Canadian Pacific's GMD SD40-2F locomotives[citation needed]
A refrigerator car[206][207]
A (usually old) locomotive owned by a leasing company
Reporting mark
A code assigned by the Association of American Railroads to identify the owners of rolling stock in North America
Restricted speed (US)
A speed not exceeding 20 mph which allows stopping within half the range of vision short of an obstruction on the tracks[208][209]
Right way
A "high nose" locomotive running with the long hood facing forward. Reminiscent of the Southern Railway and the Norfolk & Western style of running locomotives.[citation needed]
Nickname for HHP-8 electric locomotives used by Amtrak for Northeast Regional service[citation needed]
Road engine (US)
The locomotive closest to the train during a double-heading operation
Roll-by or rollby (US)
Visual inspection of railroad equipment while it is in motion[210][211]
Rolling Bomb
A unit tank train usually carrying flammable liquids
Roster shooter
Someone interested in photographing every locomotive road number they can[212][213]
Rubies or cherries
Stop signal aspect (red colored signal lights), or a red aspect in conjunction with other colors[citation needed]
Rule G (US)
The universal rule prohibiting the use of drugs and alcohol
Runaround (US)
The practice of detaching a locomotive from its train, driving it to the other end of the train and re-attaching it, to allow the train to proceed in the direction it has just come from (e.g. when it reaches its destination and forms a service in the other direction).[214][215]
Run through
A train that originates on one railroad, with its destination on another road, that is simply "run through" to its destination instead of being exchanged for home road rolling stock at the crew-change point, in order to save expense[216][217]
Running a red signal
An event in which a train passes a signal to stop without authorization to do so[citation needed]
Running boards or grating
Walkboards found on the tops and ends of rail cars[218]


Safety Appliance Act (US)
A law mandating air brakes, grab bars, and automatic couplers
Screamer or screaming thunderbox
An EMD F40PH locomotive, in reference to it operating in a constant state of full throttle (in order to provide head-end power to passenger cars).[219]
Sergeant Stripes
Canadian National EMD SD60F 5500 in the sergeant stripes paint scheme
A Canadian National locomotive in the 1970s and 1980s paint scheme featuring light-gray stripes on the locomotive's long hood[220]
Shoofly (US)
A temporary stretch of track that takes trains around construction or an accident scene[221][222]
To push a cut of cars backward with a locomotive[223][224]
Shunting neck (US)
A length of track feeding a number of sidings that permits the sidings to be shunted without blocking the main line, or where two lines merge into one before ending with a buffer, to allow a run-round procedure to take place[225]
Siding (US)
A second parallel track (running for a short distance) on single-track railway lines, allowing a train to pass another
A wheel chock[226][227]
Slack action (US)
Looseness in a train caused by mating clearances in couplers[221]
A locomotive, with or without an operator's cab, which lacks a diesel engine, and draws power for its traction motors from a normal locomotive, known as a "mate" or "mother"[42][46]
Smokestack or stack (US)
A chimney[228]
Smurf (Smurf Unit)
A locomotive in a blue and white livery, most notably GATX units and BNSF units formerly owned by GATX, named after their vague resemblance to the blue-and-white creatures in The Smurfs
A locomotive with a diesel engine, but does not have traction motors, often used for external power for a rotary snow plow[229]
Snake head
A section of strap rail that has come loose and curled upward due to the weight of railway cars passing over it[230]
Speeder, motorcar, trackcar, putt putt, or golf cart
A privately owned speeder on display
A small, motorized track inspection vehicle[231]
SpongeBob, SpongeBob Cab, or SpongeBob SquareCab
Rebuilt CSX SD40 or GP40 locomotives with fully yellow noses and a fully square hood ("square cab")
Spur (US)
A stretch of rail that branches off the main line, often to an industry that is serviced by freight trains[221]
A nickname for double-stacked cars or trains[221]
Steeplecab (US)
An electric locomotive with a central cab and sloping "noses" on each end
Subway (US)
A railroad that runs underground, generally in a large city
Susie-Q (US)
A nickname for the New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway
Switch (US)
Switcher locomotive (US)
A small locomotive used for assembling trains and moving railroad cars around[221]


The T (US)
A nickname for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA), the subway service through Boston, Massachusetts, also an old, but still-used official name for the Dallas/Fort Worth Transportation Authority
A nickname for a Reading Railroad T-1 4-8-4 steam locomotive[citation needed]
Taco Belle
A nickname for the new Southern Belle inspired paint scheme on Kansas City Southern locomotives assigned to subsidiary Kansas City Southern de México[citation needed]
Terminal station (US)
A station sited where a railway line or service ends or terminates
A mostly derogatory nickname given to early-build SD70ACe locomotives, due to crews considering their cabs noisy
Thunder Pumpkin
A nickname for the orange paint scheme on BNSF locomotives[citation needed]
Tie (US)
Wood (left track) and concrete (right track) ties beneath the rails
Bars of wood or concrete placed beneath and perpendicular to track to support the rails[232]
Tie down
To apply hand brakes to the trainset[233][234][235]
Tie plate (US)
An iron or steel plate used to spread the weight of rail over a larger area of sleeper (tie) and facilitate a secure, low maintenance, fastening with bolts or clips
An Amtrak AEM-7, sometimes called a toaster due to its boxy shape
EMD AEM-7 and ABB ALP-44 locomotives, due to their visual appearance and tendency to emit sparking and clicking sounds when idling. Also sometimes used to refer to any GE locomotive, due both to their tendency to shoot flames out of the exhaust stack during turbo lag and to General Electric's historic involvement in the manufacture of household appliances.[citation needed]
Torpedo (US)
A small explosive device strapped to the top of a rail to alert an approaching train of danger ahead by creating a loud noise upon contact with a locomotive wheel[232]
When a single stack train coming from reduced clearance territory has additional containers placed on top for the rest of its trip; the opposite of filet[108]
Trackage rights (US)
The legal right of one railroad company to use the tracks of another, as agreed to by the companies concerned or their predecessors[232]
Track warrant (TWC) (US) or occupancy control system (OCS) (CA)
A system for authorizing main track occupancy using defined points such as mileposts, switches, or stations[232]
Train order (US)
A system for authorizing main track occupancy using telephone, telegraph, and wayside stations to pass authority to train crews
A name given by railfans to locomotives, most notably EMD SD60s, with three front windows.
Tropicana reefer boxcar. Shortened from Tropicana, referring to the orange or white refrigerated boxcars used to haul frozen concentrated orange juice to packaging facilities north of Florida. Term is specifically used by CSX crews in Cincinnati Terminal where a large such packaging facility is located.[citation needed]
The undercarriage assembly of rolling stock incorporating the train wheels, suspension, brakes and, in powered units, the traction motors
Tunnel Motor
Southern Pacific EMD SD40T-2 or EMD SD45T-2. Named for the lower-located air intakes to prevent the locomotive from pulling diesel exhaust in with clean air while traveling through a tunnel.[232]
A local freight train that makes a round trip, returning to originating station[236][237]


A GE Universal Series locomotive[238]
Non-operating railroad companies which own rights-of-way[239]
Unit Train
A unit train, also called a block train or a trainload service, is a train in which all cars (wagons) carry the same commodity and are shipped from the same origin to the same destination, without being split up or stored en route.[240][circular reference]
The common name and reporting mark for the Union Pacific Railroad[241]
Union station or union terminal (US)
The main concourse building and façade of Cincinnati Union Terminal
A railway station or terminal at which tracks and facilities are shared by two or more railway companies[242]


Van (Eastern CA)
A caboose[citation needed]
Vomit Bonnet
A derogatory name for BNSF's first attempt at a paint scheme, which used olive and beige as its principal colors but in the configuration of the traditional AT&SF "Warbonnet" scheme, first seen on SD70MAC 9647.[243]


Santa Fe Dash 8 #881 at CN's Battle Creek fueling depot, displaying the modern interpretation of the classic red and silver warbonnet livery
The combined Super Chief/El Capitan passenger train at Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal in 1966 showing the red and silver warbonnet livery
Santa Fe's red and silver paint scheme.[244] The scheme first appeared in 1937 on the railroad's E1 passenger locomotives for the Super Chief train.[245] It is widely considered the most famous and the most recognizable of railroad color schemes.[246][247] The Santa Fe phased out its use from the early 1970s on, then revived it in 1989.[248] It has become less common since the BNSF Railway merger in 1995.[249]
M.U. cars, subway cars, and other equipment made with corrugated side panels that resembled washboards[250][251]
Water column (US)
A device used for delivering a large volume of water into the tank or tender of a steam locomotive
A document giving details and instructions relating to a shipment of goods. A waybill is issued by the railroad after receipt of the Bill Of Lading.[252]
Wet Noodle
Canadian National's stylized CN logo, in use since 1961[citation needed]
The first version of Norfolk Southern's "Horsehead" paint scheme.[citation needed] High visibility paint scheme used on various Burlington Northern locomotives, primarily SD60Ms, SD40-2s, GP50s, GP39 rebuilds, and GP28 rebuilds.[253]
A nickname for the DL&W electric multiple unit cars because of their wicker lined seats[254]
Wings/Flags/Flares (W/F/F)
Characteristics used to designate Union Pacific's paint scheme and engine type. Wings = "Wing" Decal on the engine nose, Flags = "American Flag" Decal on engine body, Flares = "Flared Radiators" of certain SD70Ms on the long hood. Some UP engines have one or more of these characteristics.[citation needed]
Worms in love (US)
A name for the logo of the former Penn Central Railroad logo which combined the letters P and C into a single monogram.
Wye (US)
A wye
Three railroad tracks in a triangular form with switches at all three corners, can be used to turn a train around[255]


X-ing (US)
An X-ing sign
Crossing[citation needed]


One of two Santa Fe paint schemes. The standard freight scheme from 1972 until the BNSF merger was dark blue with yellow on the front, with the same color division as the warbonnet scheme. It is also known as Bluebonnet. Yellowbonnet can also mean a warbonnet unit with only the red painted over, resulting in a silver and yellow locomotive; this was used on passenger engines transferred to freight service after the formation of Amtrak.[256]
CSX's first yellow-nose paint scheme; gray overall with dark blue on the top half of the cab and yellow on the front of the nose; blue "CSX" lettering[257]
A CSX unit wearing the YN2 paint scheme
CSX's second yellow-nose paint scheme; more yellow on the nose; the whole cab is dark blue, along with a stripe on the side; blue or yellow "CSX" lettering[257]


Zebra Stripes
A Santa Fe locomotive in the early black scheme with white warning stripes.[258] CN Rail has also used this scheme on earlier locomotives.[259][260]
An intermodal train (such as the ZBRLC or ZLTLC). Such trains are commonly operated by BNSF and Union Pacific. Usually the hottest (fastest), highest priority train.[261]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Railroad Dictionary: T". CSX. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  2. ^ Loumiet, James R.; Abrams, Bernard S.; Jungbauer, William G. (2005). "3". Train Accident Reconstruction and FELA and Railroad Litigation. Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company. p. 20. ISBN 9781930056930. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  3. ^ White, John (1968). A History of the American Locomotive - Its Development: 1830–1880. New York: Dover Publications. p. 57. ISBN 0-486-23818-0.
  4. ^ "NORAC Operating Rules - Eighth Edition – January 1, 2003" (PDF). Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  5. ^ 49 CFR 241
  6. ^ Solomon, Brian (2000). The American Diesel Locomotives. Osceola, Wisconsin: MBI Publishing Company. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-7603-0666-4.
  7. ^ Wilson, Jeff (2009). The Model Railroader's Guide to Diesel Locomotives. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-89024-761-7.
  8. ^ "Road Testing the ACe". Railfan & Railroad. Carstens Publications. 23: 20. 2004.
  9. ^ "Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System (ACSES)". Alstom. 2003. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  10. ^ "Glossary: General Railway Definition and Common Railway Terms" (PDF). Lanham, Maryland: American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2010.
  11. ^ "Atlas O's Trainman Alco RSD-7/15". Model Railroad News. Vol. 13, no. 10. October 2007. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  12. ^ Burton, Sandy (July 1985). "Alligators in the North Woods". Railfan & Railroad: 48–55.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i "US Railfan Jargon" (PDF). NTRACKAGE Writes. New Mexico Rail Runners (199): 5. October 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  14. ^ "Nicknames or colloquial terms for rail cars and locomotives". Corona Yard. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  15. ^ "Railroad Dictionary: A". CSX Transportation. Archived from the original on August 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  16. ^ Zabel, Darcy (2005). The (Underground) Railroad in African American Literature. Peter Lang. p. 5. ISBN 9780820468167. Angel Seat caboose.
  17. ^ "Fun Facts". Union Pacific Railroad. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
  18. ^ Johnston, Bob (March 2008). "Crawfordsville's high school champs". Trains Magazine. Vol. 68, no. 3. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. p. 41. ISSN 0041-0934.
  19. ^ "The Amtrak Standard Stations Program". Amtrak. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  20. ^ Paletta, Anthony (June 10, 2017). "America's Train Stations: An Architectural Explainer". Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  21. ^ "About Us". Association of American Railroads. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  22. ^ a b "Railroading Glossary: A". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 31, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  23. ^ Gallamore, Robert E.; Meyer, John R. (2014). American Railroads: Decline and Renaissance in the Twentieth Century. Harvard University Press. pp. 384–385. ISBN 978-0-674-72564-5.
  24. ^ Barry, Steve (2008). Railroad Rolling Stock. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, an imprint of MBI Publishing Company. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-7603-3260-3.
  25. ^ "Photo of the Day: B-Boat". Trains Magazine. April 23, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  26. ^ Pacific Rail News, issues 386-391. Interurbans Publications. 1996. p. 49. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  27. ^ Extra Twenty-two Hundred South, Issues 119-125. Dover Printing. 2000. p. 31. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  28. ^ "Railroading Glossary: B". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  29. ^ Niemann, Linda G. (2010). Railroad Noir: The American West at the End of the Twentieth Century. Indiana University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-253-35446-4. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  30. ^ Pitt, John (2012) [1992]. USA by Rail: Plus Canada's Main Routes (eighth ed.). Guilford, CT: The Globe Pequot Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-1-84162-389-4. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  31. ^ Croker, Charlie (October 25, 2012). Terms of Employment: The secret lingo of the workplace. p. 14. ISBN 9781446493816. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  32. ^ Treese, Lorett (2012) [2003]. Railroads of Pennsylvania (2nd ed.). Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8117-0011-5. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  33. ^ Railfan & Railroad, Volume 15. Carstens Publications. 1996. p. 110. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  34. ^ "October on Guilford's West End". Railroad Explorer. 2 (3). Fall 2002.
  35. ^ a b c d e Alpert, Stephen P. (March 31, 2004). "A Dictionary of Old Hobo Slang". Original Hobo Nickel Society. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  36. ^ Trains, Volume 33. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. 1970. p. 154. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  37. ^ Railroad Magazine, Volumes 83-84. Frank A. Munsey Company. 1968. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  38. ^ "Railroad Brakes / Westinghouse Automatic Air Brakes". Historical Marker Project. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  39. ^ "Railroad Dictionary: B". CSX Transportation. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  40. ^ "Western Pacific - Glossary of Railroad Terms" (PDF). Western Pacific Museum at Portola, Operated by the Feather River Rail Society. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  41. ^ Gibson, McDermott (May 1, 2006). "Wrecking derricks". Trains. Retrieved January 28, 2008.
  42. ^ a b c Larson, Russ (1974). "Learn the lingo". N Scale Primer (fourth printing (1977) ed.). Kalmbach Publishing. pp. 100–102. ISBN 0-89024-521-5.
  43. ^ "Conrail SD80MAC's on the Boston Line". Broken Knuckle Video Productions. 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  44. ^ "Railroad Dictionary". CSX Corporation. 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  45. ^ Ransome, Patrick (2001). Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41247-4.
  46. ^ a b c d e McGonigal, Robert S. (May 1, 2006). "Booster units". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved January 28, 2008.
  47. ^ "Railroading Glossary: B". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  48. ^ Welsh, Joe (2006) [first published 1999 by Andover Junction Publications]. The American Railroad: Working for the Nation. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-7603-1631-3.
  49. ^ "Buda Railroad Motor Cars". Railroad Age Gazette. XLV (24): 1369. November 13, 1908. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  50. ^ Railfan & Railroad Staff (December 21, 2020). "NTSB Recommends at Least Five Buffer Cars to Protect Crews". Railfan & Railroad Magazine. Retrieved November 12, 2022.
  51. ^ Kelly, John (August 2006). "The colorful caboose". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  52. ^ Marre, Louis A. (1995). Diesel Locomotives: The First 50 Years. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing Co. ISBN 0-89024-258-5.
  53. ^ Pinkepank, Jerry A. (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Kalmbach Books.
  54. ^ "Diesel Exhaust & Cancers-Long Term: Railroad Exposures Linked to Diseases and Cancers". Teamsters Canada Rail Conference, Division 295 Toronto. May 5, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  55. ^ Mallaband, P.; Bowles, L. J. (1982). Coaching Stock of British Railways 1978. RCTS Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. p. 91. ISBN 0-901115-44-4.
  56. ^ "Railroad Terminology". Michigan Railroads. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  57. ^ "Designer of Conrail "can opener" logo dies". Trains Magazine. May 21, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  58. ^ "GE U28C". Conrail Historical Society. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  59. ^ "Definition of car knocker". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  60. ^ Solomon, Brian, 1966- (June 15, 2016). The field guide to trains : locomotives and rolling stock. Minneapolis, Minnesota. p. 189. ISBN 9780760349977. OCLC 928614280.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  61. ^ "Centipede Tender". Transportation Dictionary. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  62. ^ a b c d "Railroading Glossary: C". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  63. ^ "Railroad History, Issues 172-173". Bulletin. Railway and Locomotive Historical Society: 93. 1995. ISSN 0090-7847. LCCN 73642261. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  64. ^ "Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Newsletter, Volumes 14-17". Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Newsletter. Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad Historical Society: 143. 1982. ISSN 0883-587X. LCCN sn85009194. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  65. ^ "Definition of cinder dick". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  66. ^ "Cop Slang: Cinder dick". Police: The Law Enforcement Magazine. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  67. ^ US 5733091, Long, James, "Rail transportable ramps for circus loading standard highway semi-trailers", published 1998-03-31, assigned to General Electric Company 
  68. ^ a b c d e "Railroad Slanguage Glossary". Railway Life. Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railroad. 1931. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  69. ^ White, John H. Jr. (1995). The American Railroad Freight Car; From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 156–159. ISBN 0-8018-5236-6.
  70. ^ "Is There a 'Coffin Car' on Your Train?". ABC News. December 1, 2005. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  71. ^ Solomon, Brian (2003). Railroad Signalling. MBI Publishing Company. pp. 60–62. ISBN 1616738979. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  72. ^ Phillips, Edmund John (1942). Railroad Operation and Railway Signaling. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation. p. 16. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  73. ^ Santucci, J. D. (November 17, 2003). "Hot Times on the High Iron – This Time We Take Another Look at How We Say It". Retrieved August 22, 2015.
  74. ^ "Railroading Glossary: C". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  75. ^ Chapman, Robert L. (1986). New Dictionary of American Slang (3rd ed.). Harper & Row. p. 83.
  76. ^ Irwin, Godfrey (1931). "American Tramp and Underworld Slang". Hobo Terminology. London: Scholartis; republished by the Original Hobo Nickel Society.
  77. ^ McIntyre, Terry L. (1969). "The Language of Railroading". American Speech. 44 (4): 243–62. doi:10.2307/454681. JSTOR 454681.
  78. ^ "Definition of cornfield meet". Merriam-Webster. September 5, 2015.
  79. ^ Schneider, Paul D. (May 1, 2006). "Critters in the enginehouse". Trains. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  80. ^ Mallery, Timothy J. "Railroad Language – Lingo – Dictionary". Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  81. ^ "Railroad Dictionary: C". CSX Transportation. 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  82. ^ Solomon, Brian (2012). North American Locomotives: A Railroad-by-Railroad Photohistory. MBI Publishing Company. p. 96. ISBN 978-1610586856. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  83. ^ "Failure to Adhere to Track Warrant Control Rules Caused Collision of Two BNSF Trains in Gunter, Texas, NTSB Says". National Transportation Safety Board. June 13, 2006.
  84. ^ Gold Line Corridor Project, Denver, Arvada, Wheat Ridge, Adams and Jefferson Counties: Environmental Impact Statement. United States Federal Transit Administration. 2009. p. 13. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  85. ^ a b "From Top to Tail: A Lesson In Track Jargon". VIA Rail. April 11, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  86. ^ a b "Railroading Glossary: D". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  87. ^ Waddell, John Alexander Low (1916). Bridge Engineering. John Wiley & Sons.
  88. ^ "See the 'Dinky' Streetcar at Castro Street Fair". Market Street Railway. October 3, 2008. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  89. ^ Solomon, Brian (2012). North American Locomotives: A Railroad-by-Railroad Photohistory. MBI Publishing Company. p. 141. ISBN 978-1610586856. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  90. ^ Foster 1996, p. 106
  91. ^ Braking/Regeneration Manual - Regeneration Overview (PDF). Allen-Bradley. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  92. ^ McGonigal, Robert S. (May 1, 2006). "Dynamic braking". Trains Magazine. Retrieved January 28, 2008.
  93. ^ Salmons, C.H., ed. (May 1918). "Undesired Quick Action". Locomotive Engineers Journal. Chicago: Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. 52 (5): 404–405. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  94. ^ Car and Locomotive Cyclopedia of American Practice. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation. 1984. p. 50. ISBN 9780911382013. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  95. ^ Beshouri, Paul (December 2, 2013). "Inside Eight & Sand, an Old Warehouse With Ambitious Plans". Curbed. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  96. ^ Schafer 2003, p. 37
  97. ^ Gallo, Tom; Longo, William B. (2007). Railroads of Monmouth County. Images of Rail. Arcadia Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7385-5046-6. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  98. ^ "Car Brake Inspection". Railway and Locomotive Engineering. XXXII (12): 371–372. December 1919. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  99. ^ Dudley, S.W. (February 13, 1914). "Brake Tests on the Pennsylvania". Railway Age Gazette. 56 (7): 311–312. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  100. ^ a b "Railroading Glossary: E". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 22, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  101. ^ a b c d "Railroading Glossary: F". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  102. ^ Lustig, David (August 2006). "End-of-train devices keep on evolving in back". Trains. Vol. 66, no. 8. p. 18. ISSN 0041-0934.
  103. ^ Solomon 2005, p. 10
  104. ^ "EMD GP40". Conrail Historical Society. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  105. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - Part 8 Traffic Control for Railroad and Light Rail Transit Grade Crossings - FHWA MUTCD". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  106. ^ McGonigal, Robert S. (May 1, 2006). "Understanding railroad reporting marks". Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved September 17, 2007.
  107. ^ Walgren, John A. (1916). Federal Employers' Liability Act: practitioner's manual. T.H. Flood. p. 9. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
  108. ^ a b Anderson, Eric (April 21, 2011). "Railyard Project Back on Track". Times Union. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  109. ^ Signor, John R. (1996). "(untitled)". SP Trainline. Southern Pacific Historical & Technical Society (48–58): 6. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  110. ^ Hay 1982, p. 758
  111. ^ This Was Pacific Electric (bonus feature interview). Glendale, California: Sky City Productions. 2003.
  112. ^ Adams, Cecil (July 4, 1986). "What does "DO NOT HUMP" mean on the side of railroad cars?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  113. ^ "Missouri, K. & T. Ry. Co. of Texas v. Stinson". The Southwestern Reporter. Vol. 78. St. Paul: West Publishing Company. 1904. pp. 986–987. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  114. ^ Walter J. Eagle, ed. (1902). American Negligence Cases. Vol. XII. New York: Remick, Schilling & Co. p. 185.
  115. ^ American Negligence Cases. Vol. XVII. Chicago: Callaghan & Co. 1914. p. 674.
  116. ^ Lewis, E. W. (1909). Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of the Territory of Arizona for the Year 1906 Concluded. Vol. 10. San Francisco: Bancroft-Whitney Company. p. 240.
  117. ^ "State of Texas, Palestine, Code of Ordinances, Part II. Code Of Ordinances, Chapter 94. Traffic And Vehicles, Article VI. Railroads§ 94-173. Flying switch prohibited". Legal Zone. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  118. ^ "State of Texas, Henrietta, Code of Ordinances, Chapter 21. Railroads, § 21-7. Flying switch prohibited". Legal Zone. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  119. ^ a b "Foreign Power: Horsepower Hours vs. Trackage Rights". Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  120. ^ Kisor 1994, p. 6
  121. ^ "World Wide Words: Gandy Dancer". Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  122. ^ a b c d e "Railroading Glossary: G". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  123. ^ "Multi-Engine GenSet Ultra Low Emissions Road-Switcher Locomotive" (PDF). National Railway Equipment Company. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  124. ^ "EVOLUTION Series locomotive" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  125. ^ "Railroading Glossary: O". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  126. ^ "Railpower Technologies Products". Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  127. ^ Bumgarner, Matthew C. (1996). Legacy of the Carolina & North-Western Railway. The Overmountain Press. p. 137. ISBN 1570720525. Retrieved September 6, 2015. railroad hack caboose.
  128. ^ Knapke, William F.; Hubbard, Freeman H. (1968). The railroad caboose: its 100 year history, legend, and lore. Golden West Books. p. 228. ISBN 9780870950117. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  129. ^ Loumiet, James R.; Jungbauer, William G. (2005). Train Accident Reconstruction and FELA and Railroad Litigation (fourth ed.). Tucson, AZ: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Co., Inc. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-930056-93-0.
  130. ^ Berrick, Cathleen A. (February 6, 2007). Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office. p. 6. ISBN 9781422313749.
  131. ^ a b c d e "Railroading Glossary: H". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  132. ^ "Dover Harbor". National Railway Historical Society, Washington D.C. Chapter, Inc. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
  133. ^ "§ 232.219: Double heading and helper service". The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America - 49: Transportation; 49 CFR 200.1. October 2007. p. 597. ISBN 9781577858614.
  134. ^ Russell, I. Willis (February 1944). "'Highball,' to Speed". American Speech. Duke University Press. 19 (1): 33–36. doi:10.2307/486529. JSTOR 486529.
  135. ^ Bianculli, Anthony J. (2001). "6: Highball - Clear Track Ahead!". Trains and Technology: The American Railroad in the Nineteenth Century. Vol. 4. University of Delaware Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN 0874138035.
  136. ^ The Southwestern Reporter. Vol. 145. West Publishing Company. 1912. p. 123.
  137. ^ Hinkelman, Edward G. (2008). Dictionary of International Trade (eighth ed.). World Trade Press. p. 563. ISBN 978-80-7399-759-5.
  138. ^ Richter, Frank (2005). The Renaissance of the Railroad: A Chronicle of the Transformation of the Century. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. p. 111. ISBN 1-4184-9705-3.
  139. ^ Koester, Tony (2003). Realistic Model Railroad Operation: How to Run Your Trains Like the Real Thing. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 0890244189.
  140. ^ "Letters to the Editors: The Long Trains". Life. Vol. 65, no. 8. August 23, 1968. p. 128. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  141. ^ Petersen, Richard A. (September 30, 2003). Hogger: From Fantasy to Fulfillment: a Locomotive Engineer Remembers. iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-65934-9.
  142. ^ Railroad Model Craftsman: Volume 40. Carstens Publishing. 1971. p. 30. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  143. ^ Schwantes, Carlos A. (2009). Just One Restless Rider: Reflections on Trains and Travel. University of Missouri Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0826218599. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  144. ^ Borkowski, Richard C. Norfolk Southern Railway. Voyageur Press. p. 17. ISBN 161673955X. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  145. ^ "Pennsylvania Co. v. United States; Circuit Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, May 8, 1917; No. 2005". The Federal Reporter: Cases Argued and Determined in the Circuit and District Courts of the United States. Vol. 241–242. West Publishing Company. 1917. p. 825. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  146. ^ "Hotbox". The Hotbox. North Central Region National Model Railroad Association. January 7, 2008. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  147. ^ US 4659043, Gallagher, Cornelius A., "Railroad hot box detector", published 1987-04-21, assigned to Servo Corporation of America 
  148. ^ Bragg, J. B. (2011). American Drifters. ISBN 9780557846429.
  149. ^ Ehrenreich-Risner, V. (2010). North Sacramento. Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7385-8003-6.
  150. ^ "Railroad Research Bulletin". Railroad Research Bulletin. 1972 (3): 229. February 1972.
  151. ^ Brill, Debra (2001). History of the J.G. Brill Company. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 187. ISBN 0-253-33949-9.
  152. ^ "Part 92—Control of Air Pollution from Locomotives and Locomotive Engines". The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America. United States Office of the Federal Register. 2003. p. 405.
  153. ^ Green, Jonathon (2005) [first edition published 1998]. Cassell's Dictionary of Slang (second ed.). London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 747. ISBN 0-304-366366.
  154. ^ "Highball on a "hot shot" (advertisement for Corby's Whiskey)". Life Magazine. Vol. 22, no. 8. February 24, 1947. p. 74.
  155. ^ Orr, John W. (2001). Set Up Running: The Life of a Pennsylvania Railroad Engineman, 1904-1949. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-271-02056-3.
  156. ^ "Railroading Glossary: I". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  157. ^ "Railroading Glossary: J". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  158. ^ "Railroad Dictionary". CSX Corporation. 2012. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  159. ^ White, John W. (1986). The Great Yellow Fleet. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books. ISBN 0-87095-091-6.
  160. ^ "Another Reply by the Signal Engineer". The Signal Engineer. Chicago: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co. 5 (9): 305–306. September 15, 1912.
  161. ^ Cunningham, William A. (1997). The Railroad Lantern, 1865 to 1930: The Evolution of the Railroad Hand Lantern as Reflected by the United States Patent Records and by Lanterns Made by Cross, Dane & Westlake, Dane, Westlake & Covert, the Adams & Westlake Manufacturing Co. & the Adams & Westlake Company. Wm. A. Cunningham.
  162. ^ Koester, Tony (2003). Realistic Model Railroad Operation: How to Run Your Trains Like the Real Thing. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 0890244189. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  163. ^ Phernetton, Ronald A. (2008). "Jargon, unfamiliar or nonstandard terms used in the story". The Rock. AuthorHouse. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1452073880. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  164. ^ "Galveston, H. & S. A. Ry. Co. v. Butts (No. 6138); Court of Civil Appeals of Texas, San Antonio, Jan. 29, 1919; Rehearing Denied Feb. 26, 1919)". The Southwestern Reporter. Vol. 209–210. West Publishing Company. 1919. p. 422. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  165. ^ a b c d "Railroading Glossary: M". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  166. ^ White (1968), p 465-466.
  167. ^ "Experimental BNSF #2911 Leads Manifest East, Lockport, IL". February 21, 2006. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  168. ^ EuDaly et al. 2009, p. 150
  169. ^ "DM&IR's miniquad ore cars, modeling". Model Railroader. Kalmbach Publishing. February 1976. p. 72.
  170. ^ "In Railroading, A 'Highball' Means You're Good To Go". (Podcast). NPR. October 3, 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  171. ^ Cudahy, Brian J. (2001). The Cruise Ship Phenomenon in North America. Cornell Maritime Press. p. 45. ISBN 0870335294. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Called the multimark, it was a geometric design showing a triangle and crescent inside a square, rendered in colors appropriate for the service in question. When used on the locomotives and passenger cars of CP Rail, the multimark was rendered in red, white, and black.
  172. ^ "Canadian Pacific has new "Multimark"". Railway Carmen's Journal. Vol. 73–74. 1968. p. 144. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  173. ^ Morant, Nicholas; Garden, John F. (1991). Nicholas Morant's Canadian Pacific. Footprint Pub. p. 55. ISBN 0969162138. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  174. ^ Frederick, Jared (2015). Altoona. Arcadia Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 978-1467122863. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  175. ^ Rader, Keith. "Riding Office Cars". CSX Transportation. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  176. ^ "The Conrail Office Car Special (1976 - 1998)". Conrail Historical Society. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  177. ^ Fatigue in the Rail Industry: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Railroads, Pipelines, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, First Session. Vol. 4. U.S. Government Printing Office. February 13, 2007. p. 257. ISBN 9780160794698. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  178. ^ "Con-Cor's HO scale PRR MP54 commuter cars have sharp details, smooth drives" (PDF). Model Railroader. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. November 2012. pp. 72–73. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  179. ^ Spiro, Don. "Product Review: Con-Cor's mP-54 Commuter Coaches and Combines in HO scale". Retrieved September 6, 2015. Reprinted from Railroad Model Craftsman magazine (Carstens Publishing, 2010).
  180. ^ "CP w/ Pac Man". Model Power. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  181. ^ Pritchard, Robert; Hall, Peter (2013). British Railways, Locomotives & Coaching Stock 2013. Sheffield: Platform 5 Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-909431-02-7.
  182. ^ Mallaband, P.; Bowles, L. J. (1982). Coaching Stock of British Railways 1978. RCTS Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. p. 3. ISBN 0-901115-44-4.
  183. ^ Hall, John (August 27, 2007). "NS 2743 & 9105 passing under the old Pennsy style signals with 22W". Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  184. ^ Stilgoe, John R. (2009). "6: Fast Freight". Train Time: Railroads and the Imminent Reshaping of the United States Landscape. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0813930503. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  185. ^ Loomis, Jim (2015). All Aboard: The Complete North American Train Travel Guide. Chicago Review Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-1569761892. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  186. ^ "APTA PR-CS-RP-003-98 Recommended Practice for Developing a Clearance Diagram for Passenger Equipment" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. March 26, 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  187. ^ Haines, Henry Stevens (1919). Efficient Railway Operation. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 276 – via Internet Archive. poling pocket.
  188. ^ Middleton, William D.; Smerk, George; Diehl, Roberta L., eds. (2007). "Poling Yards". Encyclopedia of North American Railroads. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-253-34916-3 – via Google Books.
  189. ^ Droege, John Albert (1906). "Chapter X: Pole Switching". Yards and Terminals and Their Operation. New York: The Railroad Gazette. pp. 97–103 – via Google Books.
  190. ^ US 1263426, Kadel, Byers W., "Push-pole pocket for railway-cars", published 1918-04-23 
  191. ^ Hawkins 2010, p. 115
  192. ^ Rudd, A.H. (June 1920). "Light Signals to Supplant the Semaphore". Railway Signal Engineer. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co. 13 (1): 234–238. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  193. ^ Adler, Charles (November 1928). "Safer Signals for Railways". Popular Science Monthly. Vol. 113, no. 5. p. 25. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  194. ^ "Private Varnish". American Association Of Private Railroad Car Owners. 2008. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  195. ^ "Railroading Glossary: V". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  196. ^ Smedley, Steve (2012). "Pickens and the Great Pumpkins" (PDF). Pickens Railway. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  197. ^ "Chicago Burlington & Quincy Station". Rock Island Preservation Society. February 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  198. ^ "Burlington & M. R. R. Co. in Nebraska v. Burch; Court of Appeals of Colorado, May 12, 1902". The American and English Railroad Cases: A Collection of All Cases Affecting Railroads of Every Kind, Decided by the Courts of Appellate Jurisdiction in the United States, England, and Canada. Vol. 27. E. Thompson. 1903. pp. 21–26. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  199. ^ Division of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration (1949). The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America - Title 49: Transportation; parts 91 to 164. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. p. 63.
  200. ^ "Subpart C: Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn". The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America - 49: Transportation. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. October 1, 2009. pp. 299–318. ISBN 9780160840616.
  201. ^ Burlington Northern E-Units: Along the Race Track (Videotape). Pasadena, CA: Pentrex. 1992. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  202. ^ "The Remains of the Ontario and Western Railway Fifty Years after Abandonment" (PDF). Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  203. ^ Solomon, Brian (2005). Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway. Voyageur Press. p. 245. ISBN 0-7603-2108-6. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  204. ^ Solomon, Brian; Gruber, John; Guss, Chris (2014). Chicago: America's Railroad Capital: The Illustrated History, 1836 to Today. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Voyageur Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7603-4603-7. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  205. ^ "Rare Mileage". American Heritage. Vol. 51, no. 4. July–August 2000. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
  206. ^ "Millions of Melons Rush East in Imperial Valley's Big Week". Life. Vol. 9, no. 3. July 15, 1940. pp. 33–36. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  207. ^ Barry, Steve (2008). Railroad Rolling Stock. Voyageur Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1616732097. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  208. ^ Phillips, Jr., E.E., M.B.A., Edmund J. (1942). Railroad Operation and Railway Signaling. Chicago: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co. p. 17.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  209. ^ Solomon, Brian (2006). Working on the Railroad. St. Paul, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, an imprint of MBI Publishing Company. p. 156. ISBN 0-7603-2220-1.
  210. ^ Shull, Peter J. (2002). "3.5.1 Roll-by Inspection of Railroad Wheels". Nondestructive Evaluation: Theory, Techniques, and Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. pp. 161–167. ISBN 0-8247-8872-9.
  211. ^ "232.5 Definitions". The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America - 49: Transportation. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. October 1, 2003. pp. 441–443.
  212. ^ Pacific Rail News, Issues 392-397. Interurbans Publications. 1996. p. 63. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  213. ^ Railfan, Volume 2. Carstens Publications. 1977. p. xxv. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  214. ^ "Railroading Glossary: R". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  215. ^ Niemann, Linda G. (2010). Railroad Noir: The American West at the End of the Twentieth Century. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-253-35446-4.
  216. ^ "§232.19 - Airbrake tests on run-through and unit run-through trains". The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1975. p. 163. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  217. ^ Wilson, Jeff (2006). The Model Railroader's Guide to Junctions. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. p. 78. ISBN 0890246467.
  218. ^ United States Block Signal and Train Control Board (1909). Annual Report[s, and Final Report] of the Black Signal and Train Control Board to the Interstate Commerce Commission. p. 217. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  219. ^ LaBella, Mike (September 19, 2014). "Some Relief for Train Station Neighbors in Haverhill" (PDF). The Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  220. ^ Baird, William (December 2007). "New CN Locomotives" (PDF). Canadian Railway Observations. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  221. ^ a b c d e f "Railroading Glossary: S". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  222. ^ "Union Pacific". Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  223. ^ "49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. June 16, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  224. ^ "Railroad Dictionary: S". CSX Transportation. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  225. ^ "Railway Terminology: H". Australian Model Railway Association Incorporated. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  226. ^ Railroad Model Craftsman, Volume 48, Issues 1-11. Carstens Publishing. 1979. p. 60. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  227. ^ Railway Track & Structures Cyclopedia, Issue 8. Simmons-Boardman Publishing. 1955. p. 428. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  228. ^ White (1968), pp. 114–122.
  229. ^ Strapac, Joseph A. Southern Pacific Historic Diesels. Vol. 10: F-Freight Units. Shade Tree Books.
  230. ^ ""Snake heads" held up early traffic". Syracuse Herald-Journal. Syracuse, New York. March 20, 1939. p. 77 – via open access
  231. ^ "FAQ's & Answers". NARCOA. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  232. ^ a b c d e "Railroading Glossary: T". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  233. ^ "Workin' On The Railroad Curriculum Guide" (PDF). Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania. p. 7. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  234. ^ "Railroad Dictionary: T". CSX Transportation. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  235. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (2001). Nothing Like It In the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869. Simon and Schuster. p. 182. ISBN 0743203178. Retrieved September 14, 2015. tie down railroad brakes.
  236. ^ Schumacher, Richard (July 28, 1999). "Designing Model Railroad Operations". Gateway NMRA [National Model Railroad Association]. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  237. ^ Koester, Tony (2003). Realistic Model Railroad Operation: How to Run Your Trains Like the Real Thing. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 0-89024-418-9. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  238. ^ Schafer 1998, p. 93
  239. ^ Lewis 2015, p. 10
  240. ^ Unit train
  241. ^ "Company Overview". Union Pacific Corporation. December 31, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
  242. ^ "Railroading Glossary: U". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  243. ^ RailNews, Issues 398-403. Pentrex. 1997. p. 32. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  244. ^ Solomon, Brian (2003). Santa Fe Railway. St. Paul, MN: Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-7603-1072-6. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
  245. ^ "Modeler's Note Book: Painting and Lettering". Santa Fe Railway Historical & Modeling Society. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  246. ^ "Our First Warbonnet". Illinois Railway Museum. November 22, 2005. Retrieved September 17, 2015. Reprinted from Rail & Wire issue 165.
  247. ^ "ATSF-98". Orange Empire Railway Museum. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  248. ^ Glischinski, Steve (1997). Santa Fe Railway. Railroad Color History. Osceola, WI: Andover Junction Publications. p. 72. ISBN 0-7603-0380-0. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  249. ^ Solomon, Brian (2003). Santa Fe Railway. St. Paul, MN: Motorbooks International. p. 9. ISBN 0-7603-1072-6. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  250. ^ "(untitled)". Railway Passenger Car Annual: 121. 1976. ISSN 0094-2278. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  251. ^ "(untitled)". ERA Headlights. Electric Railroaders Association: i. 1969. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  252. ^ "Kansas City Southern | US & Cross-border Railroad - Terms & Definitions". Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  253. ^ "FOBNR White Face Engine List". Friends of the Burlington Northern Railroad. 2002. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
  254. ^ EuDaly, Kevin; Schafer, Mike; Jessup, Steve; Boyd, Jim; Glischinski, Steve; McBride, Andrew (2009). The Complete Book of North American Railroading. MBI Publishing Company. p. 138. ISBN 978-1616731182. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  255. ^ "Railroading Glossary: W". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  256. ^ Glischinski 1997, p. 121
  257. ^ a b "The Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Magazine, Volumes 28–29". Chesapeake and Ohio Historical Magazine. Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society: 14. 1996. ISSN 0886-6287. LCCN sn85003464. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  258. ^ Glischinski 1997, p. 114
  259. ^ Milland, Russ (October 6, 2009). "CN F7 #9159 - A 58 Year Journey - Part 1 of Several". Toronto Railway Historical Association. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  260. ^ "Road Switchers". Canadian National Railways Historical Association. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  261. ^ Solomon, Brian (2007). Intermodal Railroading. St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing. pp. 179–181. ISBN 978-0-7603-2528-5. Retrieved September 17, 2015.


Further reading[edit]